- A CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody for effective immunotherapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the ibrutinib era. [Journal Article]
- BloodBlood 2018 May 09
- The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib induces high rates of clinical response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, there remains a need for adjunct treatments to deepen response...
The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib induces high rates of clinical response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, there remains a need for adjunct treatments to deepen response and to overcome drug resistance. Blinatumomab, a CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody (bsAb) designed in the BiTE® format, is FDA approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Due to its short half-life of 2.1 hours, blinatumomab requires continuous intravenous dosing for efficacy. We developed a novel CD19/CD3 bsAb in the single-chain Fv-Fc format (CD19/CD3-scFv-Fc) with a half-life of approximately 5 days. In in vitro experiments, both CD19/CD3-scFv-Fc and blinatumomab induced >90% killing of CLL cells from treatment-naïve patients. Anti-leukemic activity was associated with increased autologous CD8 and CD4 T cell proliferation, activation, and granzyme B expression. In the NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull patient-derived xenograft mouse model, once-weekly treatment with CD19/CD3-scFv-Fc eliminated >98% of treatment-naïve CLL cells in blood and spleen. By contrast, blinatumomab failed to induce a response, even when administered daily. We next explored the activity of CD19/CD3-scFv-Fc in the context of ibrutinib treatment and ibrutinib resistance. CD19/CD3-scFv-Fc induced more rapid killing of CLL cells from ibrutinib-treated patients than those from treatment-naïve patients. CD19/CD3-scFv-Fc also demonstrated potent activity against CLL cells from patients with acquired ibrutinib-resistance harboring BTK and/or PLCG2 mutations in vitro and in vivo using patient-derived xenograft models. Taken together, these data support investigation of CD19/CD3 bsAbs and other T cell-recruiting bsAbs as immunotherapies for CLL, especially in combination with ibrutinib or as rescue therapy in ibrutinib-resistant disease.
- Effect of combining glucocorticoids with Compound A on glucocorticoid receptor responsiveness in lymphoid malignancies. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0197000
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a cornerstone in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Yet, prolonged GC use is hampered by deleteriou...
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a cornerstone in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Yet, prolonged GC use is hampered by deleterious GC-related side effects and the emergence of GC resistance. To tackle and overcome these GC-related problems, the applicability of selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists and modulators was studied, in search of fewer side-effects and at least equal therapeutic efficacy as classic GCs. Compound A (CpdA) is a prototypical example of such a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator and does not support GR-mediated transactivation. Here, we examined whether the combination of CpdA with the classic GC dexamethasone (Dex) may improve GC responsiveness of MM and ALL cell lines. We find that the combination of Dex and CpdA does not substantially enhance GC-mediated cell killing. In line, several apoptosis hallmarks, such as caspase 3/7 activity, PARP cleavage and the levels of cleaved-caspase 3 remain unchanged upon combining Dex with CpdA. Moreover, we monitor no additional inhibition of cell proliferation and the homologous downregulation of GR is not counteracted by the combination of Dex and CpdA. In addition, CpdA is unable to modulate Dex-liganded GR transactivation and transrepression, yet, Dex-mediated transrepression is also aberrant in these lymphoid cell lines. Together, transrepression-favoring compounds, alone or combined with GCs, do not seem a valid strategy in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies.
- MicroRNA 339 promotes development of Stem Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma syndrome via downregulation of the BCL2L11 and BAX pro-apoptotic genes. [Journal Article]
- CRCancer Res 2018 May 07
- Development of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms related to overexpression of FGFR1 kinases as a result of chromosome translocations depends on promotion of a stem cell phenotype, suppression of termina...
Development of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms related to overexpression of FGFR1 kinases as a result of chromosome translocations depends on promotion of a stem cell phenotype, suppression of terminal differentiation, and resistance to apoptosis. These phenotypes are related to the stem cell leukemia/lymphoma syndrome (SCLL), which arises through the effects of activated FGFR1 kinase on gene transcription, including dysregulation of microRNAs. In a screen for miRNAs that are directly regulated by FGFR1 and that stimulate cell proliferation and survival, we identified miR-339-5p, which is highly upregulated in cells carrying various different chimeric kinases. Overexpression of miR-339-5p in SCLL cell types enhanced cell survival, wherease inhibition of its function reduced cell viability. miR-339-5p overexpression also protected cells from the effects of FGFR1 inactivation, promoting cell cycle progression and reducing apoptosis. BCR-FGFR1 fusion directly regulated miR-339-5p expression in cells lines; this correlation between miR-339-5p and FGFR1 expression was also observed in primary human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In a screen to identify targets of miR-339-5p, we identified and verified the pro-apoptotic genes BCL2L11 and BAX. In vivo, SCLL cells forced to overexpress miR-339-5p exhibited a more rapid onset of disease and poorer survival compared with cells expressing endogenous levels of miR-339-5p. Analysis of human primary B-cell precursor ALL showed significantly higher expression of miR339-5p compared with two cohorts of CLL patient samples, suggesting direct roles for miR339-5p in disease progression and supporting the evidence generated in mouse models of SCLL.
- Survival analysis of adult patients with ALL in Mexico City: first report from the Acute Leukemia Workgroup (ALWG) (GTLA). [Journal Article]
- CMCancer Med 2018 May 07
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of hematopoietic lymphoid progenitors. With new target therapies, the survival of adults with ALL ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of hematopoietic lymphoid progenitors. With new target therapies, the survival of adults with ALL has improved in the past few decades. Unfortunately, there are no large ALL patient series in many Latin American countries. Data from the Acute Leukemia Workgroup that includes five Mexico City referral centers were used. Survival was estimated for adult patients with ALL during 2009-2015. In total, 559 adults with ALL were included. The median age was 28 years; 67% were classified into the adolescent and young adult group. Cytogenetic information was available in 54.5% of cases. Of the 305 analyzed cases, most had a normal caryotype (70.5%) and Philadelphia-positive was present in 16.7%. The most commonly used treatment regimen was hyper-CVAD. In approximately 20% of cases, there was considerable delay in the administration of chemotherapy. Primarily refractory cases accounted for 13.1% of patients. At the time of analysis, 26.7% of cases had survived. The 3-year overall survival was 22.1%. The main cause of death was disease progression in 228 (55.6%). Clinical and public health strategies are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment and survivorship care for adult with ALL. This multicentric report represents the largest series in Mexico of adult ALL patients in which a survival analysis and risk identification were obtained.
- Solanine induced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity to Adriamycin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 15(5):7383-7388
- Solanine is an alkaloid and is the main extract of the traditional Chinese herb, Solanum nigrum Linn. It has been reported that Solanine has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. The present st...
Solanine is an alkaloid and is the main extract of the traditional Chinese herb, Solanum nigrum Linn. It has been reported that Solanine has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of Solanine in Jurkat cells and demonstrate the molecular mechanism of antitumor activity of Solanine. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay demonstrated that Solanine inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry revealed that Solanine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in Jurkat cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Solanine modulated the mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). Additionally, Bcl-2 and Bax expression was measured using western blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of Bax and decrease in the expression of Bcl-2. Solanine increased the chemosensitivity of Jurkat cells to Adriamycin. In summary, the present results indicated that the antitumor activity of Solanine was associated with inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and increasing cytotoxicity of Adriamycin. Therefore, Solanine may have potential as a novel agent for the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia.
- Dogs with acute myeloid leukemia or lymphoid neoplasms (large cell lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia) may have indistinguishable mediastinal masses on radiographs. [Journal Article]
- VRVet Radiol Ultrasound 2018 May 03
- Acute myeloid leukemia is an uncommon hematopoietic neoplasm of dogs that should be differentiated from lymphoid neoplasms, such as lymphoma, because of different treatment protocols and a worse prog...
Acute myeloid leukemia is an uncommon hematopoietic neoplasm of dogs that should be differentiated from lymphoid neoplasms, such as lymphoma, because of different treatment protocols and a worse prognosis. Thoracic radiography is performed frequently in dogs with suspected hematopoietic neoplasia, and detecting a mediastinal mass often prioritizes lymphoma as the most likely diagnosis. However, we have observed a mediastinal mass in several dogs with acute myeloid leukemia and hypothesized that (1) the frequency of a mediastinal mass was higher and (2) the size of the mass was larger in dogs with acute myeloid leukemia compared to dogs with lymphoid neoplasms. In this analytical study (observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional), the sample population included 238 dogs with hematopoietic neoplasia. These dogs were divided into lymphoid (large cell lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and myeloid groups based on standard phenotyping tests. A mediastinal mass was detected during thoracic radiography in 73/218 (33%) and nine of 20 (45%) dogs in the lymphoid and myeloid groups (P = 0.21), respectively. The median size ratio of mediastinal mass to cardiac silhouette was 0.20 and 0.23 in the lymphoid and myeloid groups (P = 0.96), respectively. Additionally, we observed normal thoracic radiographs in 111/218 (51%) dogs in the lymphoid group and nine of 20 (45%) dogs in the myeloid group. In conclusion, acute myeloid leukemia should be considered when a mediastinal mass is detected during radiography in dogs with suspected hematopoietic neoplasia-but the presence or size of a mediastinal mass does not differentiate between myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms.
- Role of a non-canonical splice variant of the Helios gene in the differentiation of acute lymphoblastic leukemic T cells. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 15(5):6957-6966
- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a hematopoietic malignant disease, which arises from a genetic defect in the T-cell maturation signaling pathway. As a result, it is necessary to identify the m...
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a hematopoietic malignant disease, which arises from a genetic defect in the T-cell maturation signaling pathway. As a result, it is necessary to identify the molecules that impact T-cell development and control lymphoid-lineage malignancy. The present study utilized Jurkat T lymphoblastic cells as a well-established approach for the investigation into the function of the non-canonical alternative splice variant of Helios for the in vitro study of T-cell differentiation and leukemogenesis. In the present study, the Jurkat T-cell lines with stable overexpression of the wild-type (Helios-1) or the non-canonical short isoform (Helios-Δ326-1431), were established. RNA microarray, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were used to assess changes in the gene expression profiles and to monitor the cell surface markers during T-cell differentiation. Multiple genes associated with T-cell differentiation and leukemogenesis were identified as being either activated or suppressed. In addition, the results indicated that the stable overexpression of the Helios isoforms stimulated the differentiation pathway of the T-lineage lymphoblastic cells. Therefore, these results suggest that full-length Helios-1 has a tumor suppressor-like and immunomodulatory role, in contrast to the oncogenic function of the non-canonical short isoform Helios-Δ326-1431.
- International cooperative study identifies treatment strategy in childhood ambiguous lineage leukemia. [Journal Article]
- BloodBlood 2018 May 02
- Despite attempts to improve the definitions of ambiguous leukemia (ALAL) during the last two decades, general therapy recommendations are missing. Herein, we report a large cohort of children with AL...
Despite attempts to improve the definitions of ambiguous leukemia (ALAL) during the last two decades, general therapy recommendations are missing. Herein, we report a large cohort of children with ALAL and propose a treatment strategy. A retrospective multinational study iBFM-AMBI2012 on 233 cases of pediatric ALAL patients is presented. Survival statistics were used to compare the prognosis of subsets and types of treatment. Five-year event-free survival (5yEFS) of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type primary therapy (80±4%) was superior to that of children who received acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-type or combined-type treatments (36±7.2% and 50±12%, respectively). When ALL- or AML-specific gene fusions were excluded, 5yEFS of CD19pos leukemia was 83±5.3% on ALL-type primary treatment compared to 0±0% and 28±14% on AML-type and combined-type primary treatment, respectively. Superiority of ALL-type treatment was documented in single-population mixed phenotype ALAL (using WHO and/or EGIL definitions), and in the bilineal ALAL. Treatment with ALL-type protocols is recommended for the majority of pediatric patients with ALAL, including cases with CD19pos ALAL. AML-type of treatment is preferred in a minority of ALAL cases with CD19neg and no other lymphoid features ALALs. No overall benefit of transplantation was documented and it could be introduced in some patients with a poor response to treatment. As no clear indicator was found for a change to the treatment type, this is to be considered only in cases with 5% blast or greater after remission induction. The results provide a basis for a prospective trial.
- Institutional-based tumor registry of hematopoietic malignancies: A 4 years' preliminary report from Karachi. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lab Physicians 2018 Apr-Jun; 10(2):168-172
- CONCLUSIONS: Our institution-based tumor registry indicates CML and AML were the most common cancers in males and females, respectively, followed by ALL. Chronic lymphoid leukemia, unlike in the West, is seen infrequently in our population. National and provisional hematological tumor registry will be beneficial for future health planning and research.
New Search Next
- Germline Genetic IKZF1 Variation and Predisposition to Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. [Journal Article]
- CCCancer Cell 2018 May 14; 33(5):937-948.e8
- Somatic genetic alterations of IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor IKAROS, are common in high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are associated with poor prog...
Somatic genetic alterations of IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor IKAROS, are common in high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are associated with poor prognosis. Such alterations result in the acquisition of stem cell-like features, overexpression of adhesion molecules causing aberrant cell-cell and cell-stroma interaction, and decreased sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here we report coding germline IKZF1 variation in familial childhood ALL and 0.9% of presumed sporadic B-ALL, identifying 28 unique variants in 45 children. The majority of variants adversely affected IKZF1 function and drug responsiveness of leukemic cells. These results identify IKZF1 as a leukemia predisposition gene, and emphasize the importance of germline genetic variation in the development of both familial and sporadic ALL.