- A Single-Dose, Two-Way Crossover, Open-Label Bioequivalence Study of an Amphetamine Extended-Release Oral Suspension in Healthy Adults. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Atten Disord 2017 Nov 01; :1087054717743329
- CONCLUSIONS: AMP XR-OS is bioequivalent to Adderall XR in healthy adult participants.
- Discordant reporting of nonmedical amphetamine use among Adderall-using high school seniors in the US. [Journal Article]
- DADrug Alcohol Depend 2017 Dec 01; 181:208-212
- CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of nonmedical amphetamine use may be underreported on some surveys, particularly among specific subpopulations. Future surveys must ensure accurate and consistent responses.
- Mitigating risks of students use of study drugs through understanding motivations for use and applying harm reduction theory: a literature review. [Review]
- HRHarm Reduct J 2017 Oct 06; 14(1):68
- As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumpt...
As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumption, and ambiguity in literature towards best practices to address this population, we present a literature review that seeks effective solutions educational institutions can apply to improve outcomes for students who use drugs. Motivations for use, effects of the substances, an analysis of efforts to control use from educational institutions, and suggestions on promoting most effective outcomes based on harm reduction, are described. Theory, quantitative, and qualitative works from systematic reviews, cohort studies, and epidemiological assessments are examined on the "study drugs" methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and amphetamine, also known as Adderall, Ritalin, Focalin, and Concerta. There is a focus on postsecondary students ages 18-25 in North America. Results show important risk factors for drug use including low perceived self-efficacy or enjoyment in courses, poor accommodation of special needs, reliance on external validation, having a low GPA, and experiencing a mental health issue. There is much misconception on the health and academic effects of these drugs in literature, among students, and on online knowledge sources. We suggest these drugs do not improve GPA and learning, while they might temporarily increase memory, but with detrimental negative health effects. Campaigns that address underlying factors of use can be most successful in mitigating harms.
- Towards a Moral Ecology of Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in British Universities. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroethics 2017; 10(3):389-403
- Few empirical studies in the UK have examined the complex social patterns and values behind quantitative estimates of the prevalence of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE). We conducted a qua...
Few empirical studies in the UK have examined the complex social patterns and values behind quantitative estimates of the prevalence of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE). We conducted a qualitative investigation of the social dynamics and moral attitudes that shape PCE practices among university students in two major metropolitan areas in the UK. Our thematic analysis of eight focus groups (n = 66) suggests a moral ecology that operates within the social infrastructure of the university. We find that PCE resilience among UK university students is mediated by normative and cultural judgments disfavoring competitiveness and prescription drug taking. PCE risk can be augmented by social factors such as soft peer pressure and normalization of enhancement within social and institutional networks. We suggest that moral ecological dynamics should be viewed as key mechanisms of PCE risk and resilience in universities. Effective PCE governance within universities should therefore attend to developing further understanding of the moral ecologies of PCE.
- Mixed-amphetamine salts expectancies among college students: Is stimulant induced cognitive enhancement a placebo effect? [Journal Article]
- DADrug Alcohol Depend 2017 Sep 01; 178:302-309
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that although non-medical use of stimulants does not enhance cognition, expectancies prominently influence cognitive performance. Participants who believed they received active medication both subjectively rated themselves as performing better and objectively performed better on a minority of subtests, independent of medication state.
- Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome after kratom ingestion. [Journal Article]
- PProc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2017; 30(3):355-357
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been associated with hypertension, preeclampsia, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. We report a young m...
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been associated with hypertension, preeclampsia, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. We report a young man who suddenly developed severe headache, disorientation, and aphasia following ingestion of kratom and Adderall. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of his head revealed foci of vasogenic edema in the posterior occipital lobes, frontal lobes, and brainstem. In addition, he had a small area of hemorrhage in the left posterior occipital lobe. Lumbar puncture revealed an increased number of red blood cells but no other abnormalities. His initial blood pressure was elevated but returned to normal during hospitalization. This case suggests that kratom can cause posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and needs to be considered when patients present to emergency centers with headaches, confusion, and visual disturbances.
- Substance Use Among Transgender Students in California Public Middle and High Schools. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sch Health 2017; 87(5):303-309
- CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings indicate a need for community- and school-based interventions that reduce substance use among transgender youth.
- Perceptions of Risks and Benefits Among Nonprescription Stimulant Consumers, Diverters, and Non-Users. [Journal Article]
- SUSubst Use Misuse 2017 Aug 24; 52(10):1256-1265
- Few studies have examined perceptions of legal and health risks along with the perceived benefits of nonprescription stimulant (NPS) use in college students (e.g., using stimulants such as Ritalin, V...
Few studies have examined perceptions of legal and health risks along with the perceived benefits of nonprescription stimulant (NPS) use in college students (e.g., using stimulants such as Ritalin, Vvyanse, Concerta, or Adderall without a prescription).
- An 8-year-old Biological Female Who Identifies Herself as a Boy: Perspectives in Primary Care and from a Parent. [Case Reports]
- JDJ Dev Behav Pediatr 2017 Feb/Mar; 38 Suppl 1:S9-S11
- An 8-year 8-month-old biological female who self-identifies as a boy, Ricardo is brought by his mother for a well-child check to his new pediatrician. Ricardo and his mother report that he is doing w...
An 8-year 8-month-old biological female who self-identifies as a boy, Ricardo is brought by his mother for a well-child check to his new pediatrician. Ricardo and his mother report that he is doing well, but have concerns about the upcoming changes associated with puberty. Ricardo states that he is particularly afraid of developing breasts. His mother asks about obtaining a referral to a specialist who can provide "hormone therapy" to delay puberty.Ricardo was adopted from Costa Rica at the age of 2 as a healthy girl named "Angela." From the age of 3, he displayed clear preference for male gender-associated clothes, toys, and games. At age 5, his mother sought care for hyperactivity and sleep problems. He was diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep onset disorder at age 6, and his symptoms have been well controlled with Adderall and melatonin.Ricardo lives with his parents who are accepting and supportive of his gender preference. He sees a therapist who has experience with gender dysphoria. For the past years, he has attended school as male, with the confidential support of administrators at his elementary school.
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- To Study, to Party, or Both? Assessing Risk Factors for Non-Prescribed Stimulant Use among Middle and High School Students. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychoactive Drugs 2017 Jan-Mar; 49(1):22-30
- This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or ...
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample. Rather, we find that the age of onset and current use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are most predictive of NPSU, which are substances generally associated with social and recreational consumption settings. These findings have potential implications for practitioners concerned with mitigating the harms of general prescription drug misuse, as intervention efforts informed by research conducted among college students may not readily apply to younger populations. Drawing from central tenets of developmental and life course criminology, we call for continued inquiry into the broader socialization and developmental processes that influence NPSU and other prescription drug use patterns prior to early adulthood.