- Intracameral ketorolac concentration at the beginning and end of cataract surgery following preoperative topical ketorolac administration. [Journal Article]
- COClin Ophthalmol 2017; 11:1897-1901
- CONCLUSIONS: At-home compliance with topical ketorolac was good, with 92.9% of patients using it as directed. Following CELR, levels of ketorolac in the aqueous humor were low, and 66.7% of patients had undetectable levels.
- Stability indicating HPLC-DAD method for analysis of Ketorolac binary and ternary mixtures in eye drops: Quantitative analysis in rabbit aqueous humor. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Nov 15; 1068-1069:218-225
- Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validate...
Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis). For analysis in aqueous humor, Guaifenesin (GUF) was used as internal standard and the method was validated according to FDA regulation for analysis in biological fluids. Agilent 5 HC-C18(2) 150×4.6mm was used as stationary phase with a gradient eluting solvent of 20mM phosphate buffer pH 4.6 containing 0.2% triethylamine and acetonitrile. The drugs were resolved with retention times of 2.41, 5.26, 7.92 and 9.64min for PHE, GUF, KTC and CPM, respectively. The method was sensitive and selective to analyze simultaneously the three drugs in presence of possible forced degradation products and dosage form excipients (in vitro analysis) and also with the internal standard, in presence of aqueous humor interferences (analysis in biological fluid), at a single wavelength (261nm). No extraction procedure was required for analysis in aqueous humor. The simplicity of the method emphasizes its capability to analyze the drugs in vivo (in rabbit aqueous humor) and in vitro (in pharmaceutical formulations).
- Sublingual Buprenorphine Efficacy in Renal Colic Pain Relief: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- PTPain Ther 2017; 6(2):227-234
- CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference between SL buprenorphine and intravenous ketorolac in renal colic pain relief but more adverse effects in the buprenorphine group. Trial Registration Iranian Registry of Clinical trials identifier, IRCT2015041421773N1.
- Comparison between xCELLigence biosensor technology and conventional cell culture system for real-time monitoring human tenocytes proliferation and drugs cytotoxicity screening. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Orthop Surg Res 2017 Oct 16; 12(1):149
- CONCLUSIONS: Human tenocytes could proliferate inside xCELLigence system. These responses varied when tenocytes were exposed to different concentrations of ketorolac tromethamine, bupivacaine, methylprednisolone, and betamethasone. The result of cell proliferation and gene expression of tenocytes in both xCELLigence and conventional culture system is strongly correlated.xCELLigence culture system may replace conventional cell culture, which made real-time tenocyte proliferation monitoring possible.
- In Vitro Chondrotoxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Opioid Medications. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Sports Med 2017; 45(14):3345-3350
- CONCLUSIONS: In vitro exposure of chondrocytes to single-dose equivalent concentrations of either ketorolac or meperidine demonstrated significant chondrotoxicity, while exposure to morphine or fentanyl did not lead to increased cell death.
- Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs. [Journal Article]
- OVOpen Vet J 2017; 7(3):254-260
- To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammat...
To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015) with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013), increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001), most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.
- Mixing local anaesthetics, corticosteroid, and ketorolac tromethamine leads to no extreme pH or precipitation. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hand Surg Eur Vol 2017; 42(9):963-965
- Nanostructured SBA-15 host applied in ketorolac tromethamine release system. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mater Sci Mater Med 2017; 28(8):113
- The ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 has been applied in studies of ketorolac tromethamine adsorption and release. The SBA-15 materials with hexagonal and regular structure were obtained using a trib...
The ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 has been applied in studies of ketorolac tromethamine adsorption and release. The SBA-15 materials with hexagonal and regular structure were obtained using a triblock copolymer Pluronic P123as a template and TEOS as a silica source. Ketorolac tromethamine was adsorbed into SBA-15 silica nanochannels using ethanol as solvent. The physicochemical and textural properties of SBA-15 and ketorolac tromethamine/SBA-15 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and BET surface studies. Drug release was evaluated by soaking the loaded silica mesoporous material into a solution of HCl (0.1 N) at initial time (0-2 h) and buffer pH 7 at high times at 37 °C under continuous stirring. Oral commercial Keto tablets (Dolten®) and Keto solution (Keto power) were study for the contrast. Release studies were performed in order to evaluate the required therapeutic efficacy. SBA-15 provides significant improvement in the controlled release of ketorolac tromethamine. Release profile of KETO from SBA-15/KETO and control releases.
- In vitro anti-LPS dose determination of ketorolac tromethamine and in vivo safety of repeated dosing in healthy horses. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Pharmacol Ther 2018; 41(1):98-104
- Flunixin meglumine (FM) is a commonly used Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in horses, but clinical efficacy is often unsatisfactory. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) demonstrates superior effi...
Flunixin meglumine (FM) is a commonly used Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in horses, but clinical efficacy is often unsatisfactory. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) demonstrates superior efficacy compared to other NSAIDs in humans, but its anti-inflammatory effects have not been investigated in the horse. Safety of repeated dosing of KT has not been evaluated. The first objective was to conduct a dose determination study to verify that a previously described dosage of KT would inhibit Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced eicosanoid production in vitro, and to compare KT effects of this inhibition to those of FM. Then, a randomized crossover study was performed using nine healthy horses to evaluate plasma concentrations of KT and FM following IV administration. Administered dosages of KT and FM were 0.5 mg/kg and 1.1 mg/kg, respectively. Safety following six repeated doses of KT was assessed. Ketorolac tromethamine and FM suppressed LPS-induced Thromboxane B2(TXB2) and Prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production in vitro for up to 12 hr. Intravenous administration produced plasma concentrations of KT and FM similar to previous reports. No adverse effects were observed. A KT dosage of 0.5 mg/kg IV inhibited LPS-induced eicosanoids in vitro, and repeated dosing for up to 3 days appears safe in healthy horses. Investigation of in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of KT is warranted.
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- Postoperative Multimodal Analgesia Pain Management With Nonopioid Analgesics and Techniques: A Review. [Review]
- JSJAMA Surg 2017 Jul 01; 152(7):691-697
- CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal analgesia is readily available and the evidence is strong to support its efficacy. Surgeons should use this effective approach for patients both using and not using the ERAS pathway to reduce opioid consumption.