- Clinical relevance of enteropathogen co-infections in preschool children - a population-based repeated cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections were identified and specific enteropathogens co-occurred significantly more often than expected by chance. Enteropathogen co-infections were not associated with increased gastroenteritis risk, calling into question their clinical relevance in preschool children.
- A multigene typing system for human adenoviruses reveals a new genotype in a collection of Swedish clinical isolates. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0209038
- Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightf...
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightforward typing systems might help epidemiological investigations. As homologous recombination frequently shapes the evolution of HAdVs, information on a single gene is seldom sufficient to allow accurate and precise typing, and complete genome-based methods are recommended. Even so, complete genome analyses are not always easy to perform for practical reasons, and in such cases a multigene system can provide considerably more information about the strain under investigation than single-gene-based methods. Here we present a rapid, generic, multigene typing system for HAdVs based on three main deterministic regions of these viruses. Three PCR systems were used to amplify the genes encoding the DNA polymerase, the penton base hypervariable Arg-Gly-Asp-containing loop, and the hexon loop 1 (hypervariable region 1-6). Using this system, we typed 281 clinical isolates, detected members of six out of seven HAdV species (Human mastadenovirus A-F), and could also detect not only divergent strains of established types but also a new recombinant strain with a previously unpublished combination of adenovirus genomes. This strain was accepted by the Human Adenovirus Working Group as a novel genotype: HAdV-86. Seven strains that could not be typed with sufficient accuracy were also investigated using a PCR based on part of the fiber gene. By analysis of corresponding sequences of the 86 known HAdV genotypes, we determined that the proposed typing system should be able to distinguish all non-recombinant types, and with additional fiber information, all known HAdV genotypes.
- [Etiological structure of influenza and other ARVI in St. Petersburg during epidemic seasons 2012-2016.] [Journal Article]
- VVVopr Virusol 2018; 63(5):233-239
- The etiological structure of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections including their rate of incidence in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region during 4 epidemic seasons has been studied...
The etiological structure of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections including their rate of incidence in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region during 4 epidemic seasons has been studied. Seasonality of some respiratory viruses was shown and peaks of circulation of RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus were marked. The interference of influenza A viruses and RSV, RSV and rhinoviruses was highlighted. A high incidence of adenovirus infection in organized communities and RSV infection in children was revealed.
- Etiology of acute viral respiratory infections common in Pakistan: A review. [Review]
- RMRev Med Virol 2018 Dec 12; :e2024
- Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan...
Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan. Ignoring these acute-level infections may lead to complications. Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Even though these infections are common, insufficiency of accessible data hinders development of a comprehensive summary of the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rate in various regions of Pakistan and also to recognize the existing viral strains responsible for viral respiratory infections through published data. Respiratory viruses are detected more frequently among rural dwellers in Pakistan. Lower tract infections are found to be more lethal. The associated pathogens comprise respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), coronavirus, enterovirus/rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and human bocavirus. RSV is more dominant and can be subtyped as RSV-A and RSV-B (BA-9, BA-10, and BA-13). Influenza A (H1N1, H5N1, H3N2, and H1N1pdm09) and Influenza B are common among the Pakistani population. Generally, these strains are detected in a seasonal pattern with a high incidence during spring and winter time. The data presented include pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and influenza. This paper aims to emphasise the need for standard methods to record the incidence and etiology of associated pathogens in order to provide effective treatment against viral infections of the respiratory tract and to reduce death rates.
- Prevalence of Common Respiratory Viral Infections and Identification of Adenovirus in Hospitalized Adults in Harbin, China 2014 to 2017. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:2919
- Background: Respiratory infections pose a great challenge in global health, and the prevalence of viral infection in adult patients has been poorly understood in northeast China. Harbin is one of th...
Background: Respiratory infections pose a great challenge in global health, and the prevalence of viral infection in adult patients has been poorly understood in northeast China. Harbin is one of the major cities in northeast China, and more than half of any given year in Harbin is occupied by winter. To reveal the viral etiology and seasonality in adult patients from Harbin, a 4-year consecutive survey was conducted in Harbin, China. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2017, specimens were obtained from adult patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with lower respiratory tract infections. Sputum samples were examined by direct immunofluorescence assays to detect seven common respiratory viruses, including influenza virus (type A and B), parainfluenza virus (type 1 to 3), respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus. Adenovirus positive samples were seeded onto A549 cells to isolate viral strains. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the highly variable region of adenoviral hexon gene. Results: A total of 1,300 hospitalized adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled, in which 189 patients (14.5%) were detected as having at least one viral infection. The co-infection rate in this study was 25.9% (49/189). The dominant viral pathogen from 2014 to 2017 was parainfluenza virus, with a detection rate of 7.2%, followed by influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus. Based on the climate seasons determined by daily average temperature, the highest overall viral detection rate was detected in spring (22.0%, 52/236), followed by winter (13.4%, 109/813), autumn (11.4%, 13/114) and summer (10.9%, 15/137). Adenovirus type 3 strains with slight variations were isolated from positive cases, which were closely related to the GB strain from the United States, as well as the Harbin04B strain isolated locally. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that common respiratory viruses were partially responsible for hospitalized lower respiratory tract infections in adult patients from Harbin, China, with parainfluenza virus as the dominant viral pathogen. Climate seasons could be rational indicators for the seasonality analysis of airborne viral infections. Future surveillance on viral mutations would be necessary to reveal the evolutionary history of respiratory viruses.
- Disseminated Adenovirus Infection After Combined Liver-Kidney Transplantation. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8:408
- Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are well-described after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but less well understood in solid organ transplantation (SOT). We describe a case of disseminated H...
Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are well-described after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but less well understood in solid organ transplantation (SOT). We describe a case of disseminated HAdV type 21 infection 5 months after combined liver-kidney transplantation, expanding the limited literature describing this infection in the SOT population.
- Virus genotyping by massive parallel amplicon sequencing: adenovirus and enterovirus in the Norwegian MIDIA study. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2018 Dec 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Amplicon sequencing with a multiplex set of degenerate primers seems to be a rapid and reliable technical solution for genotyping of large collections of samples where simultaneous infections with multiple strains can be expected.
- Case-control study of the epidemiological and clinical features of human adenovirus 55 and human adenovirus 7 infection in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2008-2013. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 07; 18(1):634
- CONCLUSIONS: HAdV-55 circulated in Beijing during spring and appeared to cause pediatric respiratory infections that were as severe as HAdV-7 infections. Broader surveillance studies are needed.
- Vaccination with the Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins EapH1 and EapH2 impacts both S. aureus carriage and invasive disease. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2018 Nov 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination against EapH1 / EapH2 proteins may offer an antibiotic independent way to reduce S. aureus colonisation, as well as contributing to protection against S. aureus invasive disease.
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- [A multicenter clinical study on 1 138 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children from 2012 to 2017]. [Journal Article]
- ZEZhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec 02; 56(12):915-922
- Objective: To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods: By retrieving the laboratory...
Objective: To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods: By retrieving the laboratory information system in 18 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2017, the children with IPD were enrolled. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) must be isolated from the sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, hydrothorax and joint effusion etc.). The clinical characteristics, serotype, drug resistance, treatment and prognosis were reviewed and analyzed. According to the telephone follow up results, the patients were divided into death group and recovered group. The index as an independent risk factor of mortality was demonstrated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 1 138 children with IPD, including 684 male and 454 female. The proportion of male to female was 1.5∶1. The age ranged from one day to 16 years. The median age was 1 year 3 month. The majority was under 5 years of age (89.3%, n= 1 016), especially under 2 years of age (61.9%, n=704). In all cases, 88.2% (n=1 004) were community acquired infection. The infections included meningitis (n=446, 39.2%), pneumonia with bacteremia (n=339, 29.8%), and bacteremia without focus (n=232, 20.4%). Underlying diseases were found in 242 cases (21.3%). Co-infections were determined in 62 cases (5.4%) with mycoplasma, 27 cases (2.4%) with adenovirus and 34 cases with influenza virus (3.0%). The penicillin insensitivity (PNSP) rates in meningitis and non-meningitis isolates were 69.5% (276/397) and 35.9% (221/615), respectively. There were 81 strains serotyped, in which 93.8% (76/81) were covered by 13-valent protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV13). In the 965 patients who were followed up by phone call, 156 cases (16.2%) were confirmed dead. The independent risk factors for the death were under 2 years of age (OR=2.143, 95%CI 1.284-3.577, P=0.004), meningitis (OR=3.066, 95%CI 1.852-5.074, P<0.01), underlying disease (OR=4.801, 95%CI 2.953-7.804, P<0.01), septic shock(OR=3.542, 95%CI 1.829-6.859, P<0.01), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (OR=4.150, 95%CI 1.468-11.733, P=0.007), multiple organ failure (OR=12.693, 95%CI 6.623-24.325, P<0.01) and complications of central nervous system (OR=1.975, 95%CI 1.144-3.410, P=0.015). Conclusions: Most children with IPD were under 5 years of age, having underlying diseases and acquired the infection in community. The independent risk factors for death were under two years old, meningitis, underlying diseases and multiple organ failure. The problem of drug resistance was severe. The universal immunization of PCV13 would be effective to prevent IPD in Chinese children.