- Fisher discriminant analysis for classification of autism spectrum disorders based on folate-related metabolism markers. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr Biochem 2018 Oct 13; 64:25-31
- Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an increasing prevalence but lack reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present study investigated 13 serological metabol...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an increasing prevalence but lack reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present study investigated 13 serological metabolites and 2 genetic variants related to folate metabolism in a total of 89 ASD cases and 89 matched controls. Fisher discriminant analysis was used to establish the classification model to recognize ASD cases and controls. Ten metabolites were significantly different between the groups, of which six metabolites were used as predictors to determine the discriminant prediction model: vitamin B12, 5-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, methonine, the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine, methionine synthase and transcobalamin II. The model had statistical significance (lambda=0.520, χ2=113.103, df=6, P<.001) and correctly identified 84.3% of ASD and normal cohorts. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.913, with a sensitivity of 86.5% and a specificity of 85.4%. Overall, the results indicated that folate-related metabolism contributed to predisposition of ASD and the combined detection of folate-related metabolism biomarkers could be effective in distinguishing ASD from healthy controls, and provide new insights for the early diagnosis of ASD in the future.
- Parsing Redox Potentials of the Five Ferredoxins found within Thermotoga maritima. [Journal Article]
- PSProtein Sci 2018 Nov 12
- Most organisms contain multiple soluble protein-based redox carriers such as members of the ferredoxin (Fd) family, that contain one or more iron-sulfur clusters. The potential redundancy of Fd prote...
Most organisms contain multiple soluble protein-based redox carriers such as members of the ferredoxin (Fd) family, that contain one or more iron-sulfur clusters. The potential redundancy of Fd proteins is poorly understood, particularly in connection to the ability of Fd proteins to deliver reducing equivalents to members of the "radical SAM", or S-adenosylmethionine radical enzyme (ARE) superfamily, where the activity of all known AREs requires that an essential iron-sulfur cluster bound by the enzyme be reduced to the catalytically relevant [Fe4 S4 ]1+ oxidation state. As it is still unclear whether a single Fd in a given organism is specific to individual redox partners, we have examined the five Fd proteins found within Thermotoga maritima via direct electrochemistry, to compare them in a side-by-side fashion for the first time. While a single [Fe4 S4 ]-cluster bearing TM0927 has a potential of -420 mV, the other four 2x[Fe4 S4 ]-bearing Fds (TM1175, TM1289, TM1533, TM1815) have potentials that vary significantly, including cases where the two clusters of the same Fd are essentially coincident (e.g. TM1175) and those where the potentials are well separate (TM1815). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Silicon enhances the salt tolerance of cucumber through increasing polyamine accumulation and decreasing oxidative damage. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 06; 169:8-17
- Silicon can increase salt tolerance, but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of silicon on polyamine metabolism and the role of polyamine accumulation in s...
Silicon can increase salt tolerance, but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of silicon on polyamine metabolism and the role of polyamine accumulation in silicon-mediated salt tolerance in cucumber. Seedlings of cucumber 'JinYou 1' were subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl) in the presence or absence of added 0.3 mM silicon. Plant growth, polyamine metabolism and effects of exogenous polyamines and polyamine synthesis inhibitor dicyclohexylammonium sulphate on oxidative damage were investigated. The results showed that salt stress inhibited plant growth and decreased leaf chlorophyll levels and the maximum quantum yield of PSII, and added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Salt stress increased polyamine accumulation in the leaves and roots. Compared with salt stress alone, overall, silicon addition decreased free putrescine concentrations, but increased spermidine and spermine concentrations in both leaves and roots under salt stress. Silicon application resulted in increased polyamine levels under salt stress by promoting the activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase while inhibiting the activity of diamine oxidase. Exogenous application of spermidine and spermine alleviated salt-stress-induced oxidative damage, whereas polyamine synthesis inhibitor eliminated the silicon-mediated decrease in oxidative damage. The results suggest that silicon-enhanced polyamine accumulation in cucumber under salt stress may play a role in decreasing oxidative damage and therefore increase the salt tolerance.
- Analysis of glucose-derived amino acids involved in one-carbon and cancer metabolism by stable-isotope tracing gas chromatography mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- ABAnal Biochem 2018 Oct 26; 566:1-9
- A major hallmark of cancer is a perturbed metabolism resulting in high demand for various metabolites, glucose being the most well studied. While glucose can be converted into pyruvate for ATP produc...
A major hallmark of cancer is a perturbed metabolism resulting in high demand for various metabolites, glucose being the most well studied. While glucose can be converted into pyruvate for ATP production, the serine synthesis pathway (SSP) can divert glucose to generate serine, glycine, and methionine. In the process, the carbon unit from serine is incorporated into the one-carbon pool which makes methionine and maintains S-adenosylmethionine levels, which are needed to maintain the epigenetic landscape and ultimately controlling what genes are available for transcription. Alternatively, the carbon unit can be used for purine and thymidylate synthesis. We present here an approach to follow the flux through this pathway in cultured human cells using stable isotope enriched glucose and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of serine, glycine, and methionine. We demonstrate that in three different cell lines this pathway contributes only 1-2% of total intracellular methionine. This suggests under high extracellular methionine conditions, the predominance of carbon units from this pathway are used to synthesize nucleic acids.
- Mild methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency alters inflammatory and lipid pathways in liver. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Nutr Food Res 2018 Nov 08; :e1801001
- CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with the MTHFR variant may be at increased risk for liver disease and related complications, particularly when consuming high-fat diets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Epigenetical Targeting of the FOXP3 Gene by S-Adenosylmethionine Diminishes the Suppressive Capacity of Regulatory T Cells Ex Vivo and Alters the Expression Profiles. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunother 2018 Nov 06
- Regulatory T cells (Treg cells), a subgroup of CD4 lymphocytes, play a crucial role in serving as an immune suppressor and in maintaining peripheral tolerance. As the accumulation of Treg cells in th...
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells), a subgroup of CD4 lymphocytes, play a crucial role in serving as an immune suppressor and in maintaining peripheral tolerance. As the accumulation of Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment is significantly associated with a decreased survival time of patients, they are considered as an important therapeutic target in the immunotherapy of human cancers. These cells are either derived from the thymus, which are called (CD4CD25CD127) natural Treg cells (nTreg cells), or they are generated from CD4CD25 naive T cells by transforming growth factor-beta 1 and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the periphery, which are called induced Treg cells (iTreg cells). Although iTreg cells are unstable, nTreg cells stably express forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) protein. Moreover, nTreg cells can be classified as memory (CD45RA) and naive (CD45RA) Treg cells, and this classification is based on the expression of CD45RA. FOXP3, which is a master regulator transcription factor, is essential for the functions of Treg cells, and it is mainly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. The cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway is also reported to contribute to the regulatory functions of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells. As a new approach, we investigated whether S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a substrate of DNA methyltransferase, attenuates the immune-suppressive capacity of the naive subtype of nTreg cells (CD4CD25CD127CD45RA). Moreover, we examined the effects of PGE2/COX2 pathway blockers on the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. We found that SAM diminished the suppression competency of Treg cells by decreasing the FOXP3 mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. SAM increased the DNA methylation of FOXP3 at the first intron site. In addition, SAM decreased the mRNA and protein levels of the IL-10 cytokine, which has suppressive roles in the immune system. Moreover, mRNA levels of interferon gamma (IFNG) were found to be increased. COX2 inhibition and blockage of PGE2 receptors also reduced the protein and mRNA levels of IL-10, but they did not exhibit any significant effect on Treg cells' suppression in the coculture system. Our results show that SAM might be considered and investigated as a promising agent for immunotherapy in the future.
- Charting an Unexplored Streptococcal Biosynthetic Landscape Reveals a Unique Peptide Cyclization Motif. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Chem Soc 2018 Nov 06
- Peptide natural products are often used as signals or antibiotics and contain unusual structural modifications, thus providing opportunities for expanding our understanding of Nature's therapeutic an...
Peptide natural products are often used as signals or antibiotics and contain unusual structural modifications, thus providing opportunities for expanding our understanding of Nature's therapeutic and biosynthetic repertoires. Herein, we have investigated the under-explored biosynthetic potential of Streptococci, prevalent bacteria in mammalian microbiomes that include mutualistic, commensal, and pathogenic members. Using a new bioinformatic search strategy, in which we linked the versatile radical S-adenosylmethionine (RaS) enzyme superfamily to an emerging class of natural products in the context of quorum sensing control, we identified numerous, uncharted biosynthetic loci. Focusing on one such locus, we identified an unprecedented post-translational modification, consisting of a tetrahydro[5,6]benzindole cyclization motif in which four unactivated positions are linked by two C-C bonds in a regio- and stereo-specific manner by a single RaS enzyme. Our results expand the scope of reactions that microbes have at their disposal in concocting complex ribosomal peptides.
- Ferredoxins as Interchangeable Redox Components in Support of MiaB, a Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Methylthiotransferase. [Journal Article]
- PSProtein Sci 2018 Nov 05
- MiaB is a member of the methylthiotransferase subclass of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, catalyzing the methylthiolation of C2 of adenosines bearing an N6 -isopentenyl...
MiaB is a member of the methylthiotransferase subclass of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, catalyzing the methylthiolation of C2 of adenosines bearing an N6 -isopentenyl (i6 A) group found at position 37 in several tRNAs to afford 2-methylthio-N6 -(isopentenyl)adenosine (ms2 i6 A). MiaB uses a reduced [4Fe-4S]+ cluster to catalyze a reductive cleavage of SAM to generate a 5'-deoxyadenosyl 5'-radical (5'-dA•)-a required intermediate in its reaction-as well as an additional [4Fe-4S]2+ auxiliary cluster. In Escherichia coli and many other organisms, re-reduction of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster to the [4Fe-4S]+ state is accomplished by the flavodoxin reducing system. Most mechanistic studies of MiaBs have been carried out on the enzyme from Thermotoga maritima (Tm), which lacks the flavodoxin reducing system, and which is not activated by E. coli flavodoxin. However, the genome of this organism encodes five ferredoxins (TM0927, TM1175, TM1289, TM1533 and TM1815), each of which might donate the requisite electron to MiaB and perhaps to other radical SAM enzymes. The genes encoding each of these ferredoxins were cloned, and the associated proteins were isolated and shown to support turnover by Tm MiaB. In addition, TM1639, the ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase subunit α (NfnA) from Tm was overproduced and isolated and shown to provide electrons to the Tm ferredoxins during Tm MiaB turnover. The resulting reactions demonstrate improved coupling between formation of the 5'-dA• and ms2 i6 A production, indicating that only one hydrogen atom abstraction is required for the reaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Neonatal methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency with abnormal signal intensity in the central tegmental tract. [Journal Article]
- BDBrain Dev 2018 Oct 30
- Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MAT I/III) deficiency is characterized by persistent hypermethioninemia. The clinical manifestations in cases with MAT I/III deficiency vary from a complete lack...
Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MAT I/III) deficiency is characterized by persistent hypermethioninemia. The clinical manifestations in cases with MAT I/III deficiency vary from a complete lack of symptoms to neurological problems associated with brain demyelination. We experienced a neonatal case with MAT I/III deficiency, in which severe hypermethioninemia was detected during the newborn screening test. The patient gradually showed hyperreflexia, foot clonus, and irritability from the age of 1 month onwards, and his brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed abnormal signal intensity in the bilateral central tegmental tracts. His neurological manifestations improved after the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) treatment, deteriorated after discontinuation of SAMe, and re-improved owing to re-administration of SAMe. He achieved normal neurodevelopment through SAMe and methionine restriction therapy. Lack of SAMe as well as severe hypermethioninemia were thought to contribute towards the clinical psychophysical state. Moreover, impaired MAT I/III activity contributed to the development of neurological disorder from the early neonatal period.
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- Study of the accumulation and distribution of arsenic species and association with arsenic toxicity in rats after 30 days of oral realgar administration. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Oct 29
- CONCLUSIONS: After a single oral administration, the distribution and elimination of realgar in blood were slow, whereas it was rapidly absorbed and distributed in the liver, kidney and brain. Therefore, we recommend that realgar should not frequently used on a daily basis. Because the administration of a large dose of realgar did not display significant toxicity, we believe that the continuous administration of realgar for 30 days is safe in rats. In addition, hematology, biochemistry, and electrolyte levels and ECG should be monitored during realgar treatment. The accumulation and distribution of As species after 30 days of oral administration of realgar revealed that DMA and MMA are the main end products of As metabolism. Realgar-induced hepatotoxicity may be related to the accumulation of DMA and As(III). In addition, we speculate that nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity may occur when DMA accumulates to a certain high level.