- A Novel Recombinant Canine Adenovirus Type 1 Detected from Acute Lethal Cases of Infectious Canine Hepatitis. [Journal Article]
- VIViral Immunol 2017 Apr 20
- In this study, canine adenoviruses (CAdVs) from two acute fatal cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) were analyzed using molecular detection and sequencing of the pVIII, E3, and fiber protein g...
In this study, canine adenoviruses (CAdVs) from two acute fatal cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) were analyzed using molecular detection and sequencing of the pVIII, E3, and fiber protein genes. Pathological findings in affected dogs were typical for CAdV-1 associated disease, characterized by severe centrilobular to panlobular necrohemorrhagic hepatitis and the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the terminal stages of disease. Comparison of partial genome sequences revealed that although these newly detected viruses mainly had CAdV-1 genome characteristics, their pVIII gene was more similar to that of CAdV-2. This likely suggests that a recombination has occurred between CAdV-1 and CAdV-2, which possibly explains the cause of vaccine failure or increased virulence of the virus in the observed ICH cases.
- Update in the treatment of non-influenza respiratory virus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2017 Apr 20
- Despite the improved outcomes in solid organ transplantation with regard to prevention of rejection and increased patient and graft survival, infection remains a common cause of morbidity and mortali...
Despite the improved outcomes in solid organ transplantation with regard to prevention of rejection and increased patient and graft survival, infection remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Respiratory viruses are a frequent and potentially serious cause of infection after solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of respiratory virus infection (RVI) may be more severe and unusual in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) compared with the non-immunocompromised population. Areas covered: This article reviews the non-influenza RVIs that are commonly encountered in SOTRs. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics are highlighted and available treatment options are discussed. Expert opinion: New diagnostic tools, particularly rapid molecular assays, have expanded the ability to identify specific RVI pathogens in SOTRs. This is not only useful from a treatment standpoint but also to guide infection control practices. More data are needed on RVIs in the solid organ transplant population, particularly regarding their effect on rejection and graft dysfunction. There is also a need for new antiviral agents active against these infections as well as markers that can identify which patients would most benefit from treatment.
- Incidence of respiratory viral infections and associated factors among children attending a public kindergarten in Taipei City. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Formos Med Assoc 2017 Apr 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Boys and children with allergies were more susceptible to multiple viral infections, so they should be more cautious about viral infections.
- Persistence in Temporary Lung Niches: A Survival Strategy of Lung-Resident Memory CD8(+) T Cells. [Journal Article]
- VIViral Immunol 2017 Apr 18
- Respiratory virus infections, such as those mediated by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), rhinovirus, ...
Respiratory virus infections, such as those mediated by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in children and older adults. Furthermore, the potential emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus poses a significant public health threat. Thus, the development of vaccines capable of eliciting long-lasting protective immunity to those pathogens is a major public health priority. CD8(+) Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are a newly defined population that resides permanently in the nonlymphoid tissues including the lung. These cells are capable of providing local protection immediately after infection, thereby promoting rapid host recovery. Recent studies have offered new insights into the anatomical niches that harbor lung CD8(+) TRM cells, and also identified the requirement and limitations of TRM maintenance. However, it remains controversial whether lung CD8(+) TRM cells are continuously replenished by new cells from the circulation or permanently lodged in this site. A better understanding of how lung CD8(+) TRM cells are generated and maintained and the tissue-specific factors that drive local TRM formation is required for optimal vaccine development. This review focuses on recent advance in our understanding of CD8(+) TRM cell establishment and maintenance in the lung, and describes how those processes are uniquely regulated in this tissue.
- Multiple etiologies of infectious diarrhea and concurrent infections in a pediatric outpatient-based screening study in Odisha, India. [Journal Article]
- GPGut Pathog 2017; 9:16
- CONCLUSIONS: Suspecting possible multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can aid in a better pharmacological management of acute childhood diarrhea. It is hypothesized that in cases with concurrent infections the etiological agents might be complementing each other's strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea that could be studied better in experimental infections.
- Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(4):e0175469
- Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increase...
Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic parasitic disease and suffer from inflammatory diseases of yet unknown etiology, possibly bearing infectious potential for other animal species and humans. This study highlights the value of monitoring terrestrial wildlife following the "One Health" notion, to estimate the incidence and the possible spread of zoonotic pathogens and to avoid animal to animal spillover as well as transmission to humans.
- Real-time PCR Detection of the Most Common Bacteria and Viruses Causing Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- CLClin Lab 2017 Apr 01; 63(4):827-832
- CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and treatment of meningitis are very important for reducing its mortality and morbidity. In patients with suspected meningitis, early detection of the responsible agents may be possible with molecular methods, such as PCR. Significant economic benefits may be obtained by preventing unnecessary antibiotic use and hospitalizations through the early detection of the microbial agents.
- Evaluation of recombinant adenovirus vaccines based on glycoprotein D and truncated UL25 against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in mice. [Journal Article]
- MIMicrobiol Immunol 2017 Apr 05
- The high prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections in humans necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine that will need to induce vigorous T-cell responses to control t...
The high prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections in humans necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine that will need to induce vigorous T-cell responses to control the viral infection and transmission. We designed rAd-gD2rAd-gD2▵UL25rAd-▵UL25 to investigate whether recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses vaccine could induce specific T cell responses and protect mice against intravaginal HSV-2 challenge compared with FI-HSV-2. The recombinant adenovirus-based HSV-2 showed higher reductions in mortality and stronger antigen-specific T cell responses compared with FI-HSV-2 and the severity of genital lesions in the mice immunized with rAd-gD2▵UL25 was significantly decreased via eliciting IFN-γ-secreting T responses compared with rAd-gD2 and rAd-▵UL25 group in present study. Our results demonstrated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant adenovirus vaccines in acute HSV-2 infection following intravaginal challenge in mice.
- Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance for hospitalized patients in Northern Vietnam, 2011-2014. [Journal Article]
- JJJpn J Infect Dis 2017 Mar 28
- CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viral infection, particularly Influenza and Rhino viruses were associated with high rates of SARI hospitalized, and future studies correlating clinical aspects are needed to inform interventions including targeted vaccination.
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- Retinoic Acid Regulates Immune Responses by Promoting IL-22 and Modulating S100 Proteins in Viral Hepatitis. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2017 May 01; 198(9):3448-3460
- Although large amounts of vitamin A and its metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) are stored in the liver, how RA regulates liver immune responses during viral infection remains unclear. In this st...
Although large amounts of vitamin A and its metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) are stored in the liver, how RA regulates liver immune responses during viral infection remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-22, mainly produced by hepatic γδ T cells, attenuated liver injury in adenovirus-infected mice. RA can promote γδ T cells to produce mTORC1-dependent IL-22 in the liver, but inhibits IFN-γ and IL-17. RA also affected the aptitude of T cell responses by modulating dendritic cell (DC) migration and costimulatory molecule expression. These results suggested that RA plays an immunomodulatory role in viral infection. Proteomics data revealed that RA downregulated S100 family protein expression in DCs, as well as NF-κB/ERK pathway activation in these cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of S100A4-repressed, virus-pulsed DCs into the hind foot of naive mice failed to prime T cell responses in draining lymph nodes. Our study has demonstrated a crucial role for RA in promoting IL-22 production and tempering DC function through downregulating S100 family proteins during viral hepatitis.