- Epidemiology of viral respiratory infections in Australian working-age adults (20-64 years): 2010-2013. [Journal Article]
- EIEpidemiol Infect 2018 Feb 21; :1-8
- Acute respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality accounting for 5.8 million deaths worldwide. In Australia, influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as cough, fever and fatigue is ...
Acute respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality accounting for 5.8 million deaths worldwide. In Australia, influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as cough, fever and fatigue is a common presentation in general practice and results in reduced productivity and lost working days. Little is known about the epidemiology of ILI in working-age adults. Using data from the ASPREN influenza surveillance network in Australia (2010-2013) we found that working-age adults made up 45.2% of all ILI notifications with 55% of samples positive for at least one respiratory virus. Viruses most commonly detected in our study included influenza A (20.6%), rhinovirus (18.6%), influenza B (6.2%), human meta-pneumovirus (3.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (3.1%), para-influenza virus (2.6%) and adenovirus (1.3%). We also demonstrated that influenza A is the predominant virus that increases ILI (by 1.2% per month for every positive influenza A case) in working-age adults during autumn-winter months while other viruses are active throughout the year. Understanding the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections through a year will help clinicians make informed decisions about testing, antibiotic and antiviral prescribing and when the beginning of the 'flu season' can be more confidently predicted.
- A prophylactic multivalent vaccine against different filovirus species is immunogenic and provides protection from lethal infections with Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus species in non-human primates. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192312
- The search for a universal filovirus vaccine that provides protection against multiple filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infec...
The search for a universal filovirus vaccine that provides protection against multiple filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infections. A good prophylactic vaccine should be able to provide protection to all known filovirus species and as an upside potentially protect from newly emerging virus strains. We investigated the immunogenicity and protection elicited by multivalent vaccines expressing glycoproteins (GP) from Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and Marburg virus (MARV). Immune responses against filovirus GP have been associated with protection from disease. The GP antigens were expressed by adenovirus serotypes 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) and modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors, all selected for their strong immunogenicity and good safety profile. Using fully lethal NHP intramuscular challenge models, we assessed different vaccination regimens for immunogenicity and protection from filovirus disease. Heterologous multivalent Ad26-Ad35 prime-boost vaccination regimens could give full protection against MARV (range 75%-100% protection) and EBOV (range 50% to 100%) challenge, and partial protection (75%) against SUDV challenge. Heterologous multivalent Ad26-MVA prime-boost immunization gave full protection against EBOV challenge in a small cohort study. The use of such multivalent vaccines did not show overt immune interference in comparison with monovalent vaccines. Multivalent vaccines induced GP-specific antibody responses and cellular IFNγ responses to each GP expressed by the vaccine, and cross-reactivity to TAFV GP was detected in a trivalent vaccine expressing GP from EBOV, SUDV and MARV. In the EBOV challenge studies, higher humoral EBOV GP-specific immune responses (p = 0.0004) were associated with survival from EBOV challenge and less so for cellular immune responses (p = 0.0320). These results demonstrate that it is feasible to generate a multivalent filovirus vaccine that can protect against lethal infection by multiple members of the filovirus family.
- Brincidofovir as Salvage Therapy for Adenovirus Disease in Intestinal Transplant Recipients. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacotherapy 2018 Feb 19
- Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that typically cause mild self-limiting respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal infections. In immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipie...
Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that typically cause mild self-limiting respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal infections. In immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients, the infection can be severe, with dissemination and multiorgan failure. In intestinal transplant recipients, the incidence is as high as 57%. To our knowledge, no standardized guidelines or United States Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for the treatment of adenovirus disease. We describe two isolated intestinal transplant recipients who developed adenovirus disease (viremia with viral enteritis) that was managed with a new experimental drug, brincidofovir (an oral lipid conjugate prodrug of cidofovir), as salvage therapy. The first patient was a 44-year-old woman who developed adenoviral enteritis one month after transplantation, which resolved with ribavirin therapy. Two weeks later, the infection recurred, and brincidofovir was initiated. While receiving this therapy for 3 months, she developed severe acute rejection, which was managed with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin followed by infliximab. Eventually, complete resolution of the rejection and adenoviral enteritis was achieved. At 12 months post-transplantation, the patient was healthy and tolerating enteral feeding. The second patient was a 28-year-old man who had undergone isolated intestinal transplantation 6 years before he presented with generalized weakness and an increased ostomy output; he was diagnosed with adenoviral enteritis. Maintenance immunosuppression was reduced, and brincidofovir was started. The infection resolved with a month of therapy. Six months after the infection, he was healthy and tolerating enteral feeding. This is the first publication, to our knowledge, to describe two cases in which brincidofovir was used to successfully treat adenovirus infection in intestinal transplant recipients. Thus, these cases demonstrate that brincidofovir appears to be a safe and effective option in the management of adenoviral enteritis in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Is there any difference between the symptomatology and clinical findings of viral agents causing dehydration? [Journal Article]
- MPMinerva Pediatr 2018; 70(2):165-174
- CONCLUSIONS: The main agents of acute gastroenteritis which caused dehydration were norovirus and rotavirus in our patients. Rotavirus was detected in most of the hospitalized patients with severe symptoms. AST was prominently elevated in rotavirus gastroenteritis. The clinical characteristics and some laboratory findings including hyperglycemia, leukocytosis, and elevated AST may be helpful in differentiating rotavirus from norovirus gastroenteritis. BUN level was insignificantly elevated in patients with rotavirus.
- Adenovirus types associated with severe respiratory diseases: a retrospective four-year study in Kuwait. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2018 Feb 15
- Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection can result in a severe respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to identify HAdV types detected in patients hospitalized for severe respiratory illness. The st...
Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection can result in a severe respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to identify HAdV types detected in patients hospitalized for severe respiratory illness. The study population consisted of 743 patients with severe respiratory disease admitted to four major hospitals in Kuwait between January 2013 and December 2016. Respiratory specimens were retrospectively screened for 20 respiratory viruses by real-time PCR. The HAdV hexon gene was amplified and directly sequenced, and HAdV types were identified by performing Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. HAdV DNA was detected in 27 (3.6%) patients, with peaks in November and March. Most patients were infants and young children suffering from pneumonia or acute bronchiolitis. The detected HAdV types were C1, C2, C5, B3, and B7. Clusters of HAdV C1, C2, and C5 were observed with high posterior probability. All patients infected with HAdV C5 and 50% of patients infected with HAdV C2 or B7 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Co-infection with other viruses was detected in 44.4% of patients. The most common co-infecting virus was rhinovirus (HRV). HAdV/HRV co-infection was detected in two children who presumably developed disseminated HAdV infection and died. This is the first report describing the circulation of HAdV types associated with severe outcomes in Kuwait. These findings highlight the need for a national surveillance system to monitor changes in predominant HAdV types and increased numbers of severe respiratory infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Detection and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus Infections among Hospitalized Children with Acute Diarrhea in Shanghai, China, 2006-2011. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2017; 2017:9304830
- Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV) is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epi...
Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV) is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epidemiology of HAdV in hospitalized children with viral diarrhea in Shanghai. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of HAdVs and describe their association with acute diarrhea in hospitalized children.Methods: A total of 674 fecal samples were subjected to PCR or RT-PCR to detect RVA, HuCV, HAstV, and HAdV.Results: HAdV infections were detected in 4.7% (32/674) of specimens, with detection rates of 13.4% (11/82), 4.6% (8/174), 3.2% (4/124), 4.1% (3/74), 2.0% (2/100), and 3.3% (4/120) from 2006 to 2011, respectively. Comprehensive detection of the four viruses revealed the presence of a high percentage (90.6%) of coinfections among HAdV-positive samples, where HAdV+RVA was the most prevalent coinfection. Of the 32 HAdV-positive samples, 50.0% (16/32) were classified as HAdV-41, and 18.8% (6/32) were classified as HAdV-3. Almost 94.0% of children infected with HAdV were less than 24 months of age.Conclusions: These results clearly indicated diversity across the HAdV genotypes detected in inpatient children with acute diarrhea in Shanghai and suggested that HAdVs play a role in children with acute diarrhea.
- Haemolytic-uremic syndrome due to infection with adenovirus: A case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(7):e9895
- Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and th...
Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. In terms of pathogenesis, HUS is the result of endothelial injury, most commonly being a result of the action of Shiga toxin. The unfavorable prognosis factors being represented by the age of more than 5 years old, different etiologies from STEC, persistent oligoanuria, central nervous system and glomerular impairment, the association of fever with leukocytosis. HUS is responsible for 7% of cases of hypertension in infants, and an important cause of significant kidney damage in adults.
- Virus-Like-Vaccines against HIV. [Review]
- VVaccines (Basel) 2018 Feb 11; 6(1)
- Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragi...
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV. Such vaccines are immunologically perceived as viruses, as they infect cells and produce VLPs in situ, but they only resemble viruses, as the replication defective vectors and VLPs cannot propagate an infection. The inherent safety of such a platform, despite robust particle production, is a distinct advantage over live-attenuated vaccines that must balance safety and immunogenicity. Previous studies have delivered VLVs encoded in modified Vaccinia Ankara vectors and we have developed the concept into a single-reading adenovirus-based technology capable of eliciting robust CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells responses and trimer binding antibody responses. Such vaccines offer the potential to display the naturally produced immunogen directly and induce an integrated humoral and cellular immune response.
- Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in children with acute gastroenteritis in Northern Italy. [Journal Article]
- IGInfect Genet Evol 2018 Feb 10; 60:35-41
- Enteric viral infections are a major concern for public health, and viral acute gastroenteritis is the principal cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. ...
Enteric viral infections are a major concern for public health, and viral acute gastroenteritis is the principal cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of different enteric viruses detected in a pediatric population with acute gastroenteritis symptoms, and to characterize the strains detected. Stools were collected from children, aged from 2 months to 15 years old, admitted to one of the main hospitals of Northern Italy, between November 2015 and October 2016. Stools were tested for nine enteric viruses (adenovirus, rotavirus A, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, bocavirus and aichivirus) by molecular methods. Furthermore, rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus were deeply characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 151 out of 510 (29.6%) stools analyzed resulted positive for at least one of the enteric virus investigated. The most common virus detected was rotavirus A (53/151, 35.1%), followed by norovirus (39/151, 25.8%), adenovirus (35/151, 23.1%), sapovirus (9/151, 6%), enterovirus (5/151, 3.3%), astrovirus (5/151, 3.3%), parechovirus (4/151, 2.6%) and bocavirus (1/151, 0.6%). Aichi virus was not detected in any sample. Co-infections were detected in 12 out of 510 faecal samples (2.3%). These data improved the knowledge of the enteric viruses circulating in children in Northern Italy. In fact, besides rotavirus, adenovirus and norovirus, several viruses circulated across the whole year in the pediatric population object of this study. The introduction of specific viral diagnosis in our clinical setting will improve patient care by reducing unnecessary use of antibiotics addressing the right etiologic diagnosis.
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- [Burkholderia cepacia infection in children: a clinical analysis of 16 cases]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018; 20(2):112-115
- CONCLUSIONS: Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen often found in immunocompromised children and can produce drug resistance. The presence or absence of underlying diseases should be considered during anti-infective therapy. The children with Burkholderia cepacia infection often have a poor prognosis, and an understanding of the disease spectrum of Burkholderia cepacia infection helps with clinical diagnosis and treatment.