- Blood Eosinophil Counts, Withdrawal of Inhaled Corticosteroids and Risk of COPD Exacerbations and Mortality in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). [Journal Article]
- COPDCOPD 2019 May 23; :1-8
- Although recently introduced in the pharmacological treatment algorithm of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is a need for more data supporting the use of blood eosinophil counts as…
Although recently introduced in the pharmacological treatment algorithm of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is a need for more data supporting the use of blood eosinophil counts as a biomarker to guide inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of moderate and/or severe exacerbations and all-cause mortality in a large primary care population after withdrawal of ICS compared to continued users stratified by elevated blood eosinophil counts. In this population based cohort study, we used data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the United Kingdom. We included subjects' aged 40 years or more who had a diagnosis of COPD. We excluded subjects with a history of asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac arrhythmia and bronchiectasis, COPD exacerbations occurring within 6 weeks prior to index date, or with a myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to index date. Continuous users were subjects who received their most recent ICS prescription within 3 months before the start of an interval. ICS withdrawals were those who discontinued ICS for more than 3 months. We evaluated the risk of moderate and/or severe exacerbations and all-cause mortality among subjects with various blood eosinophil thresholds who withdrew from ICS compared to continuous ICS users with elevated blood eosinophil levels using Cox regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. We identified 48,157 subjects diagnosed with COPD between 1 January 2005 to 31 January 2014. Withdrawal of ICS was not associated with an increased risk of moderate-to-severe exacerbations among subjects with absolute blood eosinophil counts ≥0.34 × 109 cells/L [adjusted hazard ratio (adj. HR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.81] or relative counts ≥ 4.0% (adj. HR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66-0.78). Similarly, withdrawal of ICS was not associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations among subjects with absolute blood eosinophil ≥0.34 × 109 cells/L (adj. HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.61-1.10) or relative blood eosinophil counts ≥4.0% (adj. HR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.61-1.04). No increased risk of all-cause mortality was observed among subjects who withdrew from ICS irrespective of elevated absolute or relative blood eosinophil counts. In a real-world primary care population, we did not observe an increased risk of moderate and/or severe COPD exacerbations or all-cause mortality among subjects with eosinophilia who withdrew their use of ICS.
- Exploring correlations between neuropsychological measures and domain-specific consistency in associations with n-3 LCPUFA status in 8-9 year-old boys and girls. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216696
- Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have in some studies been associated with cognitive and socioemotional outcomes in children, but results are inconsistent possibly due to the u…
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have in some studies been associated with cognitive and socioemotional outcomes in children, but results are inconsistent possibly due to the use of different tests and potential gender-specific effects. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore overall patterns in neuropsychological scores as well as correlations between scores within specific domains, and to examine potential gender differences and consistency in associations with n-3 LCPUFA status. In 199 Danish 8-9 year-old children, we performed a large battery of tests and questionnaires on attention, processing speed, executive functions, memory, and socioemotional traits, and measured erythrocyte fatty acid composition. Principal component analyses (PCA) showed that most of the variation in both cognitive performance and socioemotional traits was explained by overall performance, followed by speed-accuracy trade off and externalizing vs. internalizing problems, respectively. Boys had higher speed, lower attention and higher externalizing problem scores than girls. Measures of performance within both processing speed and attention domains correlated moderately, whereas no correlations were found for measures of executive functions apart from some weak correlations for impulsivity. Parent-rated scores for both externalizing and internalizing problems correlated strongly, whereas correlations with child-rated scores were weak. Scores within specific domains did not consistently associate with n-3 LCPUFA, except for processing speed measures which all pointed to faster processing with increased n-3 LCPUFA status. Gender differences in the associations were observed for attention and impulsivity. Child- but not parent-rated internalizing and social problems tended to associate directly with n-3 LCPUFA, supported by increased internalizing problems measured by the PCA component. In conclusion, measures of speed and attention seem to represent these domains in general, whereas single measures of more complex cognitive functions should be interpreted with caution. One approach could be to use multiple tests and create multivariate scores to guide interpretations. Furthermore, the results indicate a need to consider both parent- and child-rated socioemotional scores and gender differences in neuropsychological functions e.g. in investigations of n-3 LCPUFA effects.
- Identifying Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using a Blood Donor Screening Program With More Than 1 Million Volunteer Donors. [Journal Article]
- JCJAMA Cardiol 2019 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia using the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Death criteria in a large cohort of blood donors was similar to the estimated prevalence of this disorder in the general population. The blood donor screening program could be a novel strategy to detect and notify individuals with potential familial hypercholesterolemia, particularly younger individuals in whom early detection and treatment is especially helpful, as well as guide cascade screening.
- Data Warehousing with TargetMine for Omics Data Analysis. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2019; 1986:35-64
- Most biological processes including diseases are multifactorial and determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental factors. This chapter aims to provide a user guide to data q…
Most biological processes including diseases are multifactorial and determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental factors. This chapter aims to provide a user guide to data querying, analysis, and visualization with TargetMine and the associated auxiliary toolkit. We have also discussed some of the commonly used data queries for the researchers who are interested in gene set analysis within a data warehouse framework. Overall, TargetMine provides a convenient web browser-based interface that enables the discovery of new hypotheses interactively, by performing analysis of omics data using complicated searches without any scripting and programming efforts on the part of the user and also by providing the results in an easy-to-comprehend output format.
- Myosteatosis is associated with poor physical fitness in patients undergoing hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2019 May 21
- CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive association between preoperative CT SM-RA and preoperative physical fitness (V ̇ O2 at AT and at peak). This study demonstrates that myosteatosis, and not sarcopenia, is associated with reduced aerobic physical fitness. Combining both myosteatosis and physical fitness variables may provide additive risk stratification accuracy and guide interventions during the perioperative period.
- Assessing Application-Based Breastfeeding Education for Physicians and Nurses: A Scoping Review. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hum Lact 2019 May 21; :890334419848414
- CONCLUSIONS: The results align with existing literature in finding a dearth of high-quality studies assessing breastfeeding education among physicians and nurses. The variability in teaching and evaluation methods indicates a lack of standardization in breastfeeding education between institutions.
- Helicobacter pylori antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in the low-resource Central America setting. [Journal Article]
- HHelicobacter 2019 May 20; :e12595
- CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant H. pylori resistance to amoxicillin and levofloxacin in the context of high community antimicrobial utilization. This has implications in Central America for H. pylori treatment guidelines as well as antimicrobial stewardship programs.
- Genome Editing in Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Using CRISPR-Cas9. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 May 19; 20(10)
- Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is widely cultivated across the world. Due to its symbiotic nitrogen fixation capability and many agronomically important traits, such as tolerance to low rainfall and low …
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is widely cultivated across the world. Due to its symbiotic nitrogen fixation capability and many agronomically important traits, such as tolerance to low rainfall and low fertilization requirements, as well as its high nutrition and health benefits, cowpea is an important legume crop, especially in many semi-arid countries. However, research in Vigna unguiculata is dramatically hampered by the lack of mutant resources and efficient tools for gene inactivation in vivo. In this study, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). We applied the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology to efficiently disrupt the representative symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) gene in Vigna unguiculata. Our customized guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting symbiosis receptor-like kinase (SYMRK) achieved ~67% mutagenic efficiency in hairy-root-transformed plants, and nodule formation was completely blocked in the mutants with both alleles disrupted. Various types of mutations were observed near the PAM region of the respective gRNA. These results demonstrate the applicability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Vigna unguiculata, and therefore should significantly stimulate functional genomics analyses of many important agronomical traits in this unique crop legume.
- Rural Parent Support of Child Health Behavior in the Home Environment: A Qualitative Study on an American Indian Reservation. [Journal Article]
- GPGlob Pediatr Health 2019; 6:2333794X19847451
- CONCLUSIONS: Results may inform interventions seeking to engage parents living in rural and AI reservation communities in home-based child behavior change efforts.
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- "I cannot sit here and eat alone when I know a fellow Ghanaian is suffering": Perceptions of food insecurity among Ghanaian migrants. [Journal Article]
- AAppetite 2019 May 16
- In the UK, ethnic minority groups tend to have higher levels of poverty than the white British population and therefore may be at high risk of food insecurity. Ghanaians, living in Ghana or as migran…
In the UK, ethnic minority groups tend to have higher levels of poverty than the white British population and therefore may be at high risk of food insecurity. Ghanaians, living in Ghana or as migrants are thought to have a high level of social support in their communities, but the role of this resource in relation to food security is unknown. We explored participants' perceptions of social and economic factors influencing food security among Ghanaian migrants in Greater Manchester. Participants aged ≥25 years (n = 31) of Ghanaian ancestry living in Greater Manchester were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide developed by the researchers. Participants varied in socioeconomic status (SES), gender and migration status. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using a framework approach. Participants offered similar accounts of the social and economic factors influencing food security. Accounts were based on participants' perceptions and/or personal experiences of food insecurity within the community. Participants indicated that they and their fellow Ghanaians can 'manage' even when they described quite challenging food access environments. This has negative implications on their food choices in the UK. Participants reported food insecure households may be reluctant to make use of food banks for fear of 'gossip' and 'pride'. Paradoxically, this reluctance does not extend to close network. Many participants described the church and other social groups as a trusted base in which people operate; support given through these channels is more acceptable than through the 'official context'. Government assisted food banks could partner with the social groups within this community given that these are more trusted. Keywords: food insecurity; food choice; social networks; Ghanaians; healthy eating; migrants.