- Preliminary investigation on the abnormal mechanism of CD4+FOXP3+CD25high regulatory T cells in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(2):1433-1441
- The current study aimed to investigate the changes and regulatory mechanism of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+CD25high forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in childhood B-cell...
The current study aimed to investigate the changes and regulatory mechanism of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+CD25high forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in childhood B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL). A total of 18 children with B-ALL and 15 age-matched healthy children were included. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the mRNA levels of Foxp3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3), interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R)β/γ, IL-6Rα/β, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)3/4 and runt-related transcription factor (RUNX)1/3 in CD4-positive cells. The concentration of cytokines in plasma were measured using a cytometric bead array. Additionally, the proportion of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs and levels of associated proteins was analyzed using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the proportion of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ and expression of Foxp3 in children with B-ALL was significantly higher compared with healthy controls (P<0.05) and that transcription levels of CTLA4, GITR and LAG3 were also significantly elevated (P<0.05). Compared with healthy controls, the expression of IL-2Rα/β and its downstream molecule phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) in CD4-positive cells significantly increased (P<0.05); however, no significant difference of IL-2Rγ levels was identified between the two groups. Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the expression of phosphorylated (p) signal transducer and activator of transcription factor (STAT)5 and CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in children with B-ALL (r=0.17; P<0.05). The plasma concentration of TGF-β, the expression of its receptor TGF-βRI/II and downstream molecules Smad3/4 were significantly upregulated in children with B-ALL (P<0.05), whereas the expression of RUNX1/3 was lower compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of Smad3 and RUNX1 was positively correlated with CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in children with B-ALL (r=0.87 and 0.60, respectively; P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of pSTAT3 in CD4-positive cells decreased significantly in pediatric patients with B-ALL when compared with healthy controls; however, plasma concentrations of IL-6 was significantly higher (P<0.05). Furthermore, a negative correlation was identified between pSTAT3 and CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in pediatric patients with B-ALL (r=-0.39; P<0.05). However, no significant differences in IL-6Rα/β expression were identified between the two groups. The results demonstrated that the excessive activation of IL-2/pSTAT5 and TGF-β/Smad signaling, and insufficiency of pSTAT3 may be correlated with increased CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in pediatric B-ALL.
- The application of CAR-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies: advantages and challenges. [Review]
- APActa Pharm Sin B 2018; 8(4):539-551
- Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy is a novel adoptive immunotherapy where T lymphocytes are engineered with synthetic receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). The CAR-...
Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy is a novel adoptive immunotherapy where T lymphocytes are engineered with synthetic receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). The CAR-T cell is an effector T cell that recognizes and eliminates specific cancer cells, independent of major histocompatibility complex molecules. The whole procedure of CAR-T cell production is not well understood. The CAR-T cell has been used predominantly in the treatment of hematological malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Solid tumors including melanoma, breast cancer and sarcoma offer great promise in CAR-T cell research and development. CD19 CAR-T cell is most commonly used, and other targets, including CD20, CD30, CD38 and CD138 are being studied. Although this novel therapy is promising, there are several disadvantages. In this review we discuss the applications of CAR-T cells in different hematological malignancies, and pave a way for future improvement on the effectiveness and persistence of these adoptive cell therapies.
- Anti-CD37 chimeric antigen receptor T cells are active against B and T cell lymphomas. [Journal Article]
- BloodBlood 2018 Aug 08
- Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have emerged as a novel form of treatment for patients with B-cell malignancies. In particular, anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy has effected impressive clinical r...
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have emerged as a novel form of treatment for patients with B-cell malignancies. In particular, anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy has effected impressive clinical responses in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, not all patients respond, and relapse with antigen loss has been observed in all patient subsets. Here, we report on the design and optimization of a novel CAR directed to the surface antigen CD37, which is expressed in B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and in some cases of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphomas (CTCL and PTCL, respectively). We found that CAR-37 T cells demonstrated antigen-specific activation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity in models of B- and T-cell lymphomas in vitro and in vivo, including patient-derived xenografts. Taken together, these results are the first showing that T cells expressing anti-CD37 CAR have substantial activity against 2 different lymphoid lineages, without evidence of significant T cell fratricide. Furthermore, anti-CD37 CARs were readily combined with anti-CD19 CARs to generate dual-specific CAR T cells capable of recognizing CD19 and CD37 alone or in combination. Our findings indicate that CD37-CAR T cells represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with CD37-expressing lymphoid malignancies.
- [FGFR1-mutated B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia transforming to myelodysplastic / myeloproliferative neoplasm and acute myeloid leukemia]. [Journal Article]
- RKRinsho Ketsueki 2018; 59(7):872-877
- A 77-year-old male with hyperleukocytosis and thrombocytopenia was diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) -negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) ; he was treated with induction chem...
A 77-year-old male with hyperleukocytosis and thrombocytopenia was diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) -negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) ; he was treated with induction chemotherapy. Despite an initial complete remission, hyperleukocytosis was returned 18 months later. A bone marrow smear revealed a substantial increase in the number of myeloid cells with each stage of differentiation, which was markedly different from the initial presentation, resulting in the diagnosis of Ph-negative myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN). After a month, an autopsy revealed that the disease had progressed to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Since the first diagnosis, a chromosomal translocation, t (8;13) (p12;q12), was identified; this was subsequently confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis to comprise a genomic rearrangement of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene. Collectively, this is a rare case of a myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm with an FGFR1 genomic rearrangement that initially presented as B-cell ALL, before developing into MDS/MPN and finally into AML. In the literature, although a transformation of MPN into ALL is often reported, the transformation of B-cell ALL into MPN is an infrequent event.
- Transcriptional activation of the miR-17-92 cluster is involved in the growth-promoting effects of MYB in human Ph-positive leukemia cells. [Journal Article]
- HHaematologica 2018 Aug 03
- MicroRNAs, non-coding regulators of gene expression, are likely to function as important downstream effectors of many transcription factors including MYB. Optimal levels of MYB are required for trans...
MicroRNAs, non-coding regulators of gene expression, are likely to function as important downstream effectors of many transcription factors including MYB. Optimal levels of MYB are required for transformation/maintenance of BCR-ABL1-expressing cells. We investigated whether MYB silencing modulates microRNAs expression in Philadelphia-positive leukemia cells and if MYB-regulated microRNAs are important for the MYB addiction of these cells. 35 microRNAs were modulated by MYB silencing in chronic lymphoid and erythro-myeloid blast crisis BV173 and K562 leukemia cells; 15 of these were concordantly modulated in both lines. We focused on the miR-17-92 cluster because of its oncogenic role in tumors and found that: i) it is a direct MYB target; ii) it partially rescued the impaired proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of MYB-silenced BV173 cells. Moreover, we identified FRZB, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor, as a novel target of the miR-17-92 cluster. High expression of MYB in blast cells from two Ph-positive leukemia patients correlated positively with the miR-17-92 cluster and inversely with FRZB. This expression pattern was also observed in a microarray dataset of 122 Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemias. In vivo experiments in NOD scid gamma mice injected with BV173 cells confirmed that FRZB functions as a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor even as they failed to demonstrate that this pathway is important for BV173-dependent leukemogenesis. These studies illustrate the global effects of MYB expression on the microRNAs profile of Ph-positive cells and supports the concept that the MYB addiction of these cells is, in part, caused by modulation of microRNA-regulated pathways affecting cell proliferation and survival.
- Venetoclax: Targeting BCL2 in Hematological Cancers. [Journal Article]
- RRRecent Results Cancer Res 2018; 212:215-242
- Over the last years, targeted anti-cancer therapy with small-molecule inhibitors and antibodies moved to the forefront as a strategy to treat hematological cancers. These novel agents showed outstand...
Over the last years, targeted anti-cancer therapy with small-molecule inhibitors and antibodies moved to the forefront as a strategy to treat hematological cancers. These novel agents showed outstanding effects in treatment of patients, often irrespective of their underlying genetic features. However, evolution and selection of subclones with continuous treatment leads to disease relapse and resistance toward these novel drugs. Venetoclax (ABT-199) is a novel, orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor for selective targeting of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2). Venetoclax is in clinical development and shows high efficacy and safety in particular in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but preliminarily also in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The most important and impressive outcomes of venetoclax treatment include a rapid induction of apoptosis and drastic reduction of the tumor bulk within a few hours after administration. Venetoclax was approved by the FDA and EMA in 2016 for patients with previously treated CLL with del(17p13) and patients failing B cell receptor signaling inhibitors (EMA only), on the basis of a single-arm phase II trial demonstrating a tremendous response rate of 79% with complete remission in 20% of cases and an estimated 1-year progression-free survival of 72%. This review focuses on the mode of action, the preclinical models, and outcomes from various clinical trials with venetoclax in different hematologic cancers as well as future development.
- Second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation enables long-term disease-free survival in relapsed acute leukemia. [Journal Article]
- AHAnn Hematol 2018 Jul 31
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the treatment of choice for high-risk myeloid and lymphoid leukemias. Relapse after allogeneic HCT is associated with a dismal prognosis and fur...
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the treatment of choice for high-risk myeloid and lymphoid leukemias. Relapse after allogeneic HCT is associated with a dismal prognosis and further therapeutic options are limited. One potential curative approach is a second allogeneic HCT. However, there is no consensus about optimal transplant modalities, suitable patients, and entities. We performed a retrospective analysis of our institutional database to evaluate risk factors that influence survival after a second allogeneic HCT for the treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We identified 40 patients (AML, n = 29; ALL, n = 11) that received a second allogeneic HCT at our institution. At time of second HCT, 48% of patients were in complete remission (CR). Current overall survival (OS) was 14/40 patients with a median follow-up of 64 months (range 4-140) of patients alive resulting in a Kaplan-Meier estimated 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and OS of 32%, respectively. Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse at 2 years was 31 and 37%, respectively. We identified several independent risk factors influencing OS: > 6 months from first to second transplant (p = 0.02), complete remission prior to transplant (p = 0.003), and the subsequent occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (p = 0.003) were associated with a significantly improved OS. In conclusion, our data suggest that a second allogeneic HCT is a curative treatment option for relapsed acute leukemias in selected patients.
- Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, and Different Monocyte Subsets Are Effectively Mobilized in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients after G-CSF Treatment. [Journal Article]
- SCStem Cells Int 2018; 2018:1943980
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to better understanding the beneficial clinical effect of G-CSF administration in ALL patients following successful chemotherapy.
- Notch in Leukemia. [Journal Article]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2018; 1066:355-394
- Notch is commonly activated in lymphoid malignancies through ligand-independent and ligand-dependent mechanisms. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL), ligand-independent activation...
Notch is commonly activated in lymphoid malignancies through ligand-independent and ligand-dependent mechanisms. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL), ligand-independent activation predominates. Negative Regulatory Region (NRR) mutations trigger supraphysiological Notch1 activation by exposing the S2 site to proteolytic cleavage in the absence of ligand. Subsequently, cleavage at the S3 site generates the activated form of Notch, intracellular Notch (ICN). In contrast to T-ALL, in mature lymphoid neoplasms such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the S2 cleavage site is exposed through ligand-receptor interactions. Thus, agents that disrupt ligand-receptor interactions might be useful for treating these malignancies. Notch activation can be enhanced by mutations that delete the C-terminal proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S), and threonine (T) (PEST) domain. These mutations do not activate the Notch pathway per se, but rather impair degradation of ICN. In this chapter, we review the mechanisms of Notch activation and the importance of Notch for the genesis and maintenance of lymphoid malignancies. Unfortunately, targeting the Notch pathway with pan-Notch inhibitors in clinical trials has proven challenging. These clinical trials have encountered dose-limiting on-target toxicities and primary resistance. Strategies to overcome these challenges have emerged from the identification and improved understanding of direct oncogenic Notch target genes. Other strategies have arisen from new insights into the "nuclear context" that selectively directs Notch functions in lymphoid cancers. This nuclear context is created by factors that co-bind ICN at cell-type specific transcriptional regulatory elements. Disrupting the functions of these proteins or inhibiting downstream oncogenic pathways might combat cancer without the intolerable side effects of pan-Notch inhibition.
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- [II. New Treatment Option for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia]. [Journal Article]
- GTGan To Kagaku Ryoho 2018; 45(5):801-805