- The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health: in vitro and ex vivo models [BOOK]
- BOOKSpringer: Cham (CH)
- The endocrine response to nutrient ingestion is vital to the maintenance of energy homeostasis in the body. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is one such hormone that is released from L-cells of the di...
The endocrine response to nutrient ingestion is vital to the maintenance of energy homeostasis in the body. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is one such hormone that is released from L-cells of the distal small intestine and colon in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 acts on various systems in the body to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, delay gastric emptying and promote satiety. As such, elevating the levels of active GLP-1 in the circulation, as well as enhancing GLP-1 bioactivity, is the basis of several recent anti-diabetic medications. Gaining an understanding of how GLP-1 secretion is regulated at the cellular level requires in vitro L-cell models. NCI-H716 is a cell line derived from ascites fluid of a colorectal adenocarcinoma from a 33 year old Caucasian male. This cell line is currently the only human model available for the in vitro study of GLP-1 regulation and is the topic of the following chapter. This chapter will cover the origin, characteristics and methods for using this model. Comparisons are then made between other available in vitro GLP-1 models.
- The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health: in vitro and ex vivo models [BOOK]
- BOOKSpringer: Cham (CH)
- The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, is not only used to study the biology of human colon cancers, but it is receiving special interest in studies focused on food digestion and bioavailabil...
The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, is not only used to study the biology of human colon cancers, but it is receiving special interest in studies focused on food digestion and bioavailability due to the ability to express characteristics of mature intestinal cells. In the differentiated phenotype, they are able to form a monolayer with tight junctions between cells and a typical apical brush border. In addition, these differentiated cells express brush-border-associated hydrolases typical of the small intestine although the enzymatic activity is lower than that found in vivo. Although they represent a valuable model due to their similarities with enterocytes of the small intestine, their limitations and the relevance to the in vivo situation are also considered in this chapter. The application of this cell line to transport studies of drugs and food compounds is illustrated, especially when the effect of the mucus layer is considered or used as co-culture in combination with Caco-2 cells. They have also been frequently used to study the intestinal immune response to bacterial infection, and microorganism survival, adhesion or invasion. Finally, the use of these cells to evaluate the effect of several food compounds and mucin secretion is summarized.
- The elusive small bowel adenocarcinoma in the terminal ileum-A case report. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Case Rep 2018 Apr 27; 47:97-99
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinical presentation of small bowel adenocarcinoma is often non-specific, which leads to a delay in diagnosis. As a result, disease is often advanced by the time of diagnosis. Upper and lower endoscopy is useful in detecting tumours in the duodenum and terminal ileum. Video capsule endoscopy allows visualisation of the entire small bowel mucosa. Enteroscopy can also be used to obtain biopsies and perform therapeutic interventions. CT is able to detect abnormalities in 80% of patients, while CT and MR (magnetic resonance) enteroclysis give better visualisation of the mucosa and mural thickness. Surgical exploration may be indicated in patients with a strong clinical suspicion.In conclusion, small bowel malignancies are rare and clinicians are reminded to have a high index of suspicion for small bowel malignancies in patients who present with non-specific abdominal symptoms.
- Total robotic surgery for pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with rectal cancer anterior resection: A case report and literature review. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(19):e0540
- CONCLUSIONS: Although sporadic double malignancies are uncommon, they should be considered when evaluating cancer patients. Complex surgery performed by robotic surgery may became surgeon's preferred treatment modality.
- Laparoscopic Pelvic Exenteration for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer, Technique and Short-Term Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2018 May 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive approaches can be used safely for total pelvic exenteration in locally advanced lower rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients had fast recovery with less blood loss. In all patients R0 resection was achieved with adequate margins. Long-term oncological outcomes are still uncertain and will require further follow-up.
- Probiotic Bacteria and their Supernatants Protect Enterocyte Cell Lines from Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) Invasion. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Cell Med 2017; 6(3):183-189
- Probiotic microorganisms have attracted a growing interest for prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders. Many probiotic strains have been shown to inhibit growth and metabolic activity of...
Probiotic microorganisms have attracted a growing interest for prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders. Many probiotic strains have been shown to inhibit growth and metabolic activity of enteropathogenic bacteria as well as their adhesion and invasion to intestinal cells. In the present study, we evaluated the interference of bacteria-free supernatants (BFS) of cultures belonging to sixteen strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, with invasion of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) strain, using human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines, T84 and Caco2 cells. To assess invasion of Caco-2 and T84 cells by EIEC, and measure the number of pathogens inside the enterocytes, the gentamicin protection assay was conducted. In addition, three different invasion inhibition assays were designed; namelyco-incubation, pre-incubation and treatment with the BFS of probiotics. Data obtained and theoretical calculation showed that the most effective assay in the prevention of pathogen invasion was treatment withBFS.Besides, co-incubation assay was more valid than pre-incubation assay in invasion prevention.The obtained results suggest that probiotics may produce some metabolites that strongly prevent invasion of enteroinvasive E.coli into the small and large intestine. Also, probiotics are able to compete with or exclude pathogen invasion.
- A rare Krukenberg tumor arising from a primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. [Journal Article]
- TJTaiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57(2):319-322
- CONCLUSIONS: The primary lesion of a Krukenberg tumor is generally too small to be detected. Thus, careful radiographic and endoscopic exploration of the digestive system is necessary to detect the primary tumor. Immunohistochemical evaluation is also useful for determining the primary site of the adenocarcinoma.
- Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract carcinomas. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Apr 06; 4:CD011746
- CONCLUSIONS: In adults with advanced biliary tract carcinomas, the effects of gemcitabine or gemcitabine-based chemotherapy are uncertain on mortality and overall response compared with a range of inactive or active controls. The very low certainty of evidence is due to risk of bias, lack of information in the analyses and hence large imprecision, and possible publication bias. The confidence intervals do not rule out meaningful benefits or lack of effect of gemcitabine in all comparisons but one on mortality where gemcitabine plus cisplatin is compared with S-1 plus cisplatin. Gemcitabine-based regimens showed an increase in non-serious adverse events (particularly haematological toxicities). Further randomised clinical trials are mandatory, to further explore the best therapeutic options for adults with advanced biliary tract carcinomas.
- Eighteen Month Interval Growth of Terminal Ileal Primary Adenocarcinoma: A Consideration for Current Screening Guidelines. [Review]
- CRCase Rep Gastroenterol 2017 Sep-Dec; 11(3):780-785
- Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine comprises one of the rarest gastrointestinal malignancies. Further, the terminal ileum is very seldom implicated. This entity occurs sporadically and eva...
Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine comprises one of the rarest gastrointestinal malignancies. Further, the terminal ileum is very seldom implicated. This entity occurs sporadically and evades traditional colonoscopic evaluation in which the terminal ileum is not visualized. Herein, a case of interval development of primary terminal ileal adenocarcinoma over a 2-year period is reported as followed by direct endoscopic and colonoscopic visualization. This case demonstrates cecal involvement not found on initial evaluation without the provision of terminal ileum intubation. Relevant guidelines regarding the evaluation of the terminal ileum in routine colonoscopy are reviewed.
New Search Next
- Clinicopathological Features and Management of Appendiceal Mucoceles: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- ASAm Surg 2018 Feb 01; 84(2):273-281
- Appendiceal mucoceles (AMs) are rare mucin-containing neoplasms with malignant potential. Lack of evidence-based data exists defining clinicopathological features for management. MEDLINE search betwe...
Appendiceal mucoceles (AMs) are rare mucin-containing neoplasms with malignant potential. Lack of evidence-based data exists defining clinicopathological features for management. MEDLINE search between 1995 and 2015 was performed using search criteria "Appendix mucocele." Systematic review of patient-, pathologic-, and treatment-related characteristics was performed and data analyzed. Among 276 cases of non-perforated AMs, 163 (59%) patients were female, with variable and nonspecific presentation. Patients were treated with appendectomy (52.1%), right hemicolectomy (17.6%), partial cecectomy (17.2%), and ileocecetomy (13.1%). Pathologic evaluation revealed the following: cystadenoma/low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (54%), unspecified/benign (25%), retention cyst (14.1%), cystadenocarcinoma (4.2%), and mucosal hyperplasia (2.9%). All 11 (4.2%) patients with cystadenocarcinoma were female (P = 0.004), odds ratio for malignancy 1.07 times higher for women. Synchronous colonic malignancy was reported in three patients (27%) with cystadenocarcinoma (P = 0.007), odds ratio of 12.1. AMs have low risk for malignancy. Treatment should begin with appendectomy-only and subsequently guided by pathologic diagnosis.