- Sestrin 2 Attenuates Rat Hepatic Stellate Cell (HSC) Activation and Liver Fibrosis via an mTOR/AMPK-Dependent Mechanism. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 06; 51(5):2111-2122
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that Sestrin 2 may attenuate the activation of HSCs and ameliorate liver fibrosis, most likely via upregulation of AMPK phosphorylation and suppression of the mTOR signaling pathway.
- Identification of risk factors and diagnostic methodology in serositis by M. tuberculosis [English Abstract]
- RMRev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30; 56(4):364-370
- CONCLUSIONS: Conventional diagnostic methods had low efficacy, adenosine deaminase and molecular biology techniques are the most useful, in our environment these tests should be performed immediately in patients with risk factors and suspected serositis of tuberculous origin.
- Oligomerization of equilibrative nucleoside transporters: a novel regulatory and functional mechanism involving PKC and PP1. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 2018 Dec 06; :fj201800440RR
- Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) translocate nucleosides and nucleobases across plasma membranes, as well as a variety of anti-cancer, -viral, and -parasite nucleoside analogs. They are a...
Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) translocate nucleosides and nucleobases across plasma membranes, as well as a variety of anti-cancer, -viral, and -parasite nucleoside analogs. They are also key members of the purinome complex and regulate the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine. Despite their important role, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their regulation. We conducted membrane yeast 2-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation studies and identified, for the first time to our knowledge, the existence of protein-protein interactions between human ENT1 and ENT2 (hENT1 and hENT2) proteins in human cells and the formation of hetero- and homo-oligomers at the plasma membrane and the submembrane region. The use of NanoLuc Binary Technology allowed us to analyze changes in the oligomeric status of hENT1 and hENT2 and how they rapidly modify the uptake profile for nucleosides and nucleobases and allow cells to respond promptly to external signals or changes in the extracellular environment. These changes in hENTs oligomerization are triggered by PKC activation and subsequent action of protein phosphatase 1.-Grañe-Boladeras, N., Williams, D., Tarmakova, Z., Stevanovic, K., Villani, L. A., Mehrabi, P., Siu, K. W. M., Pastor-Anglada, M., Coe, I. R. Oligomerization of equilibrative nucleoside transporters: a novel regulatory and functional mechanism involving PKC and PP1.
- Structural basis for neutralization of cytotoxic abrin by monoclonal antibody D6F10. [Journal Article]
- FJFEBS J 2018 Dec 06
- Abrin, an extremely cytotoxic Type-II ribosome inactivating protein (RIP), is a potential bio-warfare agent. Abrin A-chain (ABA) depurinates an adenosine of sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) from eukaryotic 28...
Abrin, an extremely cytotoxic Type-II ribosome inactivating protein (RIP), is a potential bio-warfare agent. Abrin A-chain (ABA) depurinates an adenosine of sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) from eukaryotic 28S rRNA thereby arresting protein synthesis and leading to cell death. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) D6F10 is the only known antibody that neutralizes ABA's activity in cell-free systems as well as abrin's toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, how binding of mAb D6F10 to abrin interferes with abrin's catalytic activity at ribosome is still poorly understood. To provide structural basis for mAb D6F10-mediated rescue of ribosome inactivation by abrin, we determined crystal structures of ABA with and without substrate analogs. The structures of ABA-substrate analogs and ribosome were used in an experiment-guided computational protocol, to construct the ABA-Ribosome complex. A homology model of the variable region (Fv ) of mAb D6F10 was generated and docked with the apo-ABA structure to construct the ABA-D6F10 Fv complex. Structural superposition of ABA common to ABA-D6F10 Fv and ABA-Ribosome complexes reveals steric hindrance as the primary mechanism by which mAb D6F10 neutralizes abrin. In contrast to ABA alone, ABA bound to mAb D6F10 is unable to access the SRL on the ribosome owing to steric clashes of mAb D6F10 with the ribosome. Crystal structures of ABA also reveal a catalytic water molecule implicated in hydrolyzing N-glycosidic bond of the susceptible adenosine by RIPs. Furthermore, our strategy can be used to provide structural details of steric hindrance important for neutralization of ricin, another RIP, by mAb 6C2 and hence is of wide applicability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Platelet reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. [Journal Article]
- PPlatelets 2018 Dec 05; :1-7
- This study aimed to evaluate the platelet reactivity in real-world patients with different chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to examine whether h...
This study aimed to evaluate the platelet reactivity in real-world patients with different chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to examine whether high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) is associated with higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in a 2-year follow up. A total of 10 724 consecutive patients receiving DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel after PCI throughout 2013 were enrolled. We applied modified thromboelastography (mTEG) in 6745 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional regression analysis were applied to illustrate end points for patients. The prevalence of HRPR for adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was higher in patients with CKD3-5 than patients with CKD1-2 (47.0% vs. 37.3%, p = 0.002), but not for arachidonic acid (AA). No significant difference was observed for MACCE between patients with or without HRPR for ADP (HR 1.004, 95%CI: 0.864-1.167, p = 0.954). Patients with HRPR for ADP was associated with less bleeding events than patients without HRPR for ADP (HR 0.795, 95%CI: 0.643-0.982, p = 0.034). In this large cohort of real-world patients after PCI, the deterioration of renal function was linked to HRPR for ADP. HRPR was not associated with MACCE in patients with CKD in a 2-year follow up. Bleeding risks were significantly lower in PCI patients with versus without HRPR for ADP.
- Physical exercise prevents memory impairment in an animal model of hypertension through modulation of CD39 and CD73 activities and A2A receptor expression. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hypertens 2019; 37(1):135-143
- CONCLUSIONS: These changes suggest that hypertension increases adenosine generation, which acts through A2A receptors, and exercise prevents these effects. These data may indicate a possible mechanism by which exercise may prevent memory impairment induced by L-NAME.
- Optimization and Pharmacological Characterization of Receptor-Mediated Gi/o Activation in Postmortem Human Prefrontal Cortex. [Journal Article]
- BCBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Dec 03
- The biochemical abnormalities in transmembrane signal transduction mediated through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been postulated as underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases such...
The biochemical abnormalities in transmembrane signal transduction mediated through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been postulated as underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. In the present study, the experimental conditions of agonist-induced [35 S]GTPγS binding in postmortem human brain membranes were optimized, and the responses induced by a series of agonists were pharmacologically characterized. The [35 S]GTPγS binding assay was performed in postmortem human prefrontal cortical membranes by means of filtration techniques, and standardized as to GDP concentration, membrane protein content, MgCl2 and NaCl concentrations in assay buffer, incubation period, and effect of white matter contamination. Under the standard assay conditions, the specific [35 S]GTPγS binding was stimulated by the addition of 15 compounds in a concentration-dependent manner. Of these agonists, R(+)-8-OH-DPAT, UK-14,304, DAMGO, and DPDPE showed apparently biphasic concentration-response curves. As for these four responses, only higher-potency site was pharmacologically characterized. The receptors involved in the responses investigated were 5-HT1A receptor (probed with R(+)-8-OH-DPAT or 5-HT), α2A -adrenoceptor (UK-14,304 or (-)-epinephrine), M2 /M4 mAChRs (carbachol), adenosine A1 receptor (adenosine), histamine H3 receptor (histamine), group II mGlu (L-glutamate), GABAB receptor (baclofen), μ-opioid receptor (DAMGO or endomophin-1), δ-opioid receptor (DPDPE or SNC-80), and NOP (nociceptin). Although dopamine also activated specific [35 S]GTPγS binding, this response was likely mediated via α2A -adrenoceptor, but not dopamine receptor subtypes. The present study provides us with fundamental aspects of the strategy for elucidation of probable abnormalities of neural signalling mediated by G-proteins activated through multiple GPCRs in the brain of psychiatric patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Heart filling exceeds emptying during late ventricular systole in patients with systolic heart failure and healthy subjects - a cardiac MRI study. [Journal Article]
- CPClin Physiol Funct Imaging 2018 Dec 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Heart size increases before end systole due to a late-systolic net inflow which is unaffected by increased cardiac output. This may be explained by inertia of blood that flows into the atria generated by ventricular systole. The lower late-systolic net inflow in patients with systolic heart failure may be a measure of decreased ventricular filling due to decreased systolic function, thus linking systolic to diastolic dysfunction.
- FRET-based imaging of intracellular ATP in organotypic brain slices. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 01
- Active neurons require a substantial amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to re-establish ion gradients degraded by ion flux across their plasma membranes. Despite this fact, neurons, in contrast t...
Active neurons require a substantial amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to re-establish ion gradients degraded by ion flux across their plasma membranes. Despite this fact, neurons, in contrast to astrocytes, do not contain any significant stores of energy substrates. Recent work has provided evidence for a neuro-metabolic coupling between both cell types, in which increased glycolysis and lactate production in astrocytes support neuronal metabolism. Here, we established the cell type-specific expression of the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based nanosensor ATeam1.03YEMK ("Ateam") for dynamic measurement of changes in intracellular ATP levels in organotypic brain tissue slices. To this end, adeno-associated viral vectors coding for Ateam, driven by either the synapsin- or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter were employed for specific transduction of neurons or astrocytes, respectively. Chemical ischemia, induced by perfusion of tissue slices with metabolic inhibitors of cellular glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, resulted in a rapid decrease in the cellular Ateam signal to a new, low level, indicating nominal depletion of intracellular ATP. Increasing the extracellular potassium concentration to 8 mM, thereby mimicking the release of potassium from active neurons, did not alter ATP levels in neurons. It, however, caused in an increase in ATP levels in astrocytes, a result which was confirmed in acutely isolated tissue slices. In summary, our results demonstrate that organotypic cultured slices are a reliable tool for FRET-based dynamic imaging of ATP in neurons and astrocytes. They moreover provide evidence for an increased ATP synthesis in astrocytes, but not neurons, during periods of elevated extracellular potassium concentrations.
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- Improved yield of rhEPO in CHO cells with synthetic 5' UTR. [Journal Article]
- BLBiotechnol Lett 2018 Nov 30
- The impact of local structure on mRNA translation is not well-defined pertaining to the 5' UTR. Reports suggest structural remodelling of the 5' UTR can significantly influence mRNA translation both ...
The impact of local structure on mRNA translation is not well-defined pertaining to the 5' UTR. Reports suggest structural remodelling of the 5' UTR can significantly influence mRNA translation both in cis and trans however a new layer of complexity has been applied to this model with the now known reversible post-transcriptional chemical modification of RNA. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal base modification in mammalian mRNA. It has been reported that mRNAs harbouring m6A motifs in their 5' UTR have improved translation efficiency. The present study evaluated the addition of putative m6A motifs to the 5' UTR of a model recombinant human therapeutic glycoprotein, Erythropoietin (EPO), in a direct comparison with an A to T mutant and a no adenosine control. The m6A construct yielded significantly improved EPO titer in transient batch culture over no adenosine and m6T controls by 2.84 and 2.61-fold respectively. This study highlights that refinement of transgene RNA elements can yield significant improvements to protein titer.