- Contamination by perfluoroalkyl substances and microbial community structure in Pearl River Delta sediments. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Nov 03; 245:218-225
- Environmental microbiota play essential roles in the maintenance of many biogeochemical processes, including nutrient cycling and pollutant degradation. They are also highly susceptible to changes in...
Environmental microbiota play essential roles in the maintenance of many biogeochemical processes, including nutrient cycling and pollutant degradation. They are also highly susceptible to changes in environmental stressors, with environmental pollutants being key disruptors of microbial dynamics. In the present study, a scientific cruise was launched on July 2017 around Pearl River Delta, a suitable studying site for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the wake of the severe PFAS pollution. Surface sediment samples were collected from 18 representative stations to assess PFAS accumulation and profile microbial community. PFAS concentrations ranged from 24.2 to 181.4 pg/g dry weight in sediment, and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant homologue. The concentrations of PFAS homologues in the current study were much lower than those reported in previous studies, implying effective management and control of pollution from PFAS-related industries. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum, while nitrogen-metabolizing Nitrosopumilus and sulfate-reducing Desulfococcus genera were the most abundant. Variations in microbial communities among sampling stations were mainly due to the differences in abundances of Escherichia, Nitrosopumilus, and Desulfococcus. The outbreak of Escherichia bacteria at specific coastal stations potentially indicated the discharge of fecal matter into the marine environment. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in bottom seawater significantly influenced the structure of microbial communities in the sediment, while current study failed to observe significant effects from PFAS pollutants. Positive correlations were found between DO and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Desulfococcus and GOUTA19 genera. Overall, this study explored relationships between environmental variables (e.g., PFAS pollutants) and sediment bacteria. Biogeochemical parameters significantly influenced the structure and composition of microbial communities in sediment.
- Nitrification inhibitor DMPSA mitigated N2O emission and promoted NO sink in rainfed wheat. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Nov 05; 245:199-207
- Fertilized cropping systems are important sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) to the atmosphere, and biotic and abiotic processes control the production and consumption of these gase...
Fertilized cropping systems are important sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) to the atmosphere, and biotic and abiotic processes control the production and consumption of these gases in the soil. In fact, the inhibition of nitrification after application of urea or an ammonium-based fertilizer to agricultural soils has resulted in an efficient strategy to mitigate both N2O and NO in aerated agricultural soils. Therefore, the NO and N2O mitigation capacity of a novel nitrification inhibitor (NI), 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) succinic acid isomeric mixture (DMPSA), has been studied in a winter wheat crop. A high temporal resolution of fluxes of NO and NO2, obtained by using automatic chambers for urea (U) and urea with DMPSA, allowed a better understanding of the temporal net emissions of these gases under field conditions. Seventy-five days after fertilization, the effective reduction of nitrification by DMPSA significantly decreased the production of NO with respect to the treatment without it, giving net consumption of NO in the soil (-61.72 g-N ha-1) for U + DMPSA in comparison to net production (227.44 g-N ha-1) for U. The explanation of NO deposition after NI application, due to biotic and abiotic processes in the soil-plant system, supposes a challenge that needs to be studied in the future. In the case of N2O, the addition of DMPSA significantly mitigated the emissions of this gas by 71%, though the total N2O emissions in both fertilized treatments were significantly greater than those of the control (43.69 g-N ha-1). Regarding the fertilized treatments, no significant effect of DMPSA in comparison to urea alone was observed on grain yield nor bread-making wheat quality. To sum up, we got a significant reduction of N2O and NO with the addition of DMPSA, without a loss in yield and quality parameters in wheat.
- Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychological intervention for workers with mild to moderate depression: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2018 Nov 06; 245:364-370
- CONCLUSIONS: This study did not measure blood omega-3 fatty acid concentration and presented a high-dropout rate. Moreover, our results may not be generalizable to other regions.The results show that a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and psychoeducation and psychoeducation alone can contribute to an improvement in symptoms in people with mild to moderate depression. However, there is no difference between the interventions in ameliorating symptoms of depression.
- HBV antigen and DNA loss from mouse serum is associated with novel vaccine-induced HBV surface antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity and cytokine production. [Journal Article]
- ARAntiviral Res 2018 Nov 10
- Therapeutic vaccination is a promising strategy for controlling chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Here, we tested whether several novel vaccination strategies could be used to induce HBV-specific adap...
Therapeutic vaccination is a promising strategy for controlling chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Here, we tested whether several novel vaccination strategies could be used to induce HBV-specific adaptive immune responses and control/eradicate HBV in a mouse model. Robust HBV antigen-specific antibody responses were elicited by several vaccination strategies using a novel particle vaccine (HBSS1), which expresses a fusion of the S (amino acids [aa] 1-223) and preS1 (aa 21-47) antigens, and/or a recombinant adenovirus rAdSS1 vaccine. However, antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity and high levels of production of multiple cytokines were elicited only by heterologous prime-boost immunization; i.e., priming with the HBSS1 vaccine followed by a rAdSS1 boost. Furthermore, the most rapid loss of serum HBsAg and HBeAg and DNA was achieved by the novel vaccination regimen (priming with HBSS1 formulated with adjuvants [alum plus PolyI:C]), which was strongly associated with more potent and functional HBsAg-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and increased production of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ-induced protein (IP)-10. Thus, our novel heterogeneous prime-boost vaccine regimen shows promise as a therapeutic strategy against HBV.
- Isoform-Specific Therapeutic Control of Sulfonation in Humans. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2018 Nov 10
- The activities of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of metabolites are regulated by human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) - a 13-member family of disease relevant enzymes that catalyze transfer of the...
The activities of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of metabolites are regulated by human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) - a 13-member family of disease relevant enzymes that catalyze transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfonate) to the hydroxyls and amines of acceptors. SULTs harbor two independent allosteric sites, one of which, the focus of this work, binds non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The structure of the first NSAID-binding site - that of SULT1A1 - was elucidated recently and homology modeling suggest that variants of the site are present in all SULT isoforms. The objective of the current study was to assess whether the NSAID-binding site can be used to regulate sulfuryl transfer in humans in an isoform specific manner. Mefenamic acid (Mef) is a potent (Ki 27nM) NSAID-inhibitor of SULT1A1 - the predominant SULT isoform in small intestine and liver. Acetaminophen (APAP), a SULT1A1 specific substrate, is extensively sulfonated in humans. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is specific for SULT2A1, which we show here is insensitive to Mef inhibition. APAP and DHEA sulfonates are readily quantified in urine and thus the effects of Mef on APAP and DHEA sulfonation could be studied non-invasively. Compounds were given orally in a single therapeutic dose to a healthy, adult male human with a typical APAP-metabolite profile. Mef profoundly decreased APAP sulfonation during first pass metabolism and substantially decreased systemic APAP sulfonation without influencing DHEA sulfonation; thus, it appears the NSAID site can be used to control sulfonation in humans in a SULT-isoform specific manner.
- Epidemiological and Genetic Characteristics of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Circulating in Central and South China in 2016. [Journal Article]
- ATActa Trop 2018 Nov 10
- Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disorders in all ages of pigs; PRRSV is one of the most serious threats ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disorders in all ages of pigs; PRRSV is one of the most serious threats to the global pig industry. Continuously monitoring the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV epidemic strains is beneficial for PRRSV prevention and control. In this study, we detected PRRSV from different types of porcine samples collected from 257 pig farms in Central (Henan Province) and South China (Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi Provinces) in 2016. Of the 1047 samples collected, 530 (50.62%) were positive for PRRSV by RT-PCR. The positive rates of virus detection for each of the geographical regions were higher than 44.25%. These findings suggest that the prevalence of PRRSV continues to be a major problem for the pig industry in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PRRSV2 was still the prevalent species in Central and South China, and highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) was the predominate PRRSV type. However, the emergence and circulation of novel PRRSV strains such as the GM2-like strains and NADC30-like strains is worrisome and should receive more attention. In terms of different geographical regions, HP-PRRSV strains were the predominate PRRSV strains circulating in South China, while both HP-PRRSV strains and NADC30-like strains appeared to be the predominate PRRSV strains in Central China (Henan Province). These findings demonstrate that PRRSV types circulating in different regions in China are some different. In addition, a number of amino acid mutation types including amino acid changes and deletions were observed in both the GP5 and Nsp2 proteins. Our study provides important information on the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV strains currently circulating in China.
- Doping control analysis of four JWH-250 metabolites in equine urine by LC-MS/MS. [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2018 Nov 13
- JWH-250 is a synthetic cannabinoid. Its use is prohibited in equine sport according to the Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) and the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI). A...
JWH-250 is a synthetic cannabinoid. Its use is prohibited in equine sport according to the Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) and the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI). A doping control method to confirm the presence of four JWH-250 metabolites (JWH-250 4-OH-pentyl, JWH-250 5-OH-pentyl, JWH-250 5-OH-indole and JWH-250 N-pentanoic acid) in equine urine was developed and validated. Urine samples were treated with acetonitrile and evaporated to concentrate the analytes prior to the analysis by LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a Phenomenex Lux® 3 μm AMP column (150 x 3.0 mm). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for detection of the analytes in positive mode electrospray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection, quantification and confirmation for these metabolites were 25, 50 and 50 pg/mL, respectively. The linear dynamic range of quantification was 50-10000 pg/mL. Enzymatic hydrolysis indicated that JWH-250 4-OH-pentyl, JWH-250 5-OH-pentyl, and JWH-250 5-OH indole are highly conjugated whereas JWH-250 N-pentanoic acid is not conjugated. Relative retention time and product ion intensity ratios were employed as the criteria to confirm the presence of these metabolites in equine urine. The method was successfully applied to post-race urine samples collected from horses suspected of being exposed to JWH-250. All four JWH-250 metabolites were confirmed in these samples, demonstrating the method applicability for equine doping control analysis.
- Cholestyramine decreases apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and alters fecal characteristics and metabolites of healthy adult dogs. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2018 Nov 13
- Absorption of dietary lipids in the small intestine is dependent on the emulsification by bile acids (BA) and the formation of chylomicrons. Cholestyramine is a common drug used in humans - and poten...
Absorption of dietary lipids in the small intestine is dependent on the emulsification by bile acids (BA) and the formation of chylomicrons. Cholestyramine is a common drug used in humans - and potentially dogs - to treat BA malabsorption associated with chronic diarrhea. It is known to bind BA to form insoluble complexes, preventing their reabsorption and possibly proper emulsification and absorption of dietary fats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cholestyramine on 1) macronutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), and 2) fecal characteristics and metabolites of healthy adult dogs. We hypothesized that cholestyramine would decrease ATTD of fat and organic matter (OM), increase fecal dry matter (DM) content, and increase fecal output. Twelve healthy beagles (3.2 ± 0.8 yr; 10.4 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a randomized crossover design. All procedures were approved by the University of Illinois Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee before the study. The study included a baseline period and two 14-d experimental periods separated by a 14-d washout. All dogs were fed the same experimental diet, formulated to meet all nutrient needs recommended by AAFCO, throughout the study. Dogs were randomized into two groups [diet only (control) or diet + 11.4 g/d cholestyramine (8 g/d active ingredient)] in Period 1 and received the other treatment in Period 2. During the washout, all dogs were fed the diet only. Dogs were fed once daily (08:00) to maintain BW. Total fecal output was collected during the last 4 d of each period for ATTD analysis. On d14 of each of period, fresh fecal and blood samples were collected for metabolite analysis. Dogs fed cholestyramine had lower (P < 0.001) ATTD of DM, OM, energy, crude protein, and fat and lower (P <0.01) fecal scores (firmer stools) than controls. Dogs fed cholestyramine had greater (P <0.01) as-is and dry fecal output than controls. Dogs fed cholestyramine had lower (P <0.05) fecal ammonia and phenol concentrations, but greater (P <0.05) fecal indole, acetate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid concentrations than controls. Fecal DM% and pH were greater (P <0.01) in dogs fed cholestyramine. Our results indicate that cholestyramine, when given with a meal, is safe and well tolerated but significantly decreases nutrient digestibility and alters fecal characteristics. Future studies are required to explore the effects of cholestyramine on dogs with gastrointestinal disease.
- Berberine alleviates insulin resistance by reducing peripheral branched-chain amino acids. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov 13
- Increased circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, evidence relating berberine (BBR), gut microbiota, BCA...
Increased circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, evidence relating berberine (BBR), gut microbiota, BCAAs and IR is limited. Here, we showed that BBR could effectively rectify steatohepatitis and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. BBR reorganized gut microbiota populations under both the normal chow diet (NCD) and HFD. Particularly, BBR noticeably decreased the relative abundance of BCAA-producing bacteria, including order Clostridiales, families Streptococcaceae, Clostridiaceae and Prevotellaceae, and genera Streptococcus and Prevotella. Compared with the HFD group, predictive metagenomics indicated a reduction in the proportion of gut microbiota genes involved in BCAA biosynthesis, but the enrichment genes for BCAA degradation and transport by BBR treatment. Accordingly, the elevated serum BCAAs of HFD group were significantly decreased by BBR. Furthermore, the Western blotting results implied that BBR could promote the BCAA catabolism in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice by activation of the multienzyme branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), whereas by inhibition of the phosphorylation state of BCKDHA (E1α subunit) and branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK). The ex vivo assay further confirmed that BBR could increase BCAA catabolism in both AML12 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, data from healthy subjects and diabetics confirmed that BBR could improve glycemic control and modulate circulating BCAAs. Together, our findings clarified BBR improving IR associated not only with gut microbiota alteration in BCAA biosynthesis, but also with BCAA catabolism in liver and adipose tissues.
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- Effect of Damaging Rare Mutations in Synapse-Related Gene Sets on Response to Short-term Antipsychotic Medication in Chinese Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- JPJAMA Psychiatry 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in glutamatergic or NMDA neurotransmission is implicated in short-term antipsychotic medication efficacy; WES may have utility in the study of rare genetic variation in pharmacogenetics.