- Opioid analgesic use and patient-reported pain outcomes after rhinologic surgery. [Journal Article]
- IFInt Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Dec 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain after elective rhinologic surgery appears to peak over the first 3 days and decreases rapidly afterward. Most patients require a few doses of opioid analgesics. Opioid requirements and pain levels did not vary based on surgeon, type and extent of surgery, and demographic factors. Judicious prescribing of opioid medication after rhinologic surgery represents a practical opportunity for rhinologists and otolaryngologists to reduce opioid overprescription and abuse.
- Comparison of the Effects of Two Different Analgesics on Bone Regeneration During Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Craniofac Surg 2018 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Acemetacin may be an alternative to acetaminophen for treating pain associated with DO, given the similarities in the effects of the 2 analgesics on bone regeneration. However, this finding should be supported by further experimental and human studies.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction as a mechanism of drug-induced hepatotoxicity: current understanding and future perspectives. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Transl Res 2018; 4(1)
- Mitochondria are critical cellular organelles for energy generation and are now also recognized as playing important roles in cellular signaling. Their central role in energy metabolism, as well as t...
Mitochondria are critical cellular organelles for energy generation and are now also recognized as playing important roles in cellular signaling. Their central role in energy metabolism, as well as their high abundance in hepatocytes, make them important targets for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of the role of mitochondria in drug-induced hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen, diclofenac, anti-tuberculosis drugs such as rifampin and isoniazid, anti-epileptic drugs such as valproic acid and constituents of herbal supplements such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The utilization of circulating mitochondrial-specific biomarkers in understanding mechanisms of toxicity in humans will also be examined. In summary, it is well-established that mitochondria are central to acetaminophen-induced cell death. However, the most promising areas for clinically useful therapeutic interventions after acetaminophen toxicity may involve the promotion of adaptive responses and repair processes including mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, In contrast, the limited understanding of the role of mitochondria in various aspects of hepatotoxicity by most other drugs and herbs requires more detailed mechanistic investigations in both animals and humans. Development of clinically relevant animal models and more translational studies using mechanistic biomarkers are critical for progress in this area.
- A simple automated method for continuous fieldwise measurement of microvascular hemodynamics. [Journal Article]
- MRMicrovasc Res 2018 Nov 28
- Microvascular perfusion dynamics are vital to physiological function and are frequently dysregulated in injury and disease. Typically studies measure microvascular flow in a few selected vascular seg...
Microvascular perfusion dynamics are vital to physiological function and are frequently dysregulated in injury and disease. Typically studies measure microvascular flow in a few selected vascular segments over limited time, failing to capture spatial and temporal variability. To quantify microvascular flow in a more complete and unbiased way we developed STAFF (Spatial Temporal Analysis of Fieldwise Flow), a macro for FIJI open-source image analysis software. Using high-speed microvascular flow movies, STAFF generates kymographs for every time interval for every vascular segment, calculates flow velocities from red blood cell shadow angles, and outputs the data as color-coded velocity map movies and spreadsheets. In untreated mice, analyses demonstrated profound variation even between adjacent sinusoids over seconds. In acetaminophen-treated mice we detected flow reduction localized to pericentral regions. STAFF is a powerful new tool capable of providing novel insights by enabling measurement of the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of microvascular flow.
- A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Controlled Trial Comparing Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen Versus Hydrocodone and Acetaminophen for Soft Tissue Hand Procedures. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hand Surg Am 2018 Nov 27
- CONCLUSIONS: We recommend surgeons consider a combination of acetaminophen and ibuprofen as a safe and effective postoperative pain regimen for soft tissue hand surgery procedures.
- There may be a small reduction in pain immediately after tooth bleaching when consuming codeine plus acetaminophen, but this is unlikely to be important to patients or worth the potential risks. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Dent Assoc 2018 Nov 23
- Predictive factors of dengue severity in hospitalized children and adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Nov-Dec; 51(6):753-760
- CONCLUSIONS: Age greater than 5 years, abdominal pain, painful hepatomegaly, and positive tourniquet test were predictors of DHF. The high frequency of hepatic impairment suggests that acetaminophen should be avoided in severe cases of dengue.
- Reduction in ocrelizumab-induced infusion reactions by a modified premedication protocol. [Journal Article]
- MSMult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Nov 27; 27:397-399
- CONCLUSIONS: The modified premedication protocol described herein significantly decreases rates of IARs by 60% and suggests that the additional premedication regimen is beneficial. Age and male sex are protective for IARs while BMI is a risk factor for IARs.
- Assessment of Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, and Hormones in Wastewater Treatment Plants Receiving Inflows from Health Facilities in North West Province, South Africa. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol 2018; 2018:3751930
- The presence of 17 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) belonging to various therapeutic categories was investigated in two hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in North West Pro...
The presence of 17 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) belonging to various therapeutic categories was investigated in two hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in North West Province, South Africa. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and bezafibrate were generally below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the analysed samples. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were the dominant pharmaceuticals in the influent streams with corresponding concentrations ranging from 21 to 119 μg/L and 0.3 to 63 μg/L, respectively. Both WWTPs were shown to have the capability to remove some of the target PPCPs, including acetaminophen (76-98%), tetracycline (15-93%), ibuprofen (44-99%), and triclocarban (13-98%). The monitoring of the target PPCPs in both influent and effluent samples of the investigated WWTPs revealed that the discharge of inadequately treated effluents could be contributing to the possible increase in the concentrations of these contaminants in the receiving environmental compartments. Further studies must be focused on the broader characterisation of these matrices in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of this waste disposal practice.
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- National variation in opioid prescribing after pediatric umbilical hernia repair. [Journal Article]
- SSurgery 2018 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Although many patients do not require opioids for umbilical hernia repair, most pediatric patients fill opioid prescriptions, including for prolonged courses and refills. Guidelines for appropriate prescribing of opioids after common, simple procedures, such as umbilical hernia repair, could improve the quality of care for children and impact the US epidemic of opioid abuse.