- Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children in Novosibirsk City, Russia (2013 - 2017). [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0200117
- CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the distribution of respiratory viruses in children with ARIs and showed the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus in the etiological structure of infections. This study is important for the improvement and optimization of diagnostic tactics, control and prevention of the respiratory viral infections.
- Water related ocular diseases. [Review]
- SJSaudi J Ophthalmol 2018 Jul-Sep; 32(3):227-233
- A number of ocular diseases can be attributed to contaminated water and we have coined a term "Water-related ocular diseases (WRODs)" to denote this wide-spectrum of conditions. WRODs are directly re...
A number of ocular diseases can be attributed to contaminated water and we have coined a term "Water-related ocular diseases (WRODs)" to denote this wide-spectrum of conditions. WRODs are directly related to human contact with water and can occur through toxic, allergic, inflammatory or infective mechanisms. The non-infective causes can include chemicals used to clean swimming pools, oil spills and water-sport related injuries. Similarly, a number of infective organisms causing ocular diseases are transmitted through water. Since, these conditions can occasionally prove devastating, a review was done with the following aims: (i) To study the epidemiology of WRODs (ii) To assess the clinical presentation and current management of WRODs (iii) To highlight the future challenges and possible solutions to these problems. The online search was conducted utilizing search engines such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ClinicalKey and the Virtual Library of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia for relevant terms such as water-borne, swimming pool and eye infections.
- Adenovirus replication and host innate response in primary human airway epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microbiol Immunol Infect 2018 Aug 31
- CONCLUSIONS: During the infections of hAECs by adenovirus, higher viral replication was found in the apical compartment but cytokine and chemokine responses were higher in the basolateral compartment. This indicated viral entrance and replication occurred more in the apical part and major innate response took place in the basolateral part, which may make adenovirus infect human airway efficiently and cause different degree of severity.
- Clinical application of a multiplex genetic pathogen detection system remaps the aetiology of diarrhoeal infections in Shanghai. [Journal Article]
- GPGut Pathog 2018; 10:37
- CONCLUSIONS: DP-HMGS has been shown to be a rapid, specific, sensitive and appropriate method for the simultaneous screening/detection of polymicrobial DP infections in faecal specimens. Widespread use of DP-HMGS is likely to advance routine diagnostic and clinical studies on the aetiology of acute diarrhoea.
- Retrospective Evaluation of Clinical Signs and Gross Pathologic Findings in Birds Infected With Mycobacterium genavense. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Avian Med Surg 2018; 32(3):194-204
- Mycobacterium genavense is regarded as the primary cause of mycobacteriosis in passerine and psittacine birds kept in captivity. Mycobacterium genavense is a potential zoonotic pathogen; therefore, e...
Mycobacterium genavense is regarded as the primary cause of mycobacteriosis in passerine and psittacine birds kept in captivity. Mycobacterium genavense is a potential zoonotic pathogen; therefore, early antemortem detection in birds is needed. In humans, infections with M genavense are found predominantly in immunocompromised people. To investigate clinical signs and pathologic lesions and to determine the prevalence of coinfections in birds infected with M genavense, we reviewed records of 83 birds in which DNA from M genavense had been detected via real-time polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate clinical signs in birds presented as patients, results of standardized examinations of 60 birds and radiographic results from 37 birds were investigated. Necropsy results of 82 of the 83 birds were evaluated, including results of additional parasitologic, bacteriologic, and virologic examinations. Birds included in the study comprised 15 species in the orders Passeriformes, Psittaciformes, Coliiformes, Columbiformes, Coraciiformes, and Ciconiiformes. A wide range of clinical manifestations were documented, including neurologic disorders, ocular manifestations, and gastrointestinal signs. Of the 60 birds examined clinically, 15% showed no clinical signs. Coinfections with a wide range of pathogens were detected in 52% (43 of 83) of the tested birds. Coinfections included Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, circovirus, polyomavirus, avian bornavirus, adenovirus, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium/ silvaticum, Mycoplasma species, Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus species, and various parasites. The high number of coinfections may reflect an impaired immune status in the birds examined. These results also suggest a broad host range for M genavense, and the existence of various clinical signs that may be strongly associated with coinfections with other pathogens.
- Canine morbillivirus (canine distemper virus) with concomitant canine adenovirus, canine parvovirus-2, and Neospora caninum in puppies: a retrospective immunohistochemical study. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Sep 07; 8(1):13477
- A retrospective immunohistochemical study was designed to investigate the frequency of concomitant traditional infectious disease pathogens in puppies that died suddenly and review the aspects of ass...
A retrospective immunohistochemical study was designed to investigate the frequency of concomitant traditional infectious disease pathogens in puppies that died suddenly and review the aspects of associated pathogenesis. Fifteen puppies were evaluated; the pathology reports and histopathologic slides of these animals were reviewed to determine the pattern of histopathologic lesions. The intralesional identification of antigens of canine (distemper) morbillivirus (CDV), canine adenovirus-1 and -2 (CAdV-1 and -2), canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum was evaluated by IHC within the histopathologic patterns observed. All puppies contained CDV nucleic acid by molecular testing. The most frequent histopathologic patterns were intestinal crypt necrosis (n = 8), white matter cerebellar demyelination (n = 7), necrohaemorrhagic hepatitis (n = 7), interstitial pneumonia (n = 7), and gallbladder oedema (n = 5). All puppies contained intralesional antigens of CDV in multiple tissues resulting in singular (n = 3), and concomitant dual (n = 3), triple (n = 5) and quadruple (n = 4) infections by CAdV-1, and -2, CPV-2, and N. caninum; T. gondii was not identified. Concomitant infections by CDV was observed with N. caninum (100%; 1/1), CPV-2 (100%; 8/8), CAdV-1 (100%; 8/8), and CAdV-2 (100%; 8/8). Intralesional antigens of CDV and not CAdV-1 were identified in cases of gallbladder oedema. The "blue eye" phenomenon was histologically characterized by corneal oedema and degenerative lesions to the corneal epithelium, without inflammatory reactions.
- Cytomegalovirus acute infection with pulmonary involvement in an immunocompetent patient. [Journal Article]
- IIDCases 2018; 14:e00445
- CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent hosts, even with severe CMV-CAP, the prognosis is good. However, antiviral treatment should be considered in the rare occasion of severe CMV infection. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the clinical benefit of antiviral treatment.
- Association between preceding viral respiratory infection and subsequent respiratory illnesses among children: A prospective cohort study in the Philippines. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2018 Sep 05
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that viral etiology plays a significant role in the severity of the present ARI and that viral infection affects the host's susceptibility to subsequent ARIs.
- Surveillance of respiratory viruses in the outpatient setting in rural coastal Kenya: baseline epidemiological observations. [Journal Article]
- WOWellcome Open Res 2018; 3:89
- Background: Endemic and seasonally recurring respiratory viruses are a major cause of disease and death globally. The burden is particularly severe in developing countries. Improved understanding of...
Background: Endemic and seasonally recurring respiratory viruses are a major cause of disease and death globally. The burden is particularly severe in developing countries. Improved understanding of the source of infection, pathways of spread and persistence in communities would be of benefit in devising intervention strategies. Methods: We report epidemiological data obtained through surveillance of respiratory viruses at nine outpatient health facilities within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Kilifi County, coastal Kenya, between January and December 2016. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from individuals of all ages presenting with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms (up to 15 swabs per week per facility) and screened for 15 respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Paediatric inpatient surveillance at Kilifi County Hospital for respiratory viruses provided comparative data. Results: Over the year, 5,647 participants were sampled, of which 3,029 (53.7%) were aged <5 years. At least one target respiratory virus was detected in 2,380 (42.2%) of the samples; the most common being rhinovirus 18.6% (1,050), influenza virus 6.9% (390), coronavirus 6.8% (387), parainfluenza virus 6.6% (371), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 3.9% (219) and adenovirus 2.7% (155). Virus detections were higher among <5-year-olds compared to older children and adults (50.3% vs 32.7%, respectively; χ 2(1) =177.3, P=0.0001). Frequency of viruses did not differ significantly by facility (χ 2(8) =13.38, P=0.072). However, prevalence was significantly higher among inpatients than outpatients in <5-year-olds for RSV (22.1% vs 6.0%; χ 2(1) = 159.4, P=0.0001), and adenovirus (12.4% vs 4.4%, χ 2(1) =56.6, P=0.0001). Conclusions: Respiratory virus infections are common amongst ARI outpatients in this coastal Kenya setting, particularly in young children. Rhinovirus predominance warrants further studies on the health and socio-economic implications. RSV and adenovirus were more commonly associated with severe disease. Further analysis will explore epidemiological transmission patterns with the addition of virus sequence data.
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- Viral infection in community acquired pneumonia patients with fever: a prospective observational study. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thorac Dis 2018; 10(7):4387-4395
- CONCLUSIONS: Viruses play an important role in CAP patients with fever, a systematic clinical, radiological and biological analysis of these patients can contribute to effective therapy that may prevent the development of CAP and improve the outcomes. The present work showed an elaborate analysis evidence of viral infection among fever CAP inpatients.