- Frozen White-Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Korean Markets as a Source of Aeromonas spp. Harboring Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance Genes. [Journal Article]
- MDMicrob Drug Resist 2018 May 24
- As the most consumed shrimp variety, white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) owns a high market demand in Korea. This study sought to screen the frozen white-leg shrimp for Aeromonas spp. harboring a...
As the most consumed shrimp variety, white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) owns a high market demand in Korea. This study sought to screen the frozen white-leg shrimp for Aeromonas spp. harboring antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance characteristics. A total of 44 Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated and tested for antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal tolerance followed by PCR-based detection of resistance genes and integrons. It was observed that resistance to ampicillin and oxacillin was 100% among isolates. Besides, 95%, 89%, 86%, 80%, 66%, and 43% of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, cephalothin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem, respectively, and less resistance to other antibiotics was also observed. Cr resistance was the highest (91%) among five heavy metals tested, whereas 57%, 32%, 20%, and 9% of the isolates were tolerant to Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg, respectively. The PCR assays implied the presence of qnrB, qnrS, tetA, tetE, aac(6')-Ib, and aphAI-IAB, and intI1 genes among 80%, 77%, 18%, 30%, 9%, 0.25%, and 82% of the isolates, respectively. There were 35 (80%) integron 1-positive isolates harboring qacE2, dfrA1, orfC, orfD, aadB, catB3, oxa-10, and aadA1 genes in varying combinations. In addition, heavy metal resistance genes, CopA, merA, and CzcA were positive in 9%, 7%, and 27% of the isolates, respectively. According to these outcomes, the frozen white-leg shrimp in Korean markets can be suggested as a source of multidrug and heavy metal-resistant Aeromonas spp. that carries genetic determinants.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: comparison between Etest and a broth dilution method. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 23; 17(1):23
- CONCLUSIONS: Both the broth microdilution and the Etest are reliable and convenient methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. The Sensititre kit has the advantages of high availability and the automation.
- Activation of Entorhinal Cortical Projections to the Dentate Gyrus Underlies Social Memory Retrieval. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2018 May 22; 23(8):2379-2391
- Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lo...
Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lobe have been implicated in social memory, but the underlying mechanisms that tune these neural circuits remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that optical activation of excitatory entorhinal cortical perforant projections to the dentate gyrus (EC-DG) is necessary and sufficient for social memory retrieval. We further show that inducible disruption of p21-activated kinase (PAK) signaling, a key pathway important for cytoskeletal reorganization, in the EC-DG circuit leads to impairments in synaptic function and social recognition memory, and, importantly, optogenetic activation of the EC-DG terminals reverses the social memory deficits in the transgenic mice. These results provide compelling evidence that activation of the EC-DG pathway underlies social recognition memory recall and that PAK signaling may play a critical role in modulating this process.
- Guidelines for the management of paediatric cholera infection: a systematic review of the evidence. [Journal Article]
- PIPaediatr Int Child Health 2018; 38(sup1):S16-S31
- Background Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile Gram-negative bacterium which is responsible for 3 million cases of diarrhoeal illness and up to 100,000 deaths per year, with an increasing burden docum...
Background Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile Gram-negative bacterium which is responsible for 3 million cases of diarrhoeal illness and up to 100,000 deaths per year, with an increasing burden documented over the past decade. Current WHO guidelines for the treatment of paediatric cholera infection (tetracycline 12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for cholera infection in children (taking account of susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events) is necessary. Methods A systematic review of the current published literature on the treatment of cholera infection in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was undertaken. International clinical guidelines and studies pertaining to adverse effects associated with treatments available for cholera infection were also reviewed. Results The initial search produced 256 results, of which eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of the studies was performed as per the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines. Conclusions In view of the changing non-susceptibility rates worldwide, empirical therapy for cholera infection in paediatric patients should be changed to single-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg), a safe and effective medication with ease of administration. Erythromycin (12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) exhibits similar bacteriological and clinical success and should be listed as a second-line therapy. Fluid resuscitation remains the cornerstone of management of paediatric cholera infection, and prevention of infection by promoting access to clean water and sanitation is paramount.
- Persistence of bacterial pathogens, antibiotic resistance genes, and enterococci in tidal creek tributaries. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 May 19; 240:875-883
- Intertidal creeks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. Fecal indicators Enterococcus spp. (Entero1), pathogens Shigella spp. (ipaH), Salmon...
Intertidal creeks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. Fecal indicators Enterococcus spp. (Entero1), pathogens Shigella spp. (ipaH), Salmonella spp. (invA), E. coli of EHEC/EPEC groups (eaeA), E. coli of EAEC, EIEC, and UPEC groups (set1B), E. coli of STEC group (stx1); and tetracycline resistance genes (tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(X); TRG) were detected in the headwater of Oakdale Creek (Sapelo Island, GA) receiving runoffs from Hog Hammock village. Excavation of drainage ditches around the village caused a high increase in the incidence of the above determinants. Water samples were collected from the headwater, transferred to diffusion chambers, submersed in the headwater, saltmarsh, and mouth of the creek; and the determinants were monitored for 3 winter months. With some exceptions, their persistence decreased in order headwater > saltmarsh > mouth. Genes associated with Enterococcus spp. were the most persistent at all the sites, following in the headwater with determinants for Salmonella spp. and E. coli of EAEC, EIEC, and UPEC groups. In the mouth, the most persistent gene was eaeA indicating EHEC, EPEC, and STEC. Tet(B) and tet(C) persisted the longest in headwater and saltmarsh. No TRG persisted after 11 days in the mouth. Most determinants revealed correlations with temperature and pH, and inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen. Decay rates of the above determinants varied in the range of -0.02 to -0.81/day, and were up to 40 folds higher in the saltmarsh and mouth than in the headwater. Our data demonstrated that water parameters could to some extent predict a general trend in the fate of virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants in tidal creek tributaries but strongly suggested that their persistence in these tributaries cannot be predicted from that of enterococci, or extrapolated from one biological contaminant to another.
- Assessment of Antibiotic Susceptibility within Lactic Acid Bacteria and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Hunan Smoked Pork, a Naturally Fermented Meat Product in China. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci 2018 May 22
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from naturally fermented smoked pork prod...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from naturally fermented smoked pork produced in Hunan, China. A total of 48 strains were isolated by selective medium and identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as follows: Staphylococcus carnosus (23), Lactobacillus plantarum (12), Lactobacillus brevis (10), Lactobacillus sakei (1), Weissella confusa (1), and Weissella cibaria (1). All strains were typed by RAPD-PCR, and their susceptibility to 15 antibiotics was determined and expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using agar dilution method. High resistance to penicillin G, streptomycin, gentamycin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and neomycin was found among the isolates. All the strains were sensitive to ampicillin, while the susceptibility to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, lincomycin, and roxithromycin varied. The presence of relevant resistance genes was investigated by PCR and sequencing, with the following genes detected: str(A), str(B), tet(O), tet(M), ere(A), and catA. Eleven strains, including 3 S. carnosus, 6 L. plantarum, and 2 L. brevis, harbored more than 3 antibiotic resistance genes. Overall, multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were widely observed in LAB and S. carnosus strains isolated from Hunan smoked pork. Risk assessment should be carried out with regard to the safe use of LAB and CNS in food production.
- Tuning Gene Activity by Inducible and Targeted Regulation of Gene Expression in Minimal Bacterial Cells. [Journal Article]
- ASACS Synth Biol 2018 May 22
- Functional genomics studies in minimal mycoplasma cells enable unobstructed access to some of the most fundamental processes in biology. Conventional transposon bombardment and gene knockout approach...
Functional genomics studies in minimal mycoplasma cells enable unobstructed access to some of the most fundamental processes in biology. Conventional transposon bombardment and gene knockout approaches often fail to reveal functions of genes that are essential for viability, where lethality precludes phenotypic characterization. Conditional inactivation of genes is effective for characterizing functions central to cell growth and division, but tools are limited for this purpose in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate systems for inducible repression of gene expression based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-mediated interference (CRISPRi) in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and synthetic Mycoplasma mycoides, two organisms with reduced genomes actively used in systems biology studies. In the synthetic cell, we also demonstrate inducible gene expression for the first time. Time-course data suggest rapid kinetics and reversible engagement of CRISPRi. Targeting of six selected endogenous genes with this system results in lowered transcript levels or reduced growth rates that agree with lack or shortage of data in previous transposon bombardment studies, and now produces actual cells to analyze. The ksgA gene encodes a methylase that modifies 16S rRNA, rendering it vulnerable to inhibition by the antibiotic kasugamycin. Targeting the ksgA gene with CRISPRi removes the lethal effect of kasugamycin and enables cell growth, thereby establishing specific and effective gene modulation with our system. The facile methods for conditional gene activation and inactivation in mycoplasmas open the door to systematic dissection of genetic programs at the core of cellular life.
- Etiological Trends and Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance in Respiratory Infections. [Journal Article]
- OMOpen Microbiol J 2018; 12:34-40
- CONCLUSIONS: Guided prescription of antimicrobial agents must be implemented and controlled to limit further spread of antimicrobial resistance.
- Inducible high-efficiency CRISPR-Cas9-targeted gene editing and precision base editing in African trypanosomes. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 May 21; 8(1):7960
- The Cas9 endonuclease can be programmed by guide RNA to introduce sequence-specific breaks in genomic DNA. Thus, Cas9-based approaches present a range of novel options for genome manipulation and pre...
The Cas9 endonuclease can be programmed by guide RNA to introduce sequence-specific breaks in genomic DNA. Thus, Cas9-based approaches present a range of novel options for genome manipulation and precision editing. African trypanosomes are parasites that cause lethal human and animal diseases. They also serve as models for studies on eukaryotic biology, including 'divergent' biology. Genome modification, exploiting the native homologous recombination machinery, has been important for studies on trypanosomes but often requires multiple rounds of transfection using selectable markers that integrate at low efficiency. We report a system for delivering tetracycline inducible Cas9 and guide RNA to Trypanosoma brucei. In these cells, targeted DNA cleavage and gene disruption can be achieved at close to 100% efficiency without further selection. Disruption of aquaglyceroporin (AQP2) or amino acid transporter genes confers resistance to the clinical drugs pentamidine or eflornithine, respectively, providing simple and robust assays for editing efficiency. We also use the new system for homology-directed, precision base editing; a single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide repair template was delivered to introduce a single AQP2 - T791G/L264R mutation in this case. The technology we describe now enables a range of novel programmed genome-editing approaches in T. brucei that would benefit from temporal control, high-efficiency and precision.
New Search Next
- Translation elongation factor 4 (LepA) contributes to tetracycline susceptibility by stalling elongating ribosomes. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 May 21
- Even though elongation factor 4 (EF4) is the third most conserved protein in bacteria, its physiological functions remain largely unknown and its proposed molecular mechanisms are conflicting among p...
Even though elongation factor 4 (EF4) is the third most conserved protein in bacteria, its physiological functions remain largely unknown and its proposed molecular mechanisms are conflicting among previous studies. In the present study we show that growth of an Escherichia coli strain is more susceptible to tetracycline than its EF4 knockout strain. In consistence with previous studies, our results suggested that EF4 affects ribosome biogenesis when tetracycline is present. Through ribosome profiling analysis, we discovered that EF4 causes 1-nucleotide shifting of ribosomal footprints on mRNA when cells have been exposed to tetracycline. In addition, when tetracycline is present, EF4 inhibits the elongation of protein synthesis, which leads to the accumulation of ribosomes in the early segment of mRNA. Together, when cells are exposed to tetracycline, EF4 alters both ribosome biogenesis and the elongation phase of protein synthesis.