- Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomyomatosis and its relationship with early-stage gallbladder carcinoma: an overview. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Med Biol Res 2018; 51(6):e7411
- The exact pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomyomatosis is still lacking and some controversies over its diagnosis and treatment exist. Originally recognized as a precancerous lesion, adenomyomatosis i...
The exact pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomyomatosis is still lacking and some controversies over its diagnosis and treatment exist. Originally recognized as a precancerous lesion, adenomyomatosis is currently recognized by recent studies as a benign alteration of the gallbladder that is often associated with cholecystitis and cholecystolithiasis. Gallbladder carcinoma is an extremely malignant disease with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Therefore, it is important to diagnose, differentiate, and confirm the relationship between adenomyomatosis and early-stage gallbladder carcinoma. However, the early clinical symptoms of adenomyomatosis are extremely similar to those of gallbladder stones and cholecystitis, increasing the difficulty to identify and treat this disease. This article summarizes the research progress on gallbladder adenomyomatosis, aiming to improve the understanding of the pathogenesis of adenomyomatosis and further provide insight for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.
- Comet-tail artifact in adenomyomatosis. [Review]
- ARAbdom Radiol (NY) 2018 Apr 26
- CT diagnosis of gallbladder adenomyomatosis: importance of enhancing mucosal epithelium, the "cotton ball sign". [Journal Article]
- EREur Radiol 2018 Apr 09
- CONCLUSIONS: The cotton ball sign on CE-CT showed higher sensitivity and comparable specificity to those of the pearl necklace sign in differentiating GA from malignancy.• Prevalence of the cotton ball sign on CT was 74% in gallbladder adenomyomatosis. • The cotton ball sign was useful in differentiating gallbladder adenomyomatosis from gallbladder cancer. • The cotton ball sign was more sensitive than the pearl necklace sign for adenomyomatosis diagnosis.
- Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of focal gallbladder adenomyomatosis and gallbladder cancer. [Journal Article]
- CHClin Hemorheol Microcirc 2018 Apr 04
- CONCLUSIONS: Combined with CEUS helps improve the differential diagnosis accuracy of focal gallbladder ADMs.
- Interpreting body MRI cases: classic findings in abdominal MRI. [Review]
- ARAbdom Radiol (NY) 2018 Mar 28
- Few things in radiology are "pathognomonic" in their appearance or presentation. However, having an awareness of those findings which are specific to a certain entity is important when interpreting i...
Few things in radiology are "pathognomonic" in their appearance or presentation. However, having an awareness of those findings which are specific to a certain entity is important when interpreting imaging studies. These classic findings can be identified with many imaging modalities, but no modality provides as many recognizable observations as an MRI. This results from the large variety of pulse sequences that provide high contrast resolution, prior to and following contrast administration. In this article, the most classically recognized abdominal findings are presented including the following: Liver: Cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenoma, hemosiderosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. Spleen: Cyst, hemangioma, lymphangioma, hemosiderosis, Gandy-Gamna bodies. Biliary system: Biliary stones and choledocholithiasis, pneumobilia, choledochal cyst. Gallbladder: Adenomyomatosis, sludge, surgical clips in the gallbladder fossa. Pancreas: Pancreatic divisum, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, pseudocyst, autoimmune pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma. Kidneys: Simple cyst, hemorrhagic cyst, renal sinus cyst, angiomyolipoma, solid mass.
- Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging characteristics of malignant transformation of a localized type gallbladder adenomyomatosis: A case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer Res Ther 2018; 14(Supplement):S263-S266
- Gallbladder adenomyomatosis (GAM) is an acquired, reactive, tumor-like condition. Malignant transformation is extremely rare, and imaging features during contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) have not ...
Gallbladder adenomyomatosis (GAM) is an acquired, reactive, tumor-like condition. Malignant transformation is extremely rare, and imaging features during contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) have not been described before. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old Asian man who had been diagnosed with gallbladder carcinoma by conventional ultrasonography (US). Based on additional radiological findings, we believed that it was a localized adenomyomatosis. However, the histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma originate from adenomyomatosis with serosal invasion. We believe this is the first case of adenocarcinoma derived from GAM with characteristics of CEUS findings. This case is presented to indicate a clinical awareness of malignant transformation of GAM and discuss the radiology significance with an emphasis on CEUS.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Adenomyomatosis, which is also known as adenomyoma or adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder, is one of the two hyperplastic cholecystoses. The other hyperplastic cholecystosis is cholestester...
Adenomyomatosis, which is also known as adenomyoma or adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder, is one of the two hyperplastic cholecystoses. The other hyperplastic cholecystosis is cholestesterolosis, also known as "strawberry gallbladder." Adenomyomatosis is a benign condition that is pathologically characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall mucosa and muscularis propria, with pathognomonic epithelial invaginations forming cystic pockets (Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses). These sinuses may contain calculi and/or cholesterol crystals. The gallbladder wall thickening, Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses, and the calculi and/or cholesterol crystals that are often found in sinuses characterize the imaging appearance of adenomyomatosis. Sometimes, particularly when the characteristic imaging findings are not present, adenomyomatosis can be difficult to distinguish from gallbladder cancer based on the diagnostic imaging findings. Adenomyomatosis is often asymptomatic and incidentally detected, requiring no specific treatment. Adenomyomatosis also can be associated with right upper quadrant pain. In cases where it is difficult to distinguish adenomyomatosis from gallbladder cancer or when adenomyomatosis is associated with right upper quadrant pain, this condition may be treated with a cholecystectomy.
- Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder lesion. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 14; 24(6):744-751
- CONCLUSIONS: CEUS may provide more useful information and improve the diagnosis efficiency for the diagnosis of gallbladder lesions than conventional ultrasound.
- Comparison of DWIBS/T2 image fusion and PET/CT for the diagnosis of cancer in the abdominal cavity. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2017; 14(4):3754-3760
- Fusion images of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression and T2-weighted image (DWIBS/T2) demonstrate a strong signal for malignancies, with a high contrast agai...
Fusion images of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression and T2-weighted image (DWIBS/T2) demonstrate a strong signal for malignancies, with a high contrast against the surrounding tissues, and enable anatomical analysis. In the present study, DWIBS/T2 was compared with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for diagnosing cancer in the abdomen. Patient records, including imaging results of examination conducted between November 2012 and May 2014, were analyzed retrospectively. In total, 10 men (age, 73.6±9.6 years) and 8 women (age, 68.9±7.1 years) were enrolled into the current study. Of the enrolled patients, 2 were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, 1 with cholangiocellular carcinoma, 1 with liver metastasis, 2 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 1 with renal cell carcinoma and 1 with malignant lymphoma. Benign lesions were also analyzed, including adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (5 patients), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (4 patients) and right adrenal adenoma (1 case). All the patients with cancer showed positive results on DWIBS/T2 images. However, only 7 out of 8 patients were positive with PET/CT. One patient with right renal cellular carcinoma was positive with DWIBS/T2, but negative with PET/CT. All the patients with benign lesions were negative with DWIBS/T2 and PET/CT. In conclusion, DWIBS/T2 was more sensitive in diagnosing cancer of organs in the abdominal cavity compared with PET/CT. Furthermore, negative results with DWIBS/T2 and PET/CT were useful for the diagnosis of benign lesions, such as adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.
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- Gallbladder adenomyomatosis: Diagnosis and management. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Visc Surg 2017; 154(5):345-353
- Gallbladder (GB) adenomyomatosis (ADM) is a benign, acquired anomaly, characterized by hypertrophy of the mucosal epithelium that invaginates into the interstices of a thickened muscularis forming so...
Gallbladder (GB) adenomyomatosis (ADM) is a benign, acquired anomaly, characterized by hypertrophy of the mucosal epithelium that invaginates into the interstices of a thickened muscularis forming so-called Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. There are three forms of ADM: segmental, fundal and more rarely, diffuse. Etiology and pathogenesis are not well understood but chronic inflammation of the GB is a necessary precursor. Prevalence of ADM in cholecystectomy specimens is estimated between 1% and 9% with a balanced sex ratio; the incidence increases after the age of 50. ADM, although usually asymptomatic, can manifest as abdominal pain or hepatic colic, even in the absence of associated gallstones (50% to 90% of cases). ADM can also be revealed by an attack of acalculous cholecystitis. Pre-operative diagnosis is based mainly on ultrasound (US), which identifies intra-parietal pseudo-cystic images and "comet tail" artifacts. MRI with MRI cholangiography sequences is the reference examination with characteristic "pearl necklace" images. Symptomatic ADM is an indication for cholecystectomy, which results in complete disappearance of symptoms. Asymptomatic ADM is not an indication for surgery, but the radiological diagnosis must be beyond any doubt. If there is any diagnostic doubt about the possibility of GB cancer, a cholecystectomy is justified. The discovery of ADM in a cholecystectomy specimen does not require special surveillance.