- Metabolic profiling study on potential toxicity in male mice treated with Dechlorane 602 using UHPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Nov 27; 246:141-147
- Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), a chlorinated flame retardant, has been widely detected in different environmental matrices and biota. However, toxicity data for Dec 602 seldom have been reported. A metabo...
Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), a chlorinated flame retardant, has been widely detected in different environmental matrices and biota. However, toxicity data for Dec 602 seldom have been reported. A metabolomics study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to study the urine and sera metabolic profiles of mice administered with Dec 602 (0, 0.001, 0.1, and 10 mg/kg body weight per day) for 7 days. A significant difference in metabolic profiling was observed between the Dec 602 treated group and the control group by multivariate analysis, which directly reflected the metabolic perturbations caused by Dec 602. The metabolomics analyses of urine from Dec 602-exposed animals exhibited an increase in the levels of thymidine and tryptophan as well as a decrease in the levels of tyrosine, 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid, 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and cuminaldehyde. The metabolomics analyses of sera showed a decrease in the levels of kynurenic acid, daidzein, adenosine, xanthurenic acid and hypoxanthine from Dec 602-exposed animals. These findings indicated Dec 602 induced disturbance in phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, purine metabolism, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis; phenylalanine metabolism and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. Significant alterations of immune and neurotransmitter-related metabolites (tyrosine, tryptophan, kynurenic acid, and xanthurenic acid) suggest that the toxic effects of Dec 602 may contribute to its interactions with the immune and neuronal systems. This study demonstrated that the UHPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS-based metabolomic approach can obtain more specific insights into the potential toxic effects of Dec 602 at molecular level.
- Simvastatin alleviates bone resorption in apical periodontitis possibly by inhibition of mitophagy-related osteoblast apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- IEInt Endod J 2018 Dec 11
- CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that modulation of osteoblast mitophagy may help diminish bone loss associated with inflammation and has potential as an auxiliary therapy for apical periodontitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Astrocytic insulin-like growth factor-1 prevents excitotoxic downregulation of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA in calcium dynamics. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Astrocytic IGF-1 has a neuroprotective role in preventing excitotoxic downregulation of ADAR1 in mediating calcium dynamics via STAT2.
- Mechanical loading releases osteoclastogenesis-modulating factors through stimulation of the P2X7 receptor in hematopoietic progenitor cells. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 07
- Mechanical instability of bone implants stimulate osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss, leading to prosthetic loosening. It is unclear which cells at the periprosthetic interface tra...
Mechanical instability of bone implants stimulate osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss, leading to prosthetic loosening. It is unclear which cells at the periprosthetic interface transduce mechanical signals into a biochemical response, and subsequently facilitate bone loss. We hypothesized that mechanical overloading of hematopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells, which are located near to the inserted bone implants, stimulates the release of osteoclast-inducing soluble factors. Using a novel in vitro model to apply mechanical overloading, we found that hematopoietic progenitor cells released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after only 2 min of mechanical loading. The released ATP interacts with its specific receptor P2X7 to stimulate the release of unknown soluble factors that inhibit (physiological loading) or promote (supraphysiological loading) the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts derived from bone marrow cultures. Inhibition of ATP-receptor P2X7 by Brilliant Blue G completely abolished the overloading-induced stimulation of osteoclast formation. Likewise, stimulation of P2X7 receptor on hematopoietic cells by BzATP enhanced the release of osteoclastogenesis-stimulating signaling molecules to a similar extent as supraphysiological loading. Supraphysiological loading affected neither gene expression of inflammatory markers involved in aseptic implant loosening (e.g., interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and PTGES2) nor expression of the osteoclast modulators receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-Β ligand and osteoprotegerin. Our findings suggest that murine hematopoietic progenitor cells are a potential key player in local mechanical loading-induced bone implant loosening via the ATP/P2X7-axis. Our approach identifies potential therapeutic targets to prevent prosthetic loosening.
- EP2 and EP4 receptor antagonists: Impact on cytokine production and β2 -adrenergic receptor desensitization in human airway smooth muscle. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 07
- Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a key prostanoid known to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory impact in the context of chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesize that these opposing effects...
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a key prostanoid known to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory impact in the context of chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesize that these opposing effects may be the result of different prostanoid E (EP) receptor-mediated signaling pathways. In this study, we focus on two of the four EP receptors, EP2 and EP4 , as they are known to induce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Using primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we first focussed on the PGE2 -induced production of two cAMP-dependent proinflammatory mediators: interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cyclo-oxygenase 2 production. We show that PGE2 -induced IL-6 protein secretion occurs via an EP2 -mediated pathway, in a manner independent of receptor-mediated effects on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and temporal activation kinetics of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding. Moreover, stimulation of ASM with PGE2 did not establish a positive, receptor-mediated, feedback loop, as mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 receptors were not upregulated and receptor antagonists were without effect. Our studies revealed that the EP2 , but not the EP4 , receptor is responsible for β2 -adrenergic desensitization induced by PGE2 . We demonstrate that PGE2 -induced heterologous receptor desensitization responsible for tachyphylaxis to short- (salbutamol) or long- (formoterol) β2 -agonists (measured by cAMP release) can be reversed by the EP2 receptor antagonist PF-04418948. Importantly, this study highlights that inhibiting the EP2 receptor restores β2 -adrenergic receptor function in vitro and offers an attractive novel therapeutic target for treating infectious exacerbations in people suffering from chronic respiratory diseases in the future.
- Mitochondrial DNA mutation m.3243A>G is associated with altered mitochondrial function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with heteroplasmy levels and with clinical phenotypes. [Journal Article]
- DMDiabet Med 2018 Dec 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Heteroplasmy levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and mitochondrial membrane potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were closely associated with clinical manifestations and were valuable for evaluation of the clinical severity of the m.3243A>G mutation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- An experimental medicine study of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, roflumilast, on working memory-related brain activity and episodic memory in schizophrenia patients. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Results support the mechanistic validation of potential novel strategies for improving cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and suggest that PDE4 inhibition may be beneficial for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
- Resveratrol-mediated reversal of changes in purinergic signaling and immune response induced by Toxoplasma gondii infection of neural progenitor cells. [Journal Article]
- PSPurinergic Signal 2018 Dec 08
- The effects of Toxoplasma gondii during embryonic development have not been explored despite the predilection of this parasite for neurons and glial cells. Here, we investigated the activation of the...
The effects of Toxoplasma gondii during embryonic development have not been explored despite the predilection of this parasite for neurons and glial cells. Here, we investigated the activation of the purinergic system and proinflammatory responses during congenital infection by T. gondii. Moreover, neuroprotective and neuromodulatory properties of resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic natural compound, were studied in infected neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). For this study, NPCs were isolated from the telencephalon of infected mouse embryos and subjected to neurosphere culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2. ATP hydrolysis and adenosine deamination by adenosine deaminase activity were altered in conditions of T. gondii infection. P2X7 and adenosine A2A receptor expression rates were augmented in infected NPCs together with an increase of proinflammatory (INF-γ and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine gene expression. Our results confirm that RSV counteracted T. gondii-promoted effects on enzymes hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and also upregulated P2X7 and A2A receptor expression and activity, modulating INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokine production, which plays an integral role in the immune response against T. gondii.
- Adenosine plasma level in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation and normal heart during ablation procedure and/or cardioversion. [Journal Article]
- PSPurinergic Signal 2018 Dec 07
- The mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with normal heart remains unclear. While exogenous adenosine can trigger AF, nothing is known about the behavior of endogenous adenosine plasma l...
The mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with normal heart remains unclear. While exogenous adenosine can trigger AF, nothing is known about the behavior of endogenous adenosine plasma level (APL) at the onset of AF and during ablation procedure. Ninety-one patients (68 with paroxysmal AF: 40 males, 66 ± 16 years; 23 with persistent AF: 14 males, 69 ± 11 years) and 18 controls were included. Among paroxysmal patients: i) medical therapy alone was performed in 45 cases and ablation procedure in 23. AF was spontaneously resolutive in 6 cases; ii) 23 underwent ablation procedure and blood was collected simultaneously in a brachial vein and in the left atrium; 17 were spontaneously in sinus rhythm while 6 were in sinus rhythm after direct current cardioversion. Among persistent patients: i) in 17 patients, blood samples were collected in a brachial vein before and after direct current cardioversion; ii) in 6 patients, blood samples were collected simultaneously in a brachial vein and in left atrium before and after cardioversion during ablation procedure. CV-APL was higher in patients with persistent AF vs patients with paroxysmal AF (median [range]: 0.9[0.6-1.1] vs 0.7[0.4-1.1] μM; p < 0.001). In patients with paroxysmal AF, LA-APL increased during the AF episode (0.95[0.85-1.4] vs 2.7[1.5-7] μM; p = 0.03) and normalized in sinus rhythm after DCCV. In patients with persistent AF, LA-APL was higher than CV-APL (1.2[0.7-1.8] vs 0.9[0.6-1.1] μM; p < 0.001), and both normalized in sinus rhythm (CV-APL: 0.8[0.6-1.1] vs 0.75[0.4-1] μM; p = 0.03), (LA-APL: 1.95[1.3-3] vs 1[0.5-1.15] μM; p = 0.03). The occurrence of AF is associated with a strong increase of APL in the atrium. The cause of this increase needs further investigations.
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- Effect of caffeine on long-term potentiation-like effects induced by quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. [Journal Article]
- EBExp Brain Res 2018 Dec 10
- Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to affect sleep-awake cycles, the stress response, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that caffeine influences synaptic plasticity, bu...
Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to affect sleep-awake cycles, the stress response, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that caffeine influences synaptic plasticity, but the effects of caffeine on synaptic plasticity in the human brain remain unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects in the primary motor cortex of healthy humans. Twelve healthy participants (six women and six men; mean age: 44.8 ± 1.5 years) underwent quadripulse magnetic stimulation with an inter-stimulus interval of 5 ms (QPS5) to induce LTP-like effects, 2 h after administration of either a caffeine (200 mg) or placebo tablet in a double-blind crossover design. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before and after QPS5. The degree of MEP enhancement was compared between the placebo and caffeine conditions. Neither active nor resting motor thresholds were influenced by caffeine administration. Following caffeine administration, the degree of potentiation significantly decreased in "significant responders", whose average MEP ratios were greater than 1.24 in the placebo condition. The observed reduction in potentiation following caffeine administration is consistent with the A2A receptor antagonistic effect of caffeine. This is the first report of an effect of caffeine on neural synaptic plasticity in the human brain, which is consistent with the caffeine-induced plasticity reduction observed in primate studies. Because we studied only a small number of subjects, we cannot firmly conclude that caffeine reduces LTP in humans. The present results will, however, be helpful when considering further or new clinical uses of caffeine.