- Actinomyces and Alimentary Tract Diseases: A Review of Its Biological Functions and Pathology. [Review]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:3820215
- Actinomyces are nonmotile, filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that cause actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients. Although the prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis i...
Actinomyces are nonmotile, filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that cause actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients. Although the prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis is quite difficult. Recent studies on actinomycosis have shown that Actinomyces play an important role in various biological and clinical processes, such as the formation of dental plaque and the degradation of organics in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, the distribution of Actinomyces in the digestive tract, and different biological effects of actinomycosis, and its clinical association with inflammatory diseases are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the most commonly used treatment methods and drugs used to treat Actinomyces infected alimentary canal diseases is presented.
- Effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 on loose stools in healthy volunteers. [Journal Article]
- BMBenef Microbes 2018 Apr 25; 9(3):357-365
- Ingestion of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores (C-3102) has relieved the symptoms of diarrhoea in piglets and changed the composition of gut microbiota in humans. Recently, it was suggested that the co...
Ingestion of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores (C-3102) has relieved the symptoms of diarrhoea in piglets and changed the composition of gut microbiota in humans. Recently, it was suggested that the composition of the human gut microbiota affects stool consistency. In this study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assess the preventive effects of chronic diarrhoea in healthy volunteers with loose stools by ingestion of C-3102. The results showed that oral doses of C-3102 tablets significantly decreased the Bristol Stool Scale score and stool frequency, and also significantly improved abdominal sounds. With regard to gut microbiota, the relative abundance of Lachnospira, Actinomyces and SMB53 were significantly changed. This study shows that C-3102 could be effective for treating loose stools (Trial registration: UMIN000022583, http://tinyurl.com/ya4refqn).
- Antimicrobial Activity and Biocompatibility of the Psidium cattleianum Extracts for Endodontic Purposes. [Journal Article]
- BDBraz Dent J 2017 May-Jun; 28(3):372-379
- Psidium cattleianum (PC) has been displaying inhibitory effect against a variety of microorganisms, but this effect has not yet been tested against endodontic pathogens. The aim of this study was to ...
Psidium cattleianum (PC) has been displaying inhibitory effect against a variety of microorganisms, but this effect has not yet been tested against endodontic pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the aqueous (PCAE) and hydroethanolic (PCHE) extracts from Psidium cattleianum (PC) leaves. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the microdilution broth method in order to analyze the antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces israelii and Candida albicans in planktonic conditions. Biofilm assays were conducted only with the extracts that were able to determine the MLC for microorganisms in planktonic conditions. Immediate and late tissue reactions against PC extracts were evaluated using edemogenic test and histological analysis of subcutaneous implants in Wistar rats. The results showed that the MIC and MLC values ranged between 0.25 and 4 mg/mL. The MLC obtained for PCHE inhibited 100% growth of all the tested strains, except for C. albicans. PCAE had the same effect for E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Both PC extracts were able to eliminate E. faecalis biofilms and only the PCHE eliminated P. aeruginosa biofilms. The positive controls inhibited the growth of all tested strains in MIC and MLC essays, but no CHX tested concentrations were able to eliminate A. israelii biofilm. PCAE caused a discrete increase in the edema over time, while PCHE caused a higher initial edema, which decreased progressively. Both PCAE and PCHE extracts were biocompatible, but PCHE showed better results with slight levels of inflammation at 28 days. In conclusion, PCHE was biocompatible and presented better antimicrobial effect against important pathogens associated with persistent endodontic infections.
- CRISPR-Cas9 Toolkit for Actinomycete Genome Editing. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2018; 1671:163-184
- Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of bioactive natural products, which are the source of many drugs. However, many of them still lack efficient genome editin...
Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of bioactive natural products, which are the source of many drugs. However, many of them still lack efficient genome editing methods, some strains even cannot be manipulated at all. This restricts systematic metabolic engineering approaches for boosting known and discovering novel natural products. In order to facilitate the genome editing for actinomycetes, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit with high efficiency for actinomyces genome editing. This basic toolkit includes a software for spacer (sgRNA) identification, a system for in-frame gene/gene cluster knockout, a system for gene loss-of-function study, a system for generating a random size deletion library, and a system for gene knockdown. For the latter, a uracil-specific excision reagent (USER) cloning technology was adapted to simplify the CRISPR vector construction process. The application of this toolkit was successfully demonstrated by perturbation of genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces collinus Tü 365. The CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit and related protocol described here can be widely used for metabolic engineering of actinomycetes.
- Clinicopathologic and Microbiologic Findings Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis in 27 Dogs. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2017 Nov/Dec; 53(6):313-320
- This is a retrospective case series of 27 dogs with emphysematous cystitis. Medical records from two veterinary teaching hospitals from 1992 to 2014 were reviewed. The aims of the study were to deter...
This is a retrospective case series of 27 dogs with emphysematous cystitis. Medical records from two veterinary teaching hospitals from 1992 to 2014 were reviewed. The aims of the study were to determine imaging findings, common underlying disease processes, and prevalent bacterial species and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in dogs with emphysematous cystitis. The most common lower urinary tract sign was hematuria. Gas was detected in the wall and lumen of the urinary bladder in 14 of 27 dogs (51.9%), in only the wall of the bladder in 9 of 27 dogs (33%), and in only the lumen of the bladder in 4 of 27 dogs (14.8%). Comorbid diseases were identified in all but one case. The most common comorbid disease processes were diabetes mellitus in 33% of dogs, neurologic disease in 26% of dogs, and adrenal disease in 19% of dogs. Bacterial isolates included Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus spp., and Actinomyces spp. Enterococcus spp. were always isolated in mixed infections with gas-producing bacterial species. During the period of study, most isolates were predicted to be susceptible to beta-lactam drugs, but updated veterinary breakpoints suggest that fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole would be more appropriate choices for empiric therapy.
- Evaluation of the bioactive extract of actinomyces isolated from the Egyptian environment against aflatoxin B1-induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress in the liver of rats. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2017; 105:241-255
- This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB1in female Sprague-Dawle...
This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB1in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Six groups of animals were treated orally for 3 weeks included: C, the control group, T1, AFB1-treated group (80 μg/kg b.w), T2 and T3, the groups received ACT extract at low (25 mg/kg b.w) or high (50 mg/kg b.w) doses, T4 and T5, the groups received AFB1plus the low or high dose of ACT extract. Blood, bone marrow and tissue samples were collected for different analyses and histological examination. The results revealed the identification of 40 components, representing 99.98%. Treatment with AFB1disturbs liver function parameters, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant gene expressions, DNA fragmentation and induced severe histological changes. ACT extract at the low or high doses did not induce significant changes in all the tested parameters or histological picture of the liver. Moreover, ACT extract succeeded to induce a significant protection against the toxicity of AFB1. It could be concluded that the bioactive compounds in ACT are promise candidate for the development of food additive or drugs for the protection and treatment of liver disorders in the endemic area.
- Novel bioactive root canal sealer to inhibit endodontic multispecies biofilms with remineralizing calcium phosphate ions. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent 2017; 60:25-35
- CONCLUSIONS: A novel bioactive endodontic sealer was developed with potent inhibition of multispecies endodontic biofilms, reducing biofilm CFU by 3 log, while containing NACP for remineralization and possessing good bond strength to root canal dentine walls.The new bioactive endodontic sealer is promising for endodontic applications to eradicate endodontic biofilms and strengthen root structures. The combination of DMAHDM, MPC and NACP may be applicable to other preventive and restoration resins.
- Analysis of the expression of NLRP3 and AIM2 in periapical lesions with apical periodontitis and microbial analysis outside the apical segment of teeth. [Journal Article]
- AOArch Oral Biol 2017; 78:39-47
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the NLRP3 and AIM2 proteins play a part in the pathogenesis of periapical periodontitis. Anaerobes, such as P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, were the main detected microbial stimuli that might activate inflammasomes in periapical tissues.
- Role of microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of actinomyces in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). [Journal Article]
- JCJ Craniomaxillofac Surg 2017; 45(3):357-363
- We hypothesized that local infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized new...
We hypothesized that local infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized new approaches for the rapid detection of microorganisms including those difficult to culture. The aim of our study is to identify the bacterial profiles in MRONJ by microbiological culture and polymerase chain reactions (PCR). A retrospective analysis was performed on MRONJ patients from 2008 to 2014. The bacterial profile from MRONJ bone samples was determined using microbiological culture and PCR. Ninety five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria with mean age of 69.85 ± 8.71 years. A female predilection was detected. The mandible was more commonly affected than maxilla. Tooth extraction was the frequent triggering factor. Breast cancer was the primary cause for administration and intravenous bisphosphonates were the most commonly administrated antiresorptive drugs. The majority of patients were classified as stage 2. Posterior teeth were most commonly affected. Based on bone culture results, the most common microorganism were both actinomyces and mixed flora. PCR confirmed the presence of actinomyces in 55 patients. Our data suggest that PCR might be an innovative method for detection of microorganisms difficult to culture using traditional microbiological techniques.
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- Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Med Sci 2017 Feb 14; 79(2):290-298
- Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associat...
Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis.