- A glycomics approach to discover novel renal biomarkers in birds by administration of cisplatin and diclofenac to chickens. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 14
- Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesion...
Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesions. Uric acid level in blood, which is generally used as a renal biomarker, is altered when the kidney function is damaged by over 70%. Therefore, early biomarkers for kidney injury in birds are needed. In humans, glycomics has been at the forefront of biological and medical sciences, and glycans are used as biomarkers of diseases, such as carcinoma. In this study, a glycomics approach was used to screen for renal biomarkers in chicken. First, a chicken model of kidney damage was generated by injection of diclofenac or cisplatin, which cause acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN), respectively. The nephrotoxicity levels were determined by a blood chemical test and histopathological analysis. The plasma N-glycans were then analyzed to discover renal biomarkers in birds. Levels of 14 glycans increased between pre- and post administration in kidney-damaged chickens in the diclofenac group, and some of these glycans had the same presumptive composition as those in human renal carcinoma patients. Glycan levels did not change remarkably in the cisplatin group. It is possible that there are changes in glycan expression due to AIN, but they do not reflect ATN. Although further research is needed in other species of birds, glycans are potentially useful biomarkers for AIN in avian species.
- Pantoprazole, an Inhibitor of the Organic Cation Transporter 2, Does Not Ameliorate Cisplatin-Related Ototoxicity or Nephrotoxicity in Children and Adolescents with Newly Diagnosed Osteosarcoma Treated with Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin. [Journal Article]
- OOncologist 2018 Feb 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Using a randomized crossover design and continuous variables such as change in hearing threshold and biomarkers of acute renal injury as short-term endpoints, it was determined that pantoprazole, an organic cation transporter 2 inhibitor, did not ameliorate cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity.Cystatin C is a robust method to estimate glomerular filtration rate in patients with cancer. Using a patient-reported outcome survey, all patients identified tinnitus and subjective hearing loss occurring "at least rarely" after cycle 1, prior to objective high-frequency hearing loss measured by audiograms.New therapies that improve outcome with less acute and long-term toxicity are needed.Pantoprazole did not ameliorate cisplatin ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity. The decrease in GFRcysCand increase in N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine demonstrate that these biomarkers can quantify cisplatin glomerular and proximal tubular toxicity. OCT2 inhibition by pantoprazole did not appear to alter antitumor response or survival.
- A Case of Quetiapine-related Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Transient Continuous Hemodiafiltration. [Journal Article]
- IMIntern Med 2018 Feb 09
- A 73-year-old man, with congestive heart failure due to combined valvar disease, underwent curative surgery. Although the surgery was successful, his clinical course was eventful because of pulmonary...
A 73-year-old man, with congestive heart failure due to combined valvar disease, underwent curative surgery. Although the surgery was successful, his clinical course was eventful because of pulmonary complications, and he began to deteriorate mentally. Quetiapine was prescribed, which appeared to effectively settle his mental status. Following the administration of quetiapine, however, he developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required continuous hemodiafiltration. Subsequent to discontinuation of quetiapine, his renal function gradually improved. Atypical antipsychotic drugs, including quetiapine, are frequently used to treat delirium in elderly patients in the intensive-care setting. This case highlights a potential risk of quetiapine-related AKI.
- Acute tubular necrosis following transurethral resection of the Prostate using Glycine as irrigating fluid. [Journal Article]
- TMTunis Med 2017; 95(2):139-141
- Transurethral resection of the prostate is currently the gold standard for the surgical treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia. This surgery may lead transurethral resection of the prostate (T...
Transurethral resection of the prostate is currently the gold standard for the surgical treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia. This surgery may lead transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) syndrome and in some cases, acute tubular necrosis can develop. We report a patient who developed hyponatremia, hemolysis and oliguric acute renal failure as a major complication following TURP using glycine as irrigating fluid.A 64-year-old man was admitted for a prostate resection procedure. Physical examination revealed a healthy elderly man. Preoperative laboratory data showed serum sodium 140 mEq/L, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 0.6 g/L, creatinine 0.7 mg/dL and hemoglobin 12.9 g/dL. Few hours after, the patient becomes incoherent and developed oliguria, nausea and vomiting. The laboratory data revealed rapidly elevating BUN and creatinine levels (BUN 2.4 g/L; creatinine 6.1 mg/dL), the serum sodium concentration decreased by 14 meq/L. A decreased hemoglobin level (7.4 g/dL) with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (665 U/L) was observed. Renal ultrasonography was normal. The diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis complicating TURP syndrome was retained. The hyponatremia was slowly corrected to 132 mmol/L by diuresis and fluid restriction. The renal function recovered after four hemodialysis sessions. Using glycine as an irrigant for TURP may cause hyponatremia, hemolysis and also acute renal failure, especially in patients with longer resection time. It is necessary to carry out every effort to shorten resection time and avoid extravasation during surgery.
- Renal scintigraphy for post-transplant monitoring after kidney transplantation. [Review]
- TRTransplant Rev (Orlando) 2017 Dec 29
- CONCLUSIONS: Several studies have described the use of RS for the diagnosis of acute rejection, however, differentiating between rejection and acute tubular necrosis remains difficult. For the diagnosis of vascular complications, RS has been described as an alternative for invasive procedures. For urologic complications, studies support the use of RS in combination with routine ultrasonography (US) surveillance. For the diagnosis of postoperative fluid collections, RS provides information to differentiate lymphoceles and urinomas. Altogether, RS should be considered in case of non-acute complications, and if US provides insufficient results.
- A novel approach to off-clamp partial nephrectomy demonstrates significant improvements in renal injury in an experimental porcine model. [Journal Article]
- CUCan Urol Assoc J 2017; 11(10):E390-E395
- CONCLUSIONS: IRI associated with standard PN has a deleterious impact on acute renal function, markers of tissue injury, and histological parameters, compared to off-clamp PN using the ALTRUS device. We identified several intraoperative and postoperative markers that may be used as predictors for functional and histological injury following PN.
- RGMb protects against acute kidney injury by inhibiting tubular cell necroptosis via an MLKL-dependent mechanism. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Feb 13; 115(7):E1475-E1484
- Tubular cell necrosis is a key histological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Necroptosis is a type of programed necrosis, which is executed by mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) upo...
Tubular cell necrosis is a key histological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Necroptosis is a type of programed necrosis, which is executed by mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) upon its binding to the plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that necroptosis plays a critical role in the development of AKI. However, it is unclear whether renal tubular cells undergo necroptosis in vivo and how the necroptotic pathway is regulated during AKI. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM)-b is a member of the RGM family. Our previous study demonstrated that RGMb is highly expressed in kidney tubular epithelial cells, but its biological role in the kidney has not been well characterized. In the present study, we found that RGMb reduced membrane-associated MLKL levels and inhibited necroptosis in cultured cells. During ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) or oxalate nephropathy, MLKL was induced to express on the apical membrane of proximal tubular (PT) cells. Specific knockout of Rgmb in tubular cells (Rgmb cKO) increased MLKL expression at the apical membrane of PT cells and induced more tubular cell death and more severe renal dysfunction compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with the necroptosis inhibitor Necrostatin-1 or GSK'963 reduced MLKL expression on the apical membrane of PT cells and ameliorated renal function impairment after IRI in both wild-type and Rgmb cKO mice. Taken together, our results suggest that proximal tubular cell necroptosis plays an important role in AKI, and that RGMb protects against AKI by inhibiting MLKL membrane association and necroptosis in proximal tubular cells.
- Immunological consequences of kidney cell death. [Review]
- CDCell Death Dis 2018 Jan 25; 9(2):114
- Death of renal cells is central to the pathophysiology of acute tubular necrosis, autoimmunity, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney disease, urosepsis, delayed graft function and transplant...
Death of renal cells is central to the pathophysiology of acute tubular necrosis, autoimmunity, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney disease, urosepsis, delayed graft function and transplant rejection. By means of regulated necrosis, immunogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and highly reactive organelles such as lysosomes, peroxisomes and mitochondria are released from the dying cells, thereby causing an overwhelming immunologic response. The rupture of the plasma membrane exhibits the "point of no return" for the immunogenicity of regulated cell death, explaining why apoptosis, a highly organized cell death subroutine with long-lasting plasma membrane integrity, elicits hardly any immune response. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent necrotic type cell death, results in the release of DAMPs and large amounts of lipid peroxides. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines are actively released from cells that die by necroptosis, limiting the DAMP-induced immune response to a surrounding microenvironment, whereas at the same time, inflammasome-associated caspases drive maturation of intracellularly expressed interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In a distinct setting, additionally interleukin-18 (IL-18) is expressed during pyroptosis, initiated by gasdermin-mediated plasma membrane rupture. As all of these pathways are druggable, we provide an overview of regulated necrosis in kidney diseases with a focus on immunogenicity and potential therapeutic interventions.
- Biomarkers for acute kidney injury in decompensated cirrhosis: A Prospective Study. [Journal Article]
- NNephrology (Carlton) 2018 Jan 25
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, early measurement of renal biomarkers provides valuable information on AKI etiology. It could also improve AKI diagnosis and prognosis.
New Search Next
- Tamm-Horsfall Protein is a Potent Immunomodulatory Molecule and a Disease Biomarker in the Urinary System. [Review]
- MMolecules 2018 Jan 22; 23(1)
- Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), or uromodulin (UMOD), is an 80-90-kDa phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein produced exclusively by the renal tubular cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop o...
Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), or uromodulin (UMOD), is an 80-90-kDa phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein produced exclusively by the renal tubular cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Physiologically, THP is implicated in renal countercurrent gradient formation, sodium homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, and a defense molecule against infections in the urinary system. Investigations have also revealed that THP is an effective binding ligand for serum albumin, immunoglobulin G light chains, complement components C1 and C1q, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ through its carbohydrate side chains for maintaining circulatory and renal immune homeostasis. Thus, THP can be regarded as part of the innate immune system.UMODmutations play crucial roles in congenital urolithiasis, hereditary hyperuricemia/gout, and medullary cystic kidney diseases. Recent investigations have focused on the immunomodulatory effects of THP on immune cells and on THP as a disease biomarker of acute and chronic kidney diseases. Our studies have suggested that normal urinary THP, through its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, binds to the surface-expressed EGF-like receptors, cathepsin G, or lactoferrin to enhance polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis, proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocyte proliferation by activating theRhofamily and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, our data support both an intact protein core structure and carbohydrate side chains are important for the different protein-binding capacities of THP. Prospectively, parts of the whole THP molecule may be used for anti-TNF-α therapy in inflammatory diseases, autoantibody-depleting therapy in autoimmune disorders, and immune intensification in immunocompromised hosts.