- CRISPR-Cas9 Toolkit for Actinomycete Genome Editing. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2018; 1671:163-184
- Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of bioactive natural products, which are the source of many drugs. However, many of them still lack efficient genome editin...
Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of bioactive natural products, which are the source of many drugs. However, many of them still lack efficient genome editing methods, some strains even cannot be manipulated at all. This restricts systematic metabolic engineering approaches for boosting known and discovering novel natural products. In order to facilitate the genome editing for actinomycetes, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit with high efficiency for actinomyces genome editing. This basic toolkit includes a software for spacer (sgRNA) identification, a system for in-frame gene/gene cluster knockout, a system for gene loss-of-function study, a system for generating a random size deletion library, and a system for gene knockdown. For the latter, a uracil-specific excision reagent (USER) cloning technology was adapted to simplify the CRISPR vector construction process. The application of this toolkit was successfully demonstrated by perturbation of genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces collinus Tü 365. The CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit and related protocol described here can be widely used for metabolic engineering of actinomycetes.
- Clinicopathologic and Microbiologic Findings Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis in 27 Dogs. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2017 Nov/Dec; 53(6):313-320
- This is a retrospective case series of 27 dogs with emphysematous cystitis. Medical records from two veterinary teaching hospitals from 1992 to 2014 were reviewed. The aims of the study were to deter...
This is a retrospective case series of 27 dogs with emphysematous cystitis. Medical records from two veterinary teaching hospitals from 1992 to 2014 were reviewed. The aims of the study were to determine imaging findings, common underlying disease processes, and prevalent bacterial species and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in dogs with emphysematous cystitis. The most common lower urinary tract sign was hematuria. Gas was detected in the wall and lumen of the urinary bladder in 14 of 27 dogs (51.9%), in only the wall of the bladder in 9 of 27 dogs (33%), and in only the lumen of the bladder in 4 of 27 dogs (14.8%). Comorbid diseases were identified in all but one case. The most common comorbid disease processes were diabetes mellitus in 33% of dogs, neurologic disease in 26% of dogs, and adrenal disease in 19% of dogs. Bacterial isolates included Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus spp., and Actinomyces spp. Enterococcus spp. were always isolated in mixed infections with gas-producing bacterial species. During the period of study, most isolates were predicted to be susceptible to beta-lactam drugs, but updated veterinary breakpoints suggest that fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole would be more appropriate choices for empiric therapy.
- Evaluation of the bioactive extract of actinomyces isolated from the Egyptian environment against aflatoxin B1-induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress in the liver of rats. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2017; 105:241-255
- This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB1in female Sprague-Dawle...
This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB1in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Six groups of animals were treated orally for 3 weeks included: C, the control group, T1, AFB1-treated group (80 μg/kg b.w), T2 and T3, the groups received ACT extract at low (25 mg/kg b.w) or high (50 mg/kg b.w) doses, T4 and T5, the groups received AFB1plus the low or high dose of ACT extract. Blood, bone marrow and tissue samples were collected for different analyses and histological examination. The results revealed the identification of 40 components, representing 99.98%. Treatment with AFB1disturbs liver function parameters, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant gene expressions, DNA fragmentation and induced severe histological changes. ACT extract at the low or high doses did not induce significant changes in all the tested parameters or histological picture of the liver. Moreover, ACT extract succeeded to induce a significant protection against the toxicity of AFB1. It could be concluded that the bioactive compounds in ACT are promise candidate for the development of food additive or drugs for the protection and treatment of liver disorders in the endemic area.
- Novel bioactive root canal sealer to inhibit endodontic multispecies biofilms with remineralizing calcium phosphate ions. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent 2017; 60:25-35
- CONCLUSIONS: A novel bioactive endodontic sealer was developed with potent inhibition of multispecies endodontic biofilms, reducing biofilm CFU by 3 log, while containing NACP for remineralization and possessing good bond strength to root canal dentine walls.The new bioactive endodontic sealer is promising for endodontic applications to eradicate endodontic biofilms and strengthen root structures. The combination of DMAHDM, MPC and NACP may be applicable to other preventive and restoration resins.
- Analysis of the expression of NLRP3 and AIM2 in periapical lesions with apical periodontitis and microbial analysis outside the apical segment of teeth. [Journal Article]
- AOArch Oral Biol 2017; 78:39-47
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the NLRP3 and AIM2 proteins play a part in the pathogenesis of periapical periodontitis. Anaerobes, such as P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, were the main detected microbial stimuli that might activate inflammasomes in periapical tissues.
- Role of microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of actinomyces in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). [Journal Article]
- JCJ Craniomaxillofac Surg 2017; 45(3):357-363
- We hypothesized that local infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized new...
We hypothesized that local infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized new approaches for the rapid detection of microorganisms including those difficult to culture. The aim of our study is to identify the bacterial profiles in MRONJ by microbiological culture and polymerase chain reactions (PCR). A retrospective analysis was performed on MRONJ patients from 2008 to 2014. The bacterial profile from MRONJ bone samples was determined using microbiological culture and PCR. Ninety five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria with mean age of 69.85 ± 8.71 years. A female predilection was detected. The mandible was more commonly affected than maxilla. Tooth extraction was the frequent triggering factor. Breast cancer was the primary cause for administration and intravenous bisphosphonates were the most commonly administrated antiresorptive drugs. The majority of patients were classified as stage 2. Posterior teeth were most commonly affected. Based on bone culture results, the most common microorganism were both actinomyces and mixed flora. PCR confirmed the presence of actinomyces in 55 patients. Our data suggest that PCR might be an innovative method for detection of microorganisms difficult to culture using traditional microbiological techniques.
- Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Med Sci 2017 Feb 14; 79(2):290-298
- Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associat...
Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis.
- Design of a hydroxyapatite-binding antimicrobial peptide with improved retention and antibacterial efficacy for oral pathogen control. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2016 12 02; 6:38410
- Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), consid...
Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory. HBAMP was supposed to form a contact-active antibacterial interface on tooth surface to inhibit the formation of biofilms. In this study, we investigated its binding behaviour, antibacterial activity against bacteria in both planktonic and sessile states, enzymatic stability in human saliva, and cytocompatibility to human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Our findings suggest that HBAMP could adsorb on tooth surface to provide effective antibacterial activity with improved retention. This study provides a proof-of-concept on using conjugated molecules to promote antibacterial efficacy by synergistically actions of HBAMP free in solution and bound on tooth surface.
- Discovery of Ibomycin, a Complex Macrolactone that Exerts Antifungal Activity by Impeding Endocytic Trafficking and Membrane Function. [Journal Article]
- CCCell Chem Biol 2016 Nov 17; 23(11):1383-1394
- Natural products are invaluable historic sources of drugs for infectious diseases; however, the discovery of novel antimicrobial chemical scaffolds has waned in recent years. Concurrently, there is a...
Natural products are invaluable historic sources of drugs for infectious diseases; however, the discovery of novel antimicrobial chemical scaffolds has waned in recent years. Concurrently, there is a pressing need for improved therapeutics to treat fungal infections. We employed a co-culture screen to identify ibomycin, a large polyketide macrolactone that has preferential killing activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Using chemical and genome methods, we determined the structure of ibomycin and identified the biosynthetic cluster responsible for its synthesis. Chemogenomic profiling coupled with cell biological assays link ibomycin bioactivity to membrane function. The preferential activity of ibomycin toward C. neoformans is due to the ability of the compound to selectively permeate its cell wall. These results delineate a novel antifungal agent that is produced by one of the largest documented biosynthetic clusters to date and underscore the fact that there remains significant untapped chemical diversity of natural products with application in antimicrobial research.
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- Anti-plaque effect of a synergistic combination of green tea and Salvadora persica L. against primary colonizers of dental plaque. [Journal Article]
- AOArch Oral Biol 2016; 70:117-124
- CONCLUSIONS: Combination between Gt and Sp aqueous extracts exhibited synergistic anti-plaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products.