- Mechanisms controlling nucleic-acid-sensing Toll-like receptors. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunol 2018 Feb 14
- Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense N...
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization. Trafficking of ligand-activated TLRs in endosomal and lysosomal compartments is requisite for production of type I interferons. Activation of NA-sensing TLRs is required for the control of viruses such as herpes simplex virus and endogenous retroviruses. On the other hand, excessive activation of NA-sensing TLRs drives disease progression in a variety of inflammatory diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, heart failure, arthritis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. NA-sensing TLRs are targets for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. We here focus on our recent progresses in our understanding of NA-sensing TLRs.
- Repetitive TLR-3 activation in the lung induces skeletal muscle adaptations and cachexia. [Journal Article]
- EGExp Gerontol 2018 Feb 13
- Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respirat...
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3. Utilizing an established mouse viral exacerbation model produced by repetitive intranasal poly(I:C) administration, we sought to determine whether repetitive poly(I:C) treatment induced negative muscle adaptations (i.e. atrophy, weakness, and loss of function). We determined skeletal muscle morphological properties (e.g. fiber-type, fiber cross-sectional area, muscle wet mass, etc.) from a treated group ((poly(I:C), n = 9) and a sham-treated control group (PBS, n = 9); age approximately 5 months. In a subset (n = 4 for both groups), we determined in vivo physical function (using grip test for strength, rotarod for overall motor function, and treadmill for endurance) and muscle contractile properties with in vitro physiology (in the EDL, soleus and diaphragm). Our findings demonstrate that poly(I:C)-treated mice exhibit both muscle morphological and functional deficits. Changes of note when comparing poly(I:C)-treated mice to PBS-treated controls include reductions in fiber cross-sectional area (-27% gastrocnemius, -25% soleus, -16% diaphragm), contractile dysfunction (soleus peak tetanic force, -26%), muscle mass (gastrocnemius -19%, soleus -23%), physical function (grip test -34%), body mass (-20%); and altered oxidative capacity (140% increase in succinate dehydrogenase activity in the diaphragm, but 66% lower in the gastrocnemius). Our data is supportive of a new model of cachexia/sarcopenia that has potential for future research into the mechanisms underlying muscle wasting.
- Comparative Phylogenetic and Expression Analysis of Small GTPases Families in Legume and Non-Legume Plants. [Journal Article]
- PSPlant Signal Behav 2018 Feb 16; :0
- Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfami...
Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants.
- High-Dose Perinatal Folic-Acid Supplementation Alters Insulin Sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley Rats and Diminishes the Expression of Adiponectin. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diet Suppl 2018 Feb 16; :1-13
- The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic ac...
The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic acid supplementation (FAS) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and expression of adiponectin in rats. The study included 20 female rats divided into two groups: control group and FAS group (receiving high folic acid supplemented diet). Both groups of female rats were mated and pregnancy confirmed. At parturition, the diet of 5 dams that were fed with control diet during gestation and their litters was changed to FAS diet and continued throughout lactation. Similarly, half of the dams that were previously fed with FAS diet during gestation and their litters were also changed to control diet. The remaining 5 dams in each group continued on their respective diets throughout lactation with their litters. Other dams remained on their respective diets throughout lactation. Food and water intake, body weight, lipid concentrations, insulin, and the expression of adiponectin were determined. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were also measured to evaluate glucose homeostasis. FAS significantly increased the postweaning food, water intake, triglyceride, and insulin levels but diminished insulin sensitivity in adult offspring. The expression of adiponectin in insulin-sensitive tissues was also significantly decreased and these were consistent with insulin resistance of FAS offspring. High-dose FAS may promote insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and disrupt glucose metabolism possibly by depressing adiponectin expression. Although this is an animal model and the effects of the diets cannot be directly transposed to humans, this study provides indications of the possible adverse effects of FAS maternal diet on glucose metabolism in the offspring.
- The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, EPA, and/or DHA on Male Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diet Suppl 2018 Feb 16; :1-12
- The objective was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on sperm parameters including total sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm DHA, and seminal ...
The objective was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on sperm parameters including total sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm DHA, and seminal plasma DHA concentration in infertile men. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus from January 1, 1990 to December 20, 2017. The systematic review and meta-analysis were based on randomized controlled trials in infertile men with DHA or EPA treatments, either alone or in combination with other micronutrients. Three studies met the inclusion criteria: 147 patients in the intervention group and 143 patients in the control group. The analysis showed that omega-3 treatments significantly increased the sperm motility (RR 5.82, 95% CI [2.91, 8.72], p <. 0001, I2= 76%) and seminal DHA concentration (RR 1.61, 95% CI [0.15, 3.07], p =. 03, I2= 98%). Compared with the controls, the interventions did not affect the sperm concentration (RR 0.31, 95% CI [-8.13, 8.76], p =. 94, I2= 95%) or sperm DHA (RR 0.50, 95% CI [-4.17, 5.16], p =. 83, I2= 99%). The observed heterogeneity may be due to administration period and dosage of omega-3 fatty acids across the studies. Funnel plot shows no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis indicates that supplementing infertile men with omega-3 fatty acids resulted in a significant improvement in sperm motility and concentration of DHA in seminal plasma.
- Promotion of bone regeneration on titanium implants through a chemical treatment process using calcium phosphate slurry: Microscopic analysis, cellular response, and animal experiment. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Feb 16
- The present study provides scientific evidence that a new chemical treatment process using calcium phosphate slurry promotes bone regeneration on titanium (Ti) implants. The material's surface modifi...
The present study provides scientific evidence that a new chemical treatment process using calcium phosphate slurry promotes bone regeneration on titanium (Ti) implants. The material's surface modified by the treatment was analyzed using microscopic observation and the bone regeneration efficacy was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Formation of a thin hydroxyapatite layer with a thickness of about 50 nm and an increase of surface roughness were confirmed by microscopic observations. Histological evaluation of rat femora implanted with the specimens showed that the areas of the specimens directly attached to bone tissue were significantly more extensive than those implanted with control Ti at 2 and 8 weeks. Likewise, on the treated Ti, ALP activity, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and calcium contents of rat bone marrow stromal cells were significantly higher than on the control Ti. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed greater expression of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding Cbfa1 and collagen type1 on the treated Ti at 2 weeks. Based on these results, we concluded that the new process was effective to enhance the osteoconductivity of Ti. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018.
- The analysis on the expression of gasotransmitters in early trauma patients. [Journal Article]
- RARev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2017; 63(11):988-993
- CONCLUSIONS: The three gasotransmitters participated in systemic inflammatory responses during early trauma and could be used as important indicators for trauma severity. Their measurements were meaningful for evaluating the severity and prognosis of trauma.
- Nontuberculous mycobacteria in milk from positive cows in the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test: implications for human tuberculosis infections. [Journal Article]
- RIRev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018; 60:e6
- Although the tuberculin test represents the main in vivo diagnostic method used in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis, few studies have focused on the identification of mycobacteria i...
Although the tuberculin test represents the main in vivo diagnostic method used in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis, few studies have focused on the identification of mycobacteria in the milk from cows positive to the tuberculin test. The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species in milk samples from cows positive to the comparative intradermal test. Milk samples from 142 cows positive to the comparative intradermal test carried out in 4,766 animals were aseptically collected, cultivated on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media and incubated for up to 90 days. Colonies compatible with mycobacteria were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen to detect acid-fast bacilli, while to confirm the Mycobacterium genus, conventional PCR was performed. Fourteen mycobacterial strains were isolated from 12 cows (8.4%). The hsp65 gene sequencing identified M. engbaekii (n=5), M. arupense (n=4), M. nonchromogenicum (n=3), and M. heraklionense (n=2) species belong to the Mycobacterium terrae complex. Despite the absence of M. tuberculosis complex species in the milk samples, identification of these mycobacteria highlights the risk of pathogen transmission from bovines to humans throughout milk or dairy products, since many of mycobacterial species described here have been reported in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised people.
- Vacuum Ultraviolet Treatment of Acid- and Ester-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers: Chemical Conversions and Friction Reduction. [Journal Article]
- LLangmuir 2018 Feb 16
- We have prepared COOH- and COOCH3-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from undec-10-enoic acid (UDA) and methyl undec-10-enoate (MUDO) molecules on hydrogen-terminated silicon (H Si) substrat...
We have prepared COOH- and COOCH3-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from undec-10-enoic acid (UDA) and methyl undec-10-enoate (MUDO) molecules on hydrogen-terminated silicon (H Si) substrates through ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The as-prepared UDA- and MUDO-SAMs were exposed to 172-nm vacuum UV (VUV) light in a high vacuum environment (HV, < 10-3 Pa) for different periods. The presence of COO components at the surfaces of these SAMs without prior oxidation would simplify the understanding of the origin of the chemical conversions and the changes of surface properties, as the prior oxidation would change the surface properties and generate different oxygenated groups. After the HV-VUV treatment, the abundance of COOH and COOCH3 components of these SAMs decreased without significant dissociation of their C C backbones. Degradation of these components occurred through dissociating their C O bonds resulting in different C=O components. Also, the occurrence of Norrish type pathways resulted in a slight decrease of carbon content and produced CH3 components. We have applied the HV-VUV lithography to control the abundance of COOH and COOCH3 components in well-defined areas, and to investigate the friction differences between the irradiated and masked areas. The irradiated areas exhibited lower friction than the masked areas without observing significant height contrasts between these areas. The reduction in friction was attributed to the conversion of the COOH and COOCH3 components to less adhesive components such as C=O and CH3. These experiments suggest HV-VUV treatments as an approach for low damage dry surface modifications and reductive lithographic techniques at surfaces terminated by acid and ester groups.
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- Lactobacillus acidophilus andBifidobacterium longumsupernatants upregulate the serotonin transporter expression in intestinal epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- SJSaudi J Gastroenterol 2018 Jan-Feb; 24(1):59-66
- CONCLUSIONS: L. acidophilus and B. longum supernatants can upregulate SERT mRNA and protein levels in intestinal epithelial cells.