- Genetic characterisation of virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity in Campylobacter spp. isolated from commercial chickens and human clinical cases. [Journal Article]
- OJOnderstepoort J Vet Res 2018 Feb 15; 85(1):e1-e9
- Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presen...
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa. Furthermore, human clinical Campylobacter spp. isolates were randomly sampled from a private pathology laboratory in South Africa. Out of a total of 100 chicken faecal samples, 78% (n = 78) were positive for Campylobacter growth on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate and from the random laboratory collection of 100 human clinical isolates, 83% (n = 83) demonstrated positive Campylobacter spp. growth following culturing methods. These samples were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes: cadF, hipO, asp, ciaB, dnaJ, pldA, cdtA, cdtB and cdtC. As expected, the cadF gene was present in 100% of poultry (n = 78) and human clinical isolates (n = 83). Campylobacter jejuni was the main species detected in both poultry and human clinical isolates, whilst C. coli were detected at a significantly lower percentage (p < 0.05). Eight per cent of the C. jejuni from human clinical isolates had all virulence genes that were investigated. Only one C. coli isolate demonstrated the presence of all the virulence genes investigated; however, the pldA virulence gene was detected in 100% of the C. coli isolates in poultry and a high percentage (71%) in human clinical C. coli isolates as well. The detection of cdt genes was found at higher frequency in poultry than human clinical isolates. The high prevalence rates of virulence genes detected in poultry and human clinical isolates demonstrate their significance in the pathogenicity of Campylobacter species.
- Tracing Subterranean Flow of Sewage-Plant Effluent in Lower Ordovician Dolomite in the Lebanon Area, Missouria. [Journal Article]
- GWGround Water 1979; 17(5):476-486
- In an area of faulted, cavernous, carbonate rocks of Ordovician age near Lebanon, Missouri, sewage-treatment-plant effluent was traced from Dry Auglaize Creek, a losing Ozark stream, to Sweet Blue an...
In an area of faulted, cavernous, carbonate rocks of Ordovician age near Lebanon, Missouri, sewage-treatment-plant effluent was traced from Dry Auglaize Creek, a losing Ozark stream, to Sweet Blue and Hahatonka Springs in an adjacent basin. Rhodamine WT dye (20-percent solution) was used to trace the subsurface movement of the effluent. Activated charcoal packets and grab samples of water were collected at 10 sites where dye might be expected to reappear and at a control site outside the area. The leading edge of the dye reached Sweet Blue Spring, a distance of 22.5 km from the injection point, 25 to 30 days after injection, and Hahatonka Spring, at a distance of 29.0 km, 45 to 50 days after injection. The apparent underground travel rate, based on straight-line distances between injection and resurgence points, was 0.6 to 0.8 km per day.
- Simultaneous decolorization and deproteinization of α,ω-dodecanedioic acid fermentation broth by integrated ultrafiltration and adsorption treatments. [Journal Article]
- BBBioprocess Biosyst Eng 2018 May 16
- α,ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DC) are versatile chemical intermediates with different chain length. For biosynthesis of DC, to obtain the highly pure product via crystallization, it is required to remove p...
α,ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DC) are versatile chemical intermediates with different chain length. For biosynthesis of DC, to obtain the highly pure product via crystallization, it is required to remove pigments and proteins in fermentation broth. However, a trade-off between decolorization/deproteinization ratio and DC recovery during the purification process was found, which impeded DC production by fermentation. When ultrafiltration (UF) was applied to treat α,ω-dodecanedioic acid (DC12) broth, 93.4% of DC12 recovery, 80.5% of decolorization ratio and 61.7% of deproteinization ratio were achieved by a PES 3 membrane. However, the membrane technology could not effectively retain the pigments or proteins with low molecular weight when a high DC12 permeation was required. Meanwhile, the selected activated charcoal or macroporous resins were not good adsorbents for the present system. Furthermore, an integrated process for decolorization and deproteinization was developed. After filtration with PES3 membrane, an activated charcoal was used to remove the small proteins and pigments in the UF permeate. As a result, 91.4% of DC12 recovery, 94.7% of decolorization ratio and 84.8% of deproteinization ratio were obtained by such two-stage strategy. These results would serve as a valuable guide for process design and practical operation in subsequent industrial application.
- CeO2-CB nanocomposite as a novel SALDI substrate for enhancing the detection sensitivity of pharmaceutical drug molecules in beverage samples. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2018 Aug 01; 185:439-445
- SALDI-MS analysis of pharmaceutical drug molecules (amitriptyline, imipramine and promazine) using carbon-based substrates, namely, activated charcoal (AC), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon black (CB)...
SALDI-MS analysis of pharmaceutical drug molecules (amitriptyline, imipramine and promazine) using carbon-based substrates, namely, activated charcoal (AC), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon black (CB), graphene (rGO), graphene oxide (GO) and graphite, was explored and compared with the conventional organic matrix of MALDI. CB exhibited superior performance with respect to the other substrates in terms of detection sensitivity. Despite the effectiveness of CB to detect all drug molecules, it demonstrated a number of background signals, which may be an issue for the analysis of other molecules in the future. Therefore, for the first time, a CeO2-CB nanocomposite was synthesized and applied as a novel SALDI substrate to minimize the background signals and stabilize CB when exposed to high laser power. The nanocomposite was characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis and N2 sorpometry. The spectrum obtained using the novel nanocomposite in the absence of the drug molecules showed minimal background signals compared to CB. Additionally, the CeO2-CB nanocomposite enhanced the detection sensitivity of the drug molecules with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 ng/mL. This active substrate nanocomposite was further applied for the analysis of drug-spiked beverages without sample pretreatment or extraction, mimicking cases encountered by forensic toxicologists. All of the drugs and/or their adducts were detected in the drug-spiked beverage samples.
- Groundnut shell gasification performance in a fluidized bed gasifier with bubbling air as gasification medium. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Technol 2018 May 14; :1-35
- This work was focused on finding the groundnut shell (GNS) gasification performance in a fluidized bed gasifier with bubbling air as gasification medium. Groundnut shell in powder form (a mixture of ...
This work was focused on finding the groundnut shell (GNS) gasification performance in a fluidized bed gasifier with bubbling air as gasification medium. Groundnut shell in powder form (a mixture of different particle size as given in Table 8) was gasified using naturally available river sand as bed material, top of the bed feeding, conventional charcoal as bed heating medium, and two cyclones for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed using different operating conditions such as equivalence ratio (ER) between 0.29 - 0.33, bed temperature between 650 - 800 °C, and feedstock feeding rate between 36 - 31.7 kg/hr. Different parameters were evaluated to study the gasifier performance such as gas yield, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), and high heating value (HHV). The most suitable ER value was found to be 0.31, giving most stable bed temperature profile at 714.4 °C with 5 - 10% fluctuation. Cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion efficiency CCE at optimal ER of 0.31 was found to be 71.8% and 88%, respectively.
- Roles of methyltrienolone (R1881) in AKTs and AR expression patterns of cultured granulosa-lutein cells. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2018 May 11
- AR-mediated androgen signaling plays a key role in female reproductive system. Granulosa-lutein cells (GCs) are the main sites for expression of androgen receptor (AR). There is also a close relation...
AR-mediated androgen signaling plays a key role in female reproductive system. Granulosa-lutein cells (GCs) are the main sites for expression of androgen receptor (AR). There is also a close relation between AKT signaling and AR. Here, we assayed the role for a synthetic AR ligand methyltrienolone (R1881) in expressions of AKTs and AR. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) was performed in 20 normal women. Mural GCs were isolated by filtration method, cultured, and passaged. Then, the cells were starved for 48 h with 10% charcoal stripped FBS. The cells were then treated with R1881, bicalutamide (AR blocker), LY294002 (PI3K/AKT pathway blocker), and combination of them for 48 h. Finally, GCs were evaluated for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AR, and also Western blot assessment of total AKT and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) [Ser473 and Thr308]. Addition of R1881 to the GCs culture showed high expressions of AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 (P ≤ 0.05 vs LY294002 group and bicalutamide group). Expressions of AKT1 and AKT2 were decreased in the GCs under exposure to bicalutamide or LY294002 (P ≤ 0.05 vs R1881). AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 showed decreased rates of expressions in the LY294002 + bicalutamide group (P ≤ 0.05 vs R1881). AR, total AKT and p-AKT showed no significant differences between groups. Our findings indicate that 46 h exposure with R1881 could affect AKTs expressions in the GCs of pre-ovulatory phase, but it cannot promote AR expression and AKTs activation.
- Successful closure of gastrocolic fistula using preoperative localization with charcoal nanoparticles tattooing. [Journal Article]
- TJTurk J Gastroenterol 2018; 29(2):252-253
- Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose. [Journal Article]
- PEPediatr Emerg Care 2018 May 05
- CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.
- Cardiac Metastases from Malignant Melanoma: The "Charcoal Heart". [Journal Article]
- MDMethodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2017 Oct-Dec; 13(4):254-255
- The column in this issue is supplied by Herbert L. Fred, M.D., M.A.C.P., and Hendrik A. van Dijk, both from McGovern Medical School-UT Health, Houston, Texas. Dr. Fred is emeritus professor of medici...
The column in this issue is supplied by Herbert L. Fred, M.D., M.A.C.P., and Hendrik A. van Dijk, both from McGovern Medical School-UT Health, Houston, Texas. Dr. Fred is emeritus professor of medicine and a well-known medical educator and diagnostician. A graduate of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, he has authored just under 500 publications including six books. Mr. van Dijk, former director of the University of Texas Health Science Center Medical School's Graphic Communications Group, has devoted 50 years to biomedical communications and is a national expert in that field.
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- Children under Five from Houses of Unclean Fuel Sources and Poorly Ventilated Houses Have Higher Odds of Suffering from Acute Respiratory Infection in Wolaita-Sodo, Southern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Public Health 2018; 2018:9320603
- CONCLUSIONS: Children from houses of unclean fuel sources and poorly ventilated houses were more likely to be affected by acute respiratory infection. Using clean energy sources and improved stoves is highly suggested.