- Effect and mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticles on the photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Jun 14; 161:497-506
- Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2) have been used in numerous applications, which results in their release into aquatic ecosystems and impact algal populations. A possible toxic mechanism of n-T...
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2) have been used in numerous applications, which results in their release into aquatic ecosystems and impact algal populations. A possible toxic mechanism of n-TiO2 on algae is via the disruption of the photosynthetic biochemical pathways, which yet remains to be demonstrated. In this study, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was exposed to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L) of a type of anatase n-TiO2, and the physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses involved in photosynthesis were investigated. The 96 h half growth inhibition concentration (IC50) of the n-TiO2 to algae was determined to be 9.1 mg/L. A variety of cellular and sub-cellular damages were observed, especially the blurry lamellar structure of thylakoids, indicating the n-TiO2 impaired the photosynthetic function of chloroplasts. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) significantly increased while the glutathione (GSH) content decreased. This implies the increased consumption of GSH by the increased intracellular oxidative stress upon n-TiO2 was insufficient to eliminate the lipid peroxidation. The contents of photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a (Chl a) and phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in the exposed algal cells increased along with the up-regulation of genes encoding Chl a and photosystem II (PS II), which could be explained by a compensatory effect to overcome the toxicity induced by the n-TiO2. On the other hand, the photosynthetic activity was significantly inhibited, indicating the impairment on the photosynthesis via damaging the reaction center of PS II. In addition, lower productions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose, together with the change of gene expressions suggested that the n-TiO2 disrupted the material and energy metabolisms in the photosynthesis. These findings support a paradigm shift of the toxic mechanism of n-TiO2 from physical and oxidative damages to metabolic disturbances, and emphasize the threat to the photosynthesis of algae in contaminated areas.
- Structural basis for eukaryotic mRNA modification. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Struct Biol 2018 Jun 15; 53:59-68
- All messenger RNAs in eukaryotes are modified co-transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. They are all capped at the 5'-end and polyadenylated at the 3'-end. However, many mRNAs are also found t...
All messenger RNAs in eukaryotes are modified co-transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. They are all capped at the 5'-end and polyadenylated at the 3'-end. However, many mRNAs are also found to be chemically modified internally for regulation of mRNA processing, translation, stability, and to recode the message. This review will briefly summarize the structural basis for formation of the two most common modifications found at internal sites in mRNAs; methylation and deamination. The structures of the enzymes that catalyze these modifications show structural similarity to other family members within each modifying enzyme class. RNA methyltransferases, including METTL3/METTL14 responsible for N6-methyladensosine (m6A) formation, share a common structural core and utilize S-adenosyl methionine as a methyl donor. RNA deaminases, including adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), also share a common structural core and similar signature sequence motif with conserved residues used for binding zinc and catalyzing the deamination reaction. In spite of recent reports of high resolution structures for members of these two RNA-modifying enzyme families, a great deal remains to be uncovered for a complete understanding of the structural basis for mRNA modification. Of particular interest is the definition of factors that control modification site specificity.
- Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2; special focus on central nervous system imaging. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: DADA2 should be included in the differential diagnosis of young patients presenting with ischemic and/or hemorrhagic lesions located in the brain stem and deep gray matter, especially if they have a family history or additional systemic abnormalities.
- Local delivery of adenosine receptor agonists to promote bone regeneration and defect healing. [Journal Article]
- ADAdv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Jun 15
- Adenosine receptor activation has been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach to heal bone. Bone has enhanced regenerative potential when influenced by either direct or indirect adenosine r...
Adenosine receptor activation has been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach to heal bone. Bone has enhanced regenerative potential when influenced by either direct or indirect adenosine receptor agonism. As investigators continue to elucidate how adenosine influences bone cell homeostasis at the cellular and molecular levels, a small but growing body of literature has reported successful in vivo applications of adenosine delivery. This review summarizes the role adenosine receptor ligation plays in osteoblast and osteoclast biology and remodeling/regeneration. It also reports on all the modalities described in the literature at this point for delivery of adenosine through in vivo models for bone healing and regeneration.
- Adenosine A1 receptor: A neuroprotective target in light induced retinal degeneration. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198838
- Light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) is a useful model that resembles human retinal degenerative diseases. The modulation of adenosine A1 receptor is neuroprotective in different models of retin...
Light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) is a useful model that resembles human retinal degenerative diseases. The modulation of adenosine A1 receptor is neuroprotective in different models of retinal injury. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of the modulation of A1 receptor in LIRD. The eyes of rats intravitreally injected with N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A1 agonist, which were later subjected to continuous illumination (CI) for 24 h, showed retinas with a lower number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) immunoreactive area than controls. Lower levels of activated Caspase 3 and GFAP were demonstrated by Western Blot (WB) in treated animals. Also a decrease of iNOS, TNFα and GFAP mRNA was demonstrated by RT-PCR. A decrease of Iba 1+/MHC-II+ reactive microglial cells was shown by immunohistochemistry. Electroretinograms (ERG) showed higher amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials after CI compared to controls. Conversely, the eyes of rats intravitreally injected with dipropylcyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), an A1 antagonist, and subjected to CI for 24 h, showed retinas with a higher number of apoptotic nuclei and an increase of GFAP immunoreactive area compared to controls. Also, higher levels of activated Caspase 3 and GFAP were demonstrated by Western Blot. The mRNA levels of iNOS, nNOS and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) were not modified by DPCPX treatment. An increase of Iba 1+/MHC-II+ reactive microglial cells was shown by immunohistochemistry. ERG showed that the amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potentials after CI were similar to control values. A single pharmacological intervention prior illumination stress was able to swing retinal fate in opposite directions: CPA was neuroprotective, while DPCPX worsened retinal damage. In summary, A1 receptor agonism is a plausible neuroprotective strategy in LIRD.
- MK-0677, a Ghrelin Agonist, Alleviates Amyloid Beta-Related Pathology in 5XFAD Mice, an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Jun 18; 19(6)
- Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be t...
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). MK-0677 is a ghrelin agonist that potently stimulates the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that ghrelin improves cognitive impairments and attenuates neuronal death and neuroinflammation in several neurological disorders. However, it is unknown whether MK-0677 can affect Aβ accumulation or Aβ-mediated pathology in the brains of patients with AD. Therefore, we examined the effects of MK-0677 administration on AD-related pathology in 5XFAD mice, an Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mouse model of AD. MK-0677 was intraperitoneally administered to three-month-old 5XFAD mice. To visualize Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, thioflavin-S staining and immunostaining with antibodies against Aβ (4G8), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and synaptophysin were conducted in the neocortex of 5XFAD and wild-type mice, and to evaluate changes of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (pCREB) levels, immunostaining with antibody against pCREB was performed in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of 5XFAD and wild-type mice. The histological analyses indicated that MK-0677-treated 5XFAD mice showed reduced Aβ deposition, gliosis, and neuronal and synaptic loss in the deep cortical layers, and inhibited the decrement of pCREB levels in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared to vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice. Our results showed that activation of the ghrelin receptor with MK-0677 inhibited the Aβ burden, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, which suggested that MK-0677 might have potential as a treatment of the early phase of AD.
- Niraparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Anticancer Ther 2018 Jun 17
- Niraparib, an orally available selective inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is the first PARP inhibitor approved for use in patients with ovarian cancer who do not harb...
Niraparib, an orally available selective inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is the first PARP inhibitor approved for use in patients with ovarian cancer who do not harbor a germline or somatic mutation in the breast cancer gene (BRCA). Overall niraparib is well tolerated and its toxicities, primarily hematologic, are manageable especially with recently released initial dose modification guidelines based on weight and baseline platelet count. The role of niraparib as maintenance following front-line platinum-based chemotherapy as well as in the treatment of recurrent high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is an active area of investigation. Areas covered: This review focuses on niraparib, its pharmacology, clinical efficacy and adverse effects as evidenced by prospective clinical trials, and licensed indications. Expert Commentary: Niraparib introduced the use of PARP inhibitors regardless of biomarker status. Recent studies highlight the critical need for more accurate biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment with PARP inhibitors. In the next five years, we anticipate further expansion of and elucidation regarding the optimal indication for use of niraparib in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
- Switching-Off Adora2b in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Halts the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:555
- Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating and progressive disease characterized by excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and remodeling of the lung ...
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating and progressive disease characterized by excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and remodeling of the lung vasculature. Adenosine signaling through the ADORA2B receptor has previously been implicated in disease progression and tissue remodeling in chronic lung disease. In experimental models of PH associated with chronic lung injury, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ADORA2B improved markers of chronic lung injury and hallmarks of PH. However, the contribution of ADORA2B expression in the PASMC was not fully evaluated. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that adenosine signaling through the ADORA2B receptor in PASMC mediates the development of PH. Methods: PASMCs from controls and patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) were characterized for expression levels of all adenosine receptors. Next, we evaluated the development of PH in ADORA2Bf/f-Transgelin (Tagln)cre mice. These mice or adequate controls were exposed to a combination of SUGEN (SU5416, 20 mg/kg/b.w. IP) and hypoxia (10% O2) for 28 days (HX-SU) or to chronic low doses of bleomycin (BLM, 0.035U/kg/b.w. IP). Cardiovascular readouts including right ventricle systolic pressures (RVSPs), Fulton indices and vascular remodeling were determined. Using PASMCs we identified ADORA2B-dependent mediators involved in vascular remodeling. These mediators: IL-6, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and tissue transglutaminase (Tgm2) were determined by RT-PCR and validated in our HX-SU and BLM models. Results: Increased levels of ADORA2B were observed in PASMC from iPAH patients. ADORA2Bf/f-Taglncre mice were protected from the development of PH following HX-SU or BLM exposure. In the BLM model of PH, ADORA2Bf/f- Taglncre mice were not protected from the development of fibrosis. Increased expression of IL-6, HAS2 and Tgm2 was observed in PASMC in an ADORA2B-dependent manner. These mediators were also reduced in ADORA2Bf/f- Taglncre mice exposed to HX-SU or BLM. Conclusions: Our studies revealed ADORA2B-dependent increased levels of IL-6, hyaluronan and Tgm2 in PASMC, consistent with reduced levels in ADORA2Bf/f- Taglncre mice exposed to HX-SU or BLM. Taken together, our data indicates that ADORA2B on PASMC mediates the development of PH through the induction of IL-6, hyaluronan and Tgm2. These studies point at ADORA2B as a therapeutic target to treat PH.
- Caffeine and Selective Adenosine Receptor Antagonists as New Therapeutic Tools for the Motivational Symptoms of Depression. [Review]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:526
- Major depressive disorder is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric disorders. Some of the motivational symptoms of depression, such anergia (lack of self-reported energy) and fatigue ar...
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric disorders. Some of the motivational symptoms of depression, such anergia (lack of self-reported energy) and fatigue are relatively resistant to traditional treatments such as serotonin uptake inhibitors. Thus, new pharmacological targets are being investigated. Epidemiological data suggest that caffeine consumption can have an impact on aspects of depressive symptomatology. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist for A1/A2A receptors, and has been demonstrated to modulate behavior in classical animal models of depression. Moreover, selective adenosine receptor antagonists are being assessed for their antidepressant effects in animal studies. This review focuses on how caffeine and selective adenosine antagonists can improve different aspects of depression in humans, as well as in animal models. The effects on motivational symptoms of depression such as anergia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing receive particular attention. Thus, the ability of adenosine receptor antagonists to reverse the anergia induced by dopamine antagonism or depletion is of special interest. In conclusion, although further studies are needed, it appears that caffeine and selective adenosine receptor antagonists could be therapeutic agents for the treatment of motivational dysfunction in depression.
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- AMPK/AS160 mediates tiliroside derivatives-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Des Devel Ther 2018; 12:1581-1587
- CONCLUSIONS: Tiliroside derivatives D1, D8 and D18 stimulated GLUT4myc translocation by a mechanism different to that of insulin in skeletal muscle cells. The effect of derivative D8 on GLUT4myc translocation is mediated by AMPK/AS160 signaling pathway.