- Management Options in Avascular Necrosis of Talus. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Orthop 2018 May-Jun; 52(3):284-296
- Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review ...
Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review of the literature with the following aims: (1) identify and summarize the available evidence in literature for the treatment of talar AVN, (2) define the usefulness of radiological Hawkins sign and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis, and (3) provide patient management guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and PUBMED using keywords and MESH terminology. The articles' abstracts were read by two of the authors. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of the 335 abstracts screened. The interventions of interest included hindfoot fusion, conservative measures, bone grafting, vascularized bone graft, core decompression, and talar replacement. All studies were of Level IV evidence. We looked to identify the study quality, imprecise and sparse data, reporting bias, and the quality of evidence. Based on the analysis of available literature, we make certain recommendations for managing patients of AVN talus depending on identified disease factors such as early or late presentation, extent of bone involvement, bone collapse, and presence or absence of arthritis. Early talar AVN seems best treated with protected weight bearing and possibly in combination with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. If that fails, core decompression can be considered. Arthrodesis should be saved as a salvage procedure in late cases with arthritis and collapse, and a tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with bone grafting may be needed in cases of significant bone loss. Role of vascularized bone grafting is still not defined clearly and needs further investigation. Future prospective, randomized studies are necessary to guide the conservative and surgical management of talar AVN.
- Avascular necrosis: a growing concern for the HIV population. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 06; 2018
- A 33-year-old woman with history of HIV presented with 4 months of gradually progressing right hip pain and was found to have avascular necrosis (AVN) of both femoral heads. She had no other risk fac...
A 33-year-old woman with history of HIV presented with 4 months of gradually progressing right hip pain and was found to have avascular necrosis (AVN) of both femoral heads. She had no other risk factors for AVN including sickle cell disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, prolonged steroid used or trauma. She initially failed conservative management and ultimately had bilateral hip core decompressions. After decompression therapy, the left femoral head collapsed and patient underwent a left total hip arthroplasty. Her postsurgical course was complicated by the left sciatic nerve neuropathy for which she is currently being managed with duloxetine. She has yet to follow-up with her orthopaedic surgeon for further evaluation.
- Intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy compared with in-situ pinning for the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Orthop B 2018 Jun 01
- Intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy was initially introduced to restore the morphology of the proximal femur after slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, whether this procedure results in a...
Intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy was initially introduced to restore the morphology of the proximal femur after slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, whether this procedure results in a higher risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) or lower incidence of cam deformity than in-situ pinning is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy and in-situ pinning to treat SCFE in children. Twenty-three children who suffered from SCFE underwent either intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy (eight patients, eight hips) or in-situ pinning (15 patients, 18 hips) between 2006 and 2014. No patient was lost to follow-up at a mean of 4.5 years. In the osteotomy group, the Japanese Orthopedic Association's hip score system score increased from 50.5 (20-89) to 98.9 (95-100) and from 65.9 (48-90) to 99.0 (44-100) in the in-situ pinning group. On the basis of the slip angle, α angle, and epiphyseal-metaphyseal offset, intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy showed a significantly better result in restoring the morphology of the proximal femur than in-situ pinning (P<0.001). The incidences of AVN, chondrolysis, and lower limb discrepancy were similar between the two groups. On the basis of clinical outcomes, both intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy and in-situ pinning had acceptable abilities to treat SCFE. The incidence of AVN was not related to which technique was used. Osteotomy significantly restored the morphology of the proximal femur.
- Cyclosporine use and male gender are independent determinants of avascular necrosis after kidney transplantation: a cohort study. [Journal Article]
- NDNephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Jun 03
- CONCLUSIONS: The decreasing incidence of AVN may be attributed to the replacement of cyclosporine by tacrolimus over the last decade. Our data raise the hypothesis of an ischaemic steal syndrome due to the allograft kidney impacting AVN at the allograft side.
- Long-term outcomes following the medial approach for open reduction of the hip in children with developmental dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- BJBone Joint J 2018 Jun 01; 100-B(6):822-827
- Aims Open reduction is required following failed conservative treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The Ludloff medial approach is commonly used, but poor results have been reported,...
Aims Open reduction is required following failed conservative treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The Ludloff medial approach is commonly used, but poor results have been reported, with rates of the development of avascular necrosis (AVN) varying between 8% and 54%. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the long-term radiographic and clinical outcome of dislocated hips treated using this approach. Patients and Methods Children with a dislocated hip, younger than one year of age at the time of surgery, who were treated using a medial approach were eligible for the study. Radiographs were evaluated for the degree of dislocation and the presence of an ossific nucleus preoperatively, and for the degree of AVN and residual dysplasia at one and five years and at a mean of 12.7 years (4.6 to 20.8) postoperatively. Radiographic outcome was assessed using the Severin classification, after five years of age. Further surgical procedures were recorded. Functional outcome was assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) or the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), depending on the patient's age. Results A total of 52 children (58 hips) were included. At the latest follow-up, 11 hips (19%) showed signs of AVN. Further surgery was undertaken in 13 hips (22%). A total of 13 hips had a poor radiological outcome with Severin type III or higher. Of these, the age at the time of surgery was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those with a good Severin type (I or II). The patient-reported outcomes were significantly worse (p < 0.05) in children with a poor Severin classification. Conclusion This retrospective long-term follow-up study shows that one in five children with DDH who undergo open reduction using a medial surgical approach has poor clinical and/or radiological outcome. The poor outcome is not related to the presence of AVN (19%), but due to residual dysplasia. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:822-7.
- Prevalence and Associations of Avascular Necrosis of the Hip in a Large Well-characterized Cohort of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Rheumatol 2018 May 24
- CONCLUSIONS: We found that a significant proportion of IBD patients with AVN are reported in their records as not having hip or low-back pain, and review of CT imaging under dedicated bone windows may identify AVN among this population. Our findings also suggest that additional etiological factors, beyond corticosteroids, contribute to the development of AVN in IBD. Further investigation is warranted regarding the mechanisms associated with AVN in IBD.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Osteonecrosis of the hip, commonly known as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip, is the death of the femoral head as a result of the vascular disruption. AVN of the hip results in pain around the hip...
Osteonecrosis of the hip, commonly known as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip, is the death of the femoral head as a result of the vascular disruption. AVN of the hip results in pain around the hip which is insidious in onset. The cause is generally multifactorial and more commonly seen in males compared to females. Furthermore, the age of presentation from symptomatic AVN of the hip is younger than that of osteoarthritis. The treatment of AVN of the hip is controversial, and as such, there are many different treatment options for AVN. The ideal treatment option depends on the severity and stage of the disease.
- Duration of immobilization after developmental dysplasia of the hip and open reduction surgery. [Journal Article]
- IOInt Orthop 2018 May 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Group A post-operative immobilization protocol is safer and associated with less complications and more comfortable to the patient and parents than that used in group B. Early removal of hip spica cast and application of hip abduction brace does not increase the rate of re-dislocation.
- Advancing the Science of Implementation in Primary Health Care. [Editorial]
- JAJ Am Board Fam Med 2018 May-Jun; 31(3):307-311
- Implementation Science is commonly described as the study of methods and approaches that promote the uptake and use of evidence-based interventions into routine practice and policymaking. In this iss...
Implementation Science is commonly described as the study of methods and approaches that promote the uptake and use of evidence-based interventions into routine practice and policymaking. In this issue of JABFM, investigators share a wealth of new insights from the frontlines of Implementation Science in primary care: what it is, how we are doing it, and how it is advancing the evidence base of primary care. The breadth of implementation science in primary care is affirmed by the range of topics covered, from thought leader recommendations on future directions for the field, to reports on how best practices in policy and practice are shaping primary care implementation in the United States and Canada. There are also important updates on agents of primary care implementation themselves, such as practice facilitators, geriatric care teams, and family physicians interested in providing obstetric care. Other articles report on novel practice transformation efforts that advance health promotion and disease prevention, and innovative approaches to identifying and addressing social determinants of health in primary care practices and the communities they serve. The articles seem to generate as many new questions as they answer, and highlight the need for continued emphasis on advancing the science of implementation in primary health care.
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- Natural and synthetic avenanthramides activate caspases 2, 8, 3 and downregulate hTERT, MDR1 and COX-2 genes in CaCo-2 and Hep3B cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2018 May 23; 9(5):2913-2921
- Avenanthramides (AVNs) are natural polyphenols obtained from oat sprouts and can also be chemically synthetized. The aim of the present study was to assess the anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antio...
Avenanthramides (AVNs) are natural polyphenols obtained from oat sprouts and can also be chemically synthetized. The aim of the present study was to assess the anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of individual synthetized AVNs (s-2c, s-2p, s-2f) and a natural AVN mixture (n-MIX) on CaCo-2 and Hep3B cancer cells. In CaCo-2, the AVN s-2c was found to be the most cytotoxic followed by the n-MIX. In Hep3B cells, a marked cytotoxic effect was found but no significant difference was observed between the synthesized AVNs and the n-MIX. In both CaCo-2 and Hep3B cells, natural and synthetic AVNs activated caspases 8 and 3, and the n-MIX and the AVN s-2c were also able to activate caspase 2. Both synthetic and natural AVNs downregulated pro-survival genes hTERT, COX-2 and MDR1, inhibited the activity of pro-inflammatory COX-2 enzyme and reduced prostaglandin E2 levels, showing the potent chemopreventive effects of these oat-derived phytochemicals. Synthetic AVN s-2c was found to have the highest chemical antioxidant capacity, as indicated by ORAC, DPPH and ABTS values, whereas all AVNs and n-MIX were shown to have similar intracellular antioxidant activity, evaluated by means of the DCFH-DA assay. As AVNs have high bioavailability in humans, results of this study suggest that oat-based foods, fortified with AVNs, could be an alternative to produce functional foods with anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects for health benefits.