- Beyond the PD-L1 horizon: in search for a good biomarker to predict success of immunotherapy in gastric and esophageal adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- CLCancer Lett 2018 Nov 09
- Gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are aggressive cancers with a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed, especially for patients refractory to conventional...
Gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are aggressive cancers with a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed, especially for patients refractory to conventional treatment. Cancer immunotherapy (CIT), is a promising new treatment option and is effective in a proportion of patients with gastroesophageal malignancies. Biomarkers for selecting patients likely to benefit from CIT in gastroesophageal malignancies remain unproven. Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which is a validated biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is often also used to select patients for CIT in the context of gastroesophageal cancer, although this marker has not been validated for this purpose. We question the use of PD-L1 as a biomarker in gastroesophageal cancers, as there are fundamental differences in PD-L1 expression between NSCLC and gastroesophageal cancers. This review discusses the value of PD-L1 in selecting patients for CIT in esophageal and gastric cancer. Potential alternatives, especially microsatellite instability and Epstein-Barr virus positivity, are discussed.
- A case study of gastric type adenocarcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix. [Letter]
- CCytopathology 2018 Nov 12
- Gastric type Adenocarcinoma (GAS) is a rare subtype of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma, which unlike usual endocervical-type adenocarcinoma (UEA), is not related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). ...
Gastric type Adenocarcinoma (GAS) is a rare subtype of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma, which unlike usual endocervical-type adenocarcinoma (UEA), is not related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). GAS is distinguished by aggressive behavior, higher stage presentation, unusual patterns of metastasis and poor survival outcome as compared to UEA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Atypical Presentation of Gastric Cancer Approached Via Retrograde Single Balloon Enteroscopy. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Sep 04; 10(9):e3249
- The paradigm for the diagnosis and management of gastric cancer is changing with advanced diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Prior gastric surgery (20 years or more) is one of the risk factors...
The paradigm for the diagnosis and management of gastric cancer is changing with advanced diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Prior gastric surgery (20 years or more) is one of the risk factors for gastric cancer. Increased intragastric carcinogen formation is thought to contribute toward gastric cancer development in the remaining portion of the stomach. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough clinical and pathologic workup and highlights the advanced technique of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) and its role in managing patient's health.
- Detection of gastric cancer and its histological type based on iodine concentration in spectral CT. [Journal Article]
- CICancer Imaging 2018 Nov 09; 18(1):42
- CONCLUSIONS: IC values exhibited great potential in the preoperative and non-invasive diagnosis of gastric cancer and its histological types. In particular, nICPP is more effective for the identification of gastric cancer, whereas nICAP is more effective in discriminating poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma.
- TRIM15 Exerts Anti-Tumor Effects Through Suppressing Cancer Cell Invasion in Gastric Adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2018 Nov 09; 24:8033-8041
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that low expression of TRIM15 in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues was significantly associated with poorer prognosis of patients, indicating the potential of TRIM15 as a novel clinical biomarker and therapeutic target.
- Modulation of mutant KrasG12D-driven lung tumorigenesis in vivo by gain or loss of PCDH7 function. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cancer Res 2018 Nov 08
- PROTOCADHERIN 7 (PCDH7), a transmembrane receptor and member of the Cadherin superfamily, is frequently overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and is associated with poor clinical outcome. While PCDH7 ...
PROTOCADHERIN 7 (PCDH7), a transmembrane receptor and member of the Cadherin superfamily, is frequently overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and is associated with poor clinical outcome. While PCDH7 was recently shown to promote transformation and facilitate brain metastasis in lung and breast cancers, decreased PCDH7 expression has also been documented in colorectal, gastric, and invasive bladder cancers. These data suggest context-dependent functions for PCDH7 in distinct tumor types. Given that PCDH7 is a potentially targetable molecule on the surface of cancer cells, further investigation of its role in tumorigenesis in vivo is needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of its inhibition. Here we report the analysis of novel PCDH7 gain- and loss-of-function mouse models and provide compelling evidence that this cell-surface protein acts as a potent lung cancer driver. Employing a Cre-inducible transgenic allele, we demonstrated that enforced PCDH7 expression significantly accelerates KrasG12D -driven lung tumorigenesis and potentiates MAPK pathway activation. Furthermore, we performed in vivo somatic genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in KrasLSL-G12D; Tp53fl/fl (KP) mice to assess the consequences of PCDH7 loss of function. Inactivation of PCDH7 in KP mice significantly reduced lung tumor development, prolonged survival, and diminished phospho-activation of ERK1/2. Together, these findings establish a critical oncogenic function for PCDH7 in vivo and highlight the therapeutic potential of PCDH7 inhibition for lung cancer. Moreover, given recent reports of elevated or reduced PCDH7 in distinct tumor types, the new inducible transgenic model described here provides a robust experimental system for broadly elucidating the effects of PCDH7 overexpression in vivo. Implications: In this study, we establish a critical oncogenic function for PCDH7 in vivo using novel mouse models and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, and we validate the therapeutic potential of PCDH7 inhibition for lung cancer.
- In-vivo & in-vitro toxicity test of molecularly engineered PCMS: A potential drug for wireless remote controlled treatment. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Rep 2018; 5:1044-1052
- PC, PCM, PCS, and PCMS are our designed & synthesized ∼8 nm PAMAM dendrimer (P) -based organic supramolecular systems, for example, PCMS has 32 molecular motors (M), 4 pH sensors (S) and 2 multi-leve...
PC, PCM, PCS, and PCMS are our designed & synthesized ∼8 nm PAMAM dendrimer (P) -based organic supramolecular systems, for example, PCMS has 32 molecular motors (M), 4 pH sensors (S) and 2 multi-level molecular electronic switches (C). We have reported earlier following a preliminary in-vitro test that the synthesized PCMS can selectively target cancer cell nucleotides if triggered wirelessly by an electromagnetic pulse. Here to further verify its drug potential, we have studied the preliminary efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of P derivatives (PC, PCM, PCMS) in-vivo and in-vitro. We used ethanol-induced gastric inflammation model and cultured human gastric epithelial cells AGS to examine to the toxicity of PAMAM dendrimers cell permeability and toxicity, in (a) the cultured human gastric epithelium cells (AGS), and in (b) the gastric ulcer mice model. Here we report that the toxicity of PAMAM dendrimer (>G3.5) P can be reduced by adding C, M and S. Gastric ulcer is the primary stage of the manifestation of acute inflammation, even gastric epithelial cancer. Ethanol causes ulceration (ulcer index 30), thus upregulates both pro and active MMP-9. A 50 μl PCMS dose prior to ethanol administration reduces ulceration by ∼80% and downregulates MMP-9 and prevents oxidative damages of gastric tissue by ECM remodeling. Alcohol's inflammation of mouse stomach causes up-regulation of both pro and active MMP-9, resulting in oxidative damages of gastric tissue by ECM remodeling. PCMS in particular dose window reverses & alters ECM remodeling, thus, neutralizing alcohol-induced inflammation & generation of ROS.
- Synchronous Colonic Adenocarcinoma and Metastatic Lobular Carcinoma in a Colectomy Specimen: A Rare Finding. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Aug 27; 10(8):e3207
- Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second-most-common subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Its metastatic pattern is different compared to invasive carcinoma-no special type. It metastasizes more oft...
Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second-most-common subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Its metastatic pattern is different compared to invasive carcinoma-no special type. It metastasizes more often to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, pleura, and ovaries. The extrahepatic gastrointestinal tract metastases occur mostly in the stomach and small intestine and less often in the colon and rectum. We present a case description of an 87-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with hematochezia, abdominal discomfort, fatigue, and weight loss. A colonoscopy revealed an exophytic tumor of the sigmoid colon. Metastatic disease was not found in imaging studies. A low anterior resection was performed. The pathologic examination revealed a collision tumor consisting of a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon and metastatic lobular carcinoma. The diagnosis was challenging due to the lack of a previous history. Also, the diffuse architectural pattern and signet ring cells found may be in primary signet ring carcinoma of the colon as well as in carcinomas from other anatomical sites. Immunohistochemistry was helpful in making the diagnosis. A review of the literature revealed that this is the fourth case of metastatic breast carcinoma coexisting with colonic adenocarcinoma.
- Gastric carcinoma with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor - A case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci (Paris) 2018; 34 Focus issue F1:15-19
- Gastric carcinoma (GC) with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is encountered very rarely in the clinic, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a case involving a 72-...
Gastric carcinoma (GC) with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is encountered very rarely in the clinic, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a case involving a 72-year-old man who was diagnosed with gastric antrum adenocarcinoma accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation and a GIST in the fundus, according to a preoperative examination and postoperative pathology. The patient then underwent a distal radical gastrectomy and GIST resection. After the operation, the patient was administered combined chemo-radiotherapy and subsequently underwent a 9-month follow-up examination. The gene mutations involved in this case were explored via high-throughput sequencing. The high-throughput gene mutation analysis indicated an exon5 mutation in the TP53 gene and copy number amplification of FGF19, CCND1, and FGFR2 in the gastric antrum adenocarcinoma. A gene sequencing analysis of the gastric fundus stromal tumor demonstrated an exon11 non-frame shift deletion mutation in the KIT gene. These findings suggested that this patient's cancer might be sensitive to AZD1775 (a TP53-targeted drug) or targeted drugs such as FGF19, CCND1 and FGFR2, and should be sensitive to imatinib.
New Search Next
- Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding: an Underestimated Risk Factor for the Development of Esophageal Cancer?-a Nationwide Survey. [Journal Article]
- OSObes Surg 2018 Nov 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Following LAGB, the incidence of esophageal cancer might be up to fivefold higher than the aged standardized overall population of Austria.