- A mometasone-eluting sinus implant (Sinuva) for nasal polyps. [Review]
- MLMed Lett Drugs Ther 2018 Sep 10; 60(1555):151-152
- Breathing new life into West Nile virus therapeutics; discovery and study of zafirlukast as an NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitor. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Sep 05; 157:1202-1213
- The West Nile virus (WNV) has spread throughout the world causing neuroinvasive diseases with no treatments available. The viral NS2B-NS3 protease is essential for WNV survival and replication in hos...
The West Nile virus (WNV) has spread throughout the world causing neuroinvasive diseases with no treatments available. The viral NS2B-NS3 protease is essential for WNV survival and replication in host cells and is a promising drug target. Through an enzymatic screen of the National Institute of Health clinical compound library, we report the discovery of zafirlukast, an FDA approved treatment for asthma, as an inhibitor for the WNV NS2B-NS3 protease. Zafirlukast was determined to inhibit the protease through a mixed mode mechanism with an IC50 value of 32 μM. A structure activity relationship study of zafirlukast revealed the cyclopentyl carbamate and N-aryl sulfonamide as structural elements crucial for NS2B-NS3 protease inhibition. Replacing the cyclopentyl with a phenyl improved inhibition, resulting in an IC50 of 22 μM. Experimental and computational docking analysis support the inhibition model of zafirlukast and analogs binding at an allosteric site on the NS3 protein, thereby disrupting the NS2B cofactor from binding, resulting in protease inhibition.
- Zafirlukast in combination with pseudohypericin attenuates spinal cord injury and motor function in experimental mice. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Des Devel Ther 2018; 12:2389-2402
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed 5-LO antagonist activity of PHP and established its neuroprotective role along with ZFL.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- No published information is available on the use of zafirlukast during breastfeeding; however, manufacturer's data indicate that the dose in milk is low. If zafirlukast is required by the mother, it ...
No published information is available on the use of zafirlukast during breastfeeding; however, manufacturer's data indicate that the dose in milk is low. If zafirlukast is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Because there is no published experience with zafirlukast during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Zafirlukast has been used in children as young as 12 months of age.
- Type 2 NADH Dehydrogenase Is the Only Point of Entry for Electrons into the Streptococcus agalactiae Respiratory Chain and Is a Potential Drug Target. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2018 Jul 03; 9(4)
- The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae is the major cause of meningitis and sepsis in a newborn's first week, as well as a considerable cause of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and ...
The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae is the major cause of meningitis and sepsis in a newborn's first week, as well as a considerable cause of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis in immunocompromised adults. This pathogen respires aerobically if heme and quinone are available in the environment, and a functional respiratory chain is required for full virulence. Remarkably, it is shown here that the entire respiratory chain of S. agalactiae consists of only two enzymes, a type 2 NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and a cytochrome bd oxygen reductase. There are no respiratory dehydrogenases other than NDH-2 to feed electrons into the respiratory chain, and there is only one respiratory oxygen reductase to reduce oxygen to water. Although S. agalactiae grows well in vitro by fermentative metabolism, it is shown here that the absence of NDH-2 results in attenuated virulence, as observed by reduced colonization in heart and kidney in a mouse model of systemic infection. The lack of NDH-2 in mammalian mitochondria and its important role for virulence suggest this enzyme may be a potential drug target. For this reason, in this study, S. agalactiae NDH-2 was purified and biochemically characterized, and the isolated enzyme was used to screen for inhibitors from libraries of FDA-approved drugs. Zafirlukast was identified to successfully inhibit both NDH-2 activity and aerobic respiration in intact cells. This compound may be useful as a laboratory tool to inhibit respiration in S. agalactiae and, since it has few side effects, it might be considered a lead compound for therapeutics development.IMPORTANCES. agalactiae is part of the human intestinal microbiota and is present in the vagina of ~30% of healthy women. Although a commensal, it is also the leading cause of septicemia and meningitis in neonates and immunocompromised adults. This organism can aerobically respire, but only using external sources of heme and quinone, required to have a functional electron transport chain. Although bacteria usually have a branched respiratory chain with multiple dehydrogenases and terminal oxygen reductases, here we establish that S. agalactiae utilizes only one type 2 NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and one cytochrome bd oxygen reductase to perform respiration. NADH-dependent respiration plays a critical role in the pathogen in maintaining NADH/NAD+ redox balance in the cell, optimizing ATP production, and tolerating oxygen. In summary, we demonstrate the essential role of NDH-2 in respiration and its contribution to S. agalactiae virulence and propose it as a potential drug target.
- DeCoST: A New Approach in Drug Repurposing From Control System Theory. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:583
- In this paper, we propose DeCoST (Drug Repurposing from Control System Theory) framework to apply control system paradigm for drug repurposing purpose. Drug repurposing has become one of the most act...
In this paper, we propose DeCoST (Drug Repurposing from Control System Theory) framework to apply control system paradigm for drug repurposing purpose. Drug repurposing has become one of the most active areas in pharmacology since the last decade. Compared to traditional drug development, drug repurposing may provide more systematic and significantly less expensive approaches in discovering new treatments for complex diseases. Although drug repurposing techniques rapidly evolve from "one: disease-gene-drug" to "multi: gene, dru" and from "lazy guilt-by-association" to "systematic model-based pattern matching," mathematical system and control paradigm has not been widely applied to model the system biology connectivity among drugs, genes, and diseases. In this paradigm, our DeCoST framework, which is among the earliest approaches in drug repurposing with control theory paradigm, applies biological and pharmaceutical knowledge to quantify rich connective data sources among drugs, genes, and diseases to construct disease-specific mathematical model. We use linear-quadratic regulator control technique to assess the therapeutic effect of a drug in disease-specific treatment. DeCoST framework could classify between FDA-approved drugs and rejected/withdrawn drug, which is the foundation to apply DeCoST in recommending potentially new treatment. Applying DeCoST in Breast Cancer and Bladder Cancer, we reprofiled 8 promising candidate drugs for Breast Cancer ER+ (Erbitux, Flutamide, etc.), 2 drugs for Breast Cancer ER- (Daunorubicin and Donepezil) and 10 drugs for Bladder Cancer repurposing (Zafirlukast, Tenofovir, etc.).
- Boosting Anti-Inflammatory Potency of Zafirlukast by Designed Polypharmacology. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Chem 2018 Jul 12; 61(13):5758-5764
- Multitarget design offers access to bioactive small molecules with potentially superior efficacy and safety. Particularly multifactorial chronic inflammatory diseases demand multiple pharmacological ...
Multitarget design offers access to bioactive small molecules with potentially superior efficacy and safety. Particularly multifactorial chronic inflammatory diseases demand multiple pharmacological interventions for stable treatment. By minor structural changes, we have developed a close analogue of the cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist zafirlukast that simultaneously inhibits soluble epoxide hydrolase and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The triple modulator exhibits robust anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and highlights the therapeutic potential of designed multitarget agents.
- Zafirlukast promotes insulin secretion by increasing calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018; 233(11):8701-8710
- The zafirlukast has been reported to be anti-inflammatory and widely used to alleviate the symptoms of asthma. However, its influence on insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells has not been investiga...
The zafirlukast has been reported to be anti-inflammatory and widely used to alleviate the symptoms of asthma. However, its influence on insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells has not been investigated. Herein, we examined the effects of zafirlukast on insulin secretion and the potential underlying mechanisms. Among the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonists, zafirlukast, pranlukast, and montelukast, only zafirlukast enhanced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner in both low and high glucose conditions and elevated the level of [Ca2+ ]i , further activating Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase B (AKT), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. These effects were nearly abolished by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine, while treatment with thapsigargin, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, did not have the same effect, suggesting that zafirlukast primarily induces the entry of extracellular Ca2+ rather than intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. Zafirlukast treatment resulting in a significant drop in glucose levels and increased insulin secretion in C57BL/6J mice. These findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the side effects of zafirlukast and potential candidate for a therapeutic intervention in diabetes.
- Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human glioblastoma cells by downregulating B-cell lymphoma 2 and inducing cell cycle arrest. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Physiol Pharmacol 2018; 96(8):798-806
- Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of brain cancer with the highest proliferation, invasion, and migration. Montelukast and zafirlukast, 2 widely used leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) f...
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of brain cancer with the highest proliferation, invasion, and migration. Montelukast and zafirlukast, 2 widely used leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) for asthma treatment, inhibited invasion and migration of glioblastoma cell lines. Montelukast induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation of various cancer cells. Herein, apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of montelukast and zafirlukast were investigated in 2 glioblastoma cell lines, A172 and U-87 MG. Both LTRAs induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation of glioblastoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Montelukast was more cytotoxic and induced higher levels of apoptosis than zafirlukast in A172 cells, but not in U-87 MG cells. Both drugs decreased expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein without affecting Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) levels. LTRAs also reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). In contrast, zafirlukast showed a greater antiproliferative effect than montelukast and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by upregulating p53 and p21 expression. These results suggested the therapeutic potential of LTRAs in glioblastoma.
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- Montelukast inhibits hypoxia inducible factor-1α translation in prostate cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- CBCancer Biol Ther 2018 Aug 03; 19(8):715-721
- Through regulating the expression of hundreds of genes, hypoxia-inducible factor -1(HIF-1) plays a critical role in hypoxic adaption of cancer cells and is considered as a target for cancer therapy. ...
Through regulating the expression of hundreds of genes, hypoxia-inducible factor -1(HIF-1) plays a critical role in hypoxic adaption of cancer cells and is considered as a target for cancer therapy. Here we show that montelukast, a clinical leukotriene receptor antagonist for the treatment of asthma, inhibits hypoxia or CoCl2-induced HIF-1α activation and reduces its protein expression in prostate cancer cells. However, the other two leukotriene receptor antagonists, pranlukast and zafirlukast, cannot decrease HIF-1α protein, which indicates that montelukast-induced downregulation of HIF-1α is not mediated by leukotriene receptor. Neither proteasome inhibitor MG132 nor the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) can block montelukast-induced downregulation of HIF-1α protein. Interestingly, GSK2606414, a PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) inhibitor, abrogates montelukast-induced downregulation of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions. However, montelukast increases phosphorylation of eIF-2α at Ser51. Moreover, montelukast inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, which can be reversed by overexpression of HIF-1α protein. In conclusion, we identify montelukast may be used as a novel agent for the treatment of prostate cancer by decreasing HIF-1α protein translation.