- TMEM9 mediates IL-6 and IL-1β secretion and is modulated by the Wnt pathway. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018 Aug 14; 63:253-260
- Novel studies have shown that the Transmembrane protein 9 (TMEM9) gene is localized at 1q41 and encodes a protein consisting of 183 amino acids with an N-terminus containing many important domains. A...
Novel studies have shown that the Transmembrane protein 9 (TMEM9) gene is localized at 1q41 and encodes a protein consisting of 183 amino acids with an N-terminus containing many important domains. As a novel human transmembrane protein, TMEM9 is highly conserved in species from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans and is widely expressed in many tissues and cells. Moreover, TMEM9 may play an important role in intracellular transport and the growth of hepatoma cells. However, evidence for the function of TMEM9 in inflammation is still limited. We studied the expression of TMEM9 and its effect on cytokine secretion in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced LX-2 cells. We proved that overexpression of TMEM9 by transfection with pEGFP-C2-TMEM9 may increase the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β in LX-2 cells. At the same time, knockdown of TMEM9 expression by transfection with a TMEM9-siRNA decreased IL-6 and IL-1β secretion in LX-2 cells. Additionally, our results proved that overexpression of TMEM9 enhanced the protein expression levels of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin accompanied by an upregulation of wnt2b, wnt3a and β-catenin protein levels in LX-2 cells treated with TNF-α. These results indicate that TMEM9 plays a significant role in TNF-α-enhanced cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) secretion in LX-2 cells and that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the induction of these cytokine expressions.
- Transformation of naproxen during the chlorination process: Products identification and quantum chemistry validation. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2018 Aug 14; 211:1007-1017
- The by-products produced by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during chlorination are attracting wide concern. Thus, the transformation and toxicity of naproxen (NAP) during the chlorination ...
The by-products produced by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during chlorination are attracting wide concern. Thus, the transformation and toxicity of naproxen (NAP) during the chlorination process were assessed in this study. The transformation of NAP was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was improved by increasing the NaOCl dose. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to identify 14 chlorination products. This study represents the first elucidation and report of the exact structure of the primary chlorine substitution product ((2S)-2-(5-chloro-6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)propionic acid) based on HRMS and 1H NMR. Chlorine will primarily substitute the hydrogen atom on the C7 position of the naphthalene ring to form the mono-chlorine substitution product, as further validated at the theoretical level by quantum chemical calculations. A series of HOCl-induced reactions, including substitution, demethylation, and dehydrogenation, led to the transformation of NAP during the chlorination process. ECOSAR program revealed that the potential aquatic toxicity of the transformation products is significantly higher than that of the parent NAP. Their introduction into the environment may still pose potential risks.
- High efficiency and rapid degradation of bisphenol A by the synergy between adsorption and oxidization on the MnO2@nano hollow carbon sphere. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2018 Aug 02; 360:223-232
- In this research, a novel efficiency MnO2@Nano hollow carbon sphere (MnO2@NHCS) nanocomposite was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal reaction with KMnO4 solution. The adsorption and oxidization perform...
In this research, a novel efficiency MnO2@Nano hollow carbon sphere (MnO2@NHCS) nanocomposite was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal reaction with KMnO4 solution. The adsorption and oxidization performance of MnO2@NHCS were assessed by degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at different conditions. The effect of dosage of MnO2@NHCS, pH, initial concentration of BPA, temperature and humic acid were investigated systematically. Moreover, the characterizations of MnO2@NHCS were measured by a series of techniques, such as XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, TGA and XPS. Notably, hollow structure of nano carbon sphere was still retained with uniform MnO2 nanosheets covered. The results show that the removal rate of BPA was 95.3% within 10 min and BPA can be almost decomposed in 30 min under the optimal conditions. Additionally, the MnO2@NHCS remained stable and had a high regeneration efficiency (more than 85%) after 3 cycles (360 min). The reaction intermediates/products of oxidation of BPA were analyzed and the possible degradation pathways of BPA were proposed. These research results demonstrate that the MnO2@NHCS is a fleet and efficient material for BPA degradation in aqueous environment.
- Compost humic acid-like isolates from composting process as bio-based surfactant: Properties and feasibility to solubilize hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Manage 2018 Aug 06; 225:356-363
- Biodecomposition of organic solid waste during composting process produces compost humic acid-like (cHAL), which is classified as biobased surfactant. The present study aimed to characterize the prop...
Biodecomposition of organic solid waste during composting process produces compost humic acid-like (cHAL), which is classified as biobased surfactant. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of cHAL substance which was formed during the composting process of crude oil contaminated soil, in terms of surface tension decline (ΔST) and emulsification activity (EA), and evaluate the ability to solubilize hydrocarbons. Crude oil contaminated soil from a public oilfield in Wonocolo Sub-district, Bojonegoro, Indonesia, was composted under aerobic condition with varied biodegradable waste (yard waste and rumen residue) in separate reactors. The cHAL compounds were isolated from composting products from yard waste (Y100), rumen residue (R100), control of contaminated soil (S100), and mixed of contaminated soil and biodegradable waste (S50YR50). The results showed that ΔST of cHAL isolates were ranged from 6.65 to 21.50 mN/m. The EA of cHAL isolates were in the range of 7.35-38.01%. The cHAL isolates were capable to solubilize 99 to 10,710 μg/g of hydrocarbons. The cHAL isolates from R100 and S50YR50 are potential as surface tension reducer and emulsifier for hydrocarbon with values of those isolates were close to 0.50% Tween 80 characteristics, and the abilities to solubilize hydrocarbon were comparable to 1.00% Tween 80. A composition of 50% crude oil contaminated soil and 50% of biodegradable waste (yard waste and rumen residue) is recommended for composting crude oil contaminated soil.
- Removal of tridecane dicarboxylic acid in water by nanoscale Fe0/Cu0 bimetallic composites. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Aug 14; 164:219-225
- In this study, nanoscale zerovalent Fe0/Cu0 bimetallic composites were synthesized by liquid-phase reduction of Fe(II)/Cu(II) and applied for decomposition of tridecane dicarboxylic acid (DC13). The ...
In this study, nanoscale zerovalent Fe0/Cu0 bimetallic composites were synthesized by liquid-phase reduction of Fe(II)/Cu(II) and applied for decomposition of tridecane dicarboxylic acid (DC13). The removal performance of Fe0/Cu0 bimetallic composites for DC13 in terms of Fe/Cu ratios, addition amount, reaction time and initial pH were studied. The as-prepared nanoscale composites were characterized by a transmission electron micrographs (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP). Finally, the degradation mechanisms of DC13 utilizing the Fe0/Cu0 nanocomposites were investigated by using mass spectrumetry (MS). The results indicated that the Fe0/Cu0 bimetallic composites exerted a remarkable removal capacity for DC13 through the multiple reactions, e.g., coagulation, adsorption and •OH reduction in the Fe0/Cu0 system. XPS indicated that the Fe0/Cu0 reduction reaction of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) system played a significant role in degradation of DC13 and the LC-MS result suggested that DC13 was degraded into inorganic small molecules by •OH radicals generated from the corrosion of Fe0. The experimental results indicated that the nanoscale Fe0/Cu0 could be used as a potential material to remove DC13 because of its remarkable degradability.
- Inactivation of two Mycobacteria by free chlorine: Effectiveness, influencing factors, and mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Aug 04; 648:271-284
- Chlorination is one of the most widely used disinfection techniques, and the problem of "chlorine-resistant bacteria" (CRB) has attracted more attention recently. In this study, the deactivation of t...
Chlorination is one of the most widely used disinfection techniques, and the problem of "chlorine-resistant bacteria" (CRB) has attracted more attention recently. In this study, the deactivation of typical CRB in water, Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) and Mycobacterium mucogenicum (M. mucogenicum), by free chlorine was investigated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) as the reference. The chlorination effectiveness of chlorine on M. fortuitum and M. mucogenicum and the effect of chlorine concentration, pH, and humic acid were studied. It was found that M. mucogenicum was more resistant to chlorine than M. fortuitum, both of which were much more resistant than E. coli and B. subtilis. The effect of disinfectant concentration on the inactivation efficiency was positive, whereas the influence of pH and humic acid was negative. The inactivation mechanisms were explored by analyzing the bacteria morphology, the destruction of cell membrane, the cell hydrophobicity, as well as total adenosine triphosphate (ATP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The slight destruction of the cell membrane was observed after deactivation with chlorine, and high hydrophobicity of the cell membrane combined with metabolic changes might lead to the chlorine tolerance of Mycobacteria.
- Variations and sources of nitrous acid (HONO) during a severe pollution episode in Beijing in winter 2016. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Aug 11; 648:253-262
- HONO is an important precursor of OH radical and plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, but its source and formation mechanism remain uncertain, especially during complex atmospheric pollution pr...
HONO is an important precursor of OH radical and plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, but its source and formation mechanism remain uncertain, especially during complex atmospheric pollution processes. In this study, HONO mixing ratios were measured by a custom-made instrument during a severe pollution event from 16 to 23 December 2016, at an urban area of Beijing. The measurement was divided into three periods: I (haze), II (severe haze) and III (clean), according to the levels of PM2.5. This pollution episode was characterized by high levels of NO (75 ± 39 and 94 ± 40 ppbV during periods I and II, respectively) and HONO (up to 10.7 ppbV). During the nighttime, the average heterogeneous conversion frequency during the two haze periods were estimated to be 0.0058 and 0.0146 h-1, and it was not the important way to form HONO. Vehicle emissions contributed 52% (±16)% and 40% (±18)% to ambient HONO at nighttime during periods I and II. The contribution of homogeneous reaction of NO with OH should be reconsidered under high-NOx conditions and could be noticeable to HONO sources during this pollution event. Furthermore, HONO was positively correlated with PM2.5 during periods I and II, suggesting a potential chemical link between HONO and haze particles.
- Photodegradation of 17β-estradiol on silica gel and natural soil by UV treatment. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Aug 09; 242(Pt B):1236-1244
- This paper evaluates the UV photodegradation of 17β-estradiol (E2) on silica gel and in natural soil with different soil components. Silica gel was chosen as a stable and pure support to simulate the...
This paper evaluates the UV photodegradation of 17β-estradiol (E2) on silica gel and in natural soil with different soil components. Silica gel was chosen as a stable and pure support to simulate the photochemical behavior of E2 on the surface of natural soil. Ultraviolet light, rather than visible light, was confirmed to play a decisive role in the photodegradation of E2 on silica gel. The effect of three soil components, including humic acid (HA), inorganic salts, and relative humidity (RH), on the photochemical behavior of E2 on silica gel or soil under UV irradiation was then evaluated. Two HA concentrations (10 and 20 mg g-1) and three salts (ferric sulfate, copper sulfate and sodium carbonate) were observed to obviously inhibit the degradation of E2 on silica gel. Interestingly, nitrate was found to obviously improve the removal efficiency of E2. Both too-dry and too-wet conditions obviously reduced the removal rate of E2, and the optimum relative humidity (RH) value was found to be approximately about 35% (30 °C). Furthermore, twenty intermediate products and two major pathways were proposed to describe the transformation processes of E2 treated by UV irradiation, among which oligomers were found to be the major intermediate products before complete mineralization. The efficient UV removal of E2 on silica gel and natural soil suggested a feasible strategy to remediate E2 contaminated soil.
- Photodynamic therapy for rosacea in Chinese patients. [Journal Article]
- PPPhotodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Aug 14
- CONCLUSIONS: ALA-PDT is an effective and safe approach for the treatment of rosacea of erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular types, to control clinical manifestations and reduce subjective symptoms.
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- Targeting NLRP3 inflammasome via acetylsalicylic acid: Role in suppressing hepatic dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by atorvastatin in naïve versus alcoholic liver in rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Aug 14; 107:665-674
- CONCLUSIONS: Acetylsalicylic acid alleviated the hepatotoxic effects of alcohol and atorvastatin through decreasing the production of NLRP3 inflammasome in rats' liver.