- Non-myeloablative conditioning for second hematopoietic cell transplantation for graft failure in patients with non-malignant disorders: a prospective study and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- BMBone Marrow Transplant 2017 Jan 16
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) effectively treats several non-malignant disorders such as selected lysosomal disorders, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and hemoglobinopathies. Howe...
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) effectively treats several non-malignant disorders such as selected lysosomal disorders, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and hemoglobinopathies. However, rates of graft failure (GF) in non-malignant populations exceed those of patients with malignant indications for HCT. Salvage conditioning regimens and outcomes for second HCT for GF vary immensely in the literature. We report 17 consecutive pediatric patients with non-malignant disorders who underwent a second allogenic HCT for GF using a non-myeloablative, low-dose busulfan-based regimen. Graft sources for the second transplant included umbilical cord blood, unrelated bone marrow and unrelated PBSCs. Median age at time of second HCT was 6.6 years (1.1-14.6 years). Fourteen of seventeen patients (82%) achieved engraftment, with a 3-year overall survival of 82% (95% CI, 54-94%). Day 100 transplant-related mortality was 12% (95% CI, 0-27%). CMV and adenovirus reactivation occurred in 30% and fungal infections in 18%. The incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD disease was 35% (95% CI, 13-58%) with only 6% grade III-IV (95% CI, 0-17%). In summary, we illustrate excellent overall survival and acceptable toxicity using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen for second HCT as salvage therapy for first GF in patients with non-malignant conditions.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 16 January 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.356.
- The Relationships between Respiratory Virus Infection and Aminotransferase in Children. [Journal Article]
- PGPediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2016; 19(4):243-250
- CONCLUSIONS: Nonspecific reactive hepatitis is more common among patients with adenovirus, enterovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection, as well as among those infected at a younger age. Compared with AST levels, ALT levels are better indicators of the severity of nonspecific reactive hepatitis.
- Immune responses to in ovo vaccine formulations containing inactivated fowl adenovirus 8b with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) and avian beta defensin as adjuvants in chickens. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2017 Jan 10
- Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major viral infections causing substantial economic loss to the global poultry industry. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of mortality (2-30...
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major viral infections causing substantial economic loss to the global poultry industry. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of mortality (2-30%) and high morbidity (60-70%). IBH is caused by a number of serotypes of fowl adenovirus with substantially low levels of serotype cross protection. Thus far, there is no effective and safe vaccine commercially available in the North America for the control of IBH in chickens. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) is a high molecular weight, biodegradable water soluble polymer that has been well characterized as a safe and effective adjuvant for a number of experimental veterinary vaccines. Similarly, host defence peptides, including β-defensins, have also been shown to exhibit strong adjuvant potential. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of PCEP and avian beta defensin (ABD) in a vaccine formulation containing inactivated fowl adenovirus (FAdV) serotype 8b administered in ovo. Our data showed that a combination of PCEP and inactivated virus is capable of inducing a robust and long lasting antibody response. Moreover, significant enhancement of IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-12(p40) and IL-6 gene expression under the influence of PCEP suggests that as an in ovo adjuvant PCEP has the ability to activate a substantial balanced immune response in chickens. To our knowledge, these are the first studies in which PCEP and ABD have been characterized as adjuvants for the development of an in ovo poultry vaccine. It is expected that these preliminary studies will be helpful in the development of safer and more effective in ovo vaccine against IBH and other infectious diseases affecting chickens.
- Molecular phylogeny of a novel human adenovirus type 8 strain causing a prolonged, multi-state keratoconjunctivitis epidemic in Germany. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Jan 13; 7:40680
- The German infectious disease surveillance system revealed an increase of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) from an average of 320 cases/year (2001 to 2010) up to 2146 and 1986 cases in 2012 and 20...
The German infectious disease surveillance system revealed an increase of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) from an average of 320 cases/year (2001 to 2010) up to 2146 and 1986 cases in 2012 and 2013, respectively. From November 2011 until December 2013 (epidemic period) 85% of typed isolates were human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-D8), whereas only low level circulation (19%) of HAdV-D8 was observed outside the epidemic period. In order to investigate whether a novel monophyletic HAdV-D8 strain prevailed during the epidemic period, complete genomic sequences of 23 HAdV-D8 isolates were generated by deep sequencing and analyzed phylogenetically. For comparison, eight HAdV-D8 isolates from outside the epidemic period were sequenced. HAdV-D8 isolates of the epidemic period had a very high sequence identity of at least 99.9% and formed a monophyletic cluster with two subclusters. A single outlier was closely related to HAdV-D8 strains isolated prior to the epidemic period. Circulation of the epidemic strain was detected as early as 2010 but not after the epidemic period in 2014. In conclusion, molecular phylogeny of complete genomic sequences proved a monophyletic HAdV-D8 epidemic. However, co-circulation of other HAdV types as well as better reporting may have contributed to the huge increase of reported cases.
- Adenovirus modulates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by reprogramming ORP1L-VAP protein contacts for cholesterol transport from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2017 Jan 11
- Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus...
Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus. ORP1L is known to form highly dynamic contacts with endoplasmic reticulum-resident VAP proteins that regulate late endosome function under regulation of Rab7-GTP. Our studies have demonstrated that ORP1L-VAP complexes also support transport of LDL-derived cholesterol from endosomes to endoplasmic reticulum where it is converted to cholesteryl esters stored in lipid droplets when ORP1L was bound to RIDα. The virally-induced mechanism counteracted defects in the predominant cholesterol transport pathway regulated by the late endosomal membrane protein NPC1 arising during early stages of viral infection. However, unlike NPC1, RIDα did not reconstitute transport to endoplasmic reticulum pools that regulate SREBP transcription factors. RIDα-induced lipid trafficking also attenuated pro-inflammatory signaling by Toll-like receptor 4 that has a central role in Ad pathogenesis, and which is known to be tightly regulated by cholesterol-rich "lipid rafts". Collectively these data show that RIDα utilizes ORP1L in a way that is distinct from its normal function in uninfected cells to fine-tune lipid raft cholesterol that regulates innate immunity to adenovirus in endosomes.
- Humanized Mice Reproduce Acute and Persistent Human Adenovirus Infection. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2017 Jan 01; 215(1):70-79
- Severe human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are an increasing threat for immunosuppressed individuals, particularly those who have received stem cell transplants. It has been previously hypothesized th...
Severe human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are an increasing threat for immunosuppressed individuals, particularly those who have received stem cell transplants. It has been previously hypothesized that severe infections might be due to reactivation of a persistent infection, but this hypothesis has been difficult to test owing to the lack of a permissive in vivo model of HAdV infection. Here we established a humanized mouse model that reproduces features of acute and persistent HAdV infection. In this model, acute infection correlated with high mortality, weight loss, liver pathology, and expression of viral proteins in several organs. In contrast, persistent infection was asymptomatic and led to establishment of HAdV-specific adaptive immunity and expression of early viral genes exclusively in the bone marrow. These findings validate the use of humanized mice to study acute and persistent HAdV infection and strongly suggest the presence of cellular reservoirs in the bone marrow.
- Development of a one-run real-time PCR detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Med Sci 2017 Jan 08
- Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal patho...
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets.
- [Monitoring and research on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from sentinel hospital of Zhejiang Province during 2009 to 2014]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Dec 06; 50(12):1084-1090
- Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Method...
Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g). Eight kinds of bacteria (Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Diarrheagenic E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica and Plesiomonas shigelloides) and five kinds of viruses (Rotavirus, Norovirus, Sappovirus, Astrovirus and Adenovirus) were detected. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact probability method were used to compare different characteristics of patients with single bacterial infection, single virus infection and multiple infection (bacteria-bacteria, bacteria-viruses, virus-virus). Results: During 2009 to 2014, 9 364 fecal samples from acute diarrhea patients were collected and tested, among which 3 500 cases were tested positive, with total positive rate of 37.38%. Positive rates of bacteria and viruses were 13.14% (1 230 cases) and 20.75% (1 943 cases), respectively. Mixed infection positive rate of multiple pathogens was 3.49% (327 cases). Positive rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (5.96% , 558 cases) was the highest among bacterial pathogens, followed by pathogenic Escherichia coli (3.86%, 361 cases). Viruses were mainly Norovirus (10.73%, 1 005 cases) and rotavirus (8.35%, 782 cases). A big difference existed in diarrheogenic pathogen spectrum between patients less than 15 years old and patients equal or older than 15 years old. Pathogens for patients less than 15 years old were mainly virus, with the positive rate of 32.69% (1 014 cases). However, the positive rate of bacteria was 16.86% (1 056 cases) in patients equal or older than 15 years old. Single bacterial infection was highest in age group of 25-34 years old (18.62%, 302 cases) , single virus infection was highest in age group of 1-4 years old (41.12%, 435 cases) , and mixed infections of multiple pathogens were mainly existed in age group of 1-4 years old (7.37%, 78 cases) . Pathogen positive rate were increasing year by year. Pathogen positive rate of patients with acute diarrhea has obvious seasonality, with single bacterial infection being highest during July to September and single virus infection being highest during December to March. Pathogen spectrum of outpatient and emergency patients with acute diarrhea in Zhejiang Province changed a little from 2009 to 2014, mainly rotavirus (22.34% (782/3 500)), norovirus (28.71% (1 005/3 500)), vibrio parahaemolyticus (15.92% (558/3 500)) and Escherichia coli (10.31% (361/3 500)). However, pathogen spectrums in different years owned different features. Conclusion: Common pathogens in outpatient and emergency patients with acute diarrhea in Zhejiang Province were tested with significant seasonal epidemic law. The composition of pathogenic spectrum was variant in different age group. Constitutes of major pathogen spectrum in different years differed a little.
- Novel oncolytic viral therapies in patients with thoracic malignancies. [Review]
- OVOncolytic Virother 2017; 6:1-9
- Oncolytic virotherapy is the use of replication-competent viruses to treat malignancies. The potential of oncolytic virotherapy as an approach to cancer therapy is based on historical evidence that c...
Oncolytic virotherapy is the use of replication-competent viruses to treat malignancies. The potential of oncolytic virotherapy as an approach to cancer therapy is based on historical evidence that certain viral infections can cause spontaneous remission of both hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Oncolytic virotherapy may eliminate cancer cells through either direct oncolysis of infected tumor cells or indirect immune-mediated oncolysis of uninfected tumor cells. Recent advances in oncolytic virotherapy include the development of a wide variety of genetically attenuated RNA viruses with precise cellular tropism and the identification of cell-surface receptors that facilitate viral transfer to the tissue of interest. Current research is also focused on targeting metastatic disease by sustaining the release of progeny viruses from infected tumor cells and understanding indirect tumor cell killing through immune-mediated mechanisms of virotherapy. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate recent evidence on the clinical development of tissue-specific viruses capable of targeting tumor cells and eliciting secondary immune responses in lung cancers and mesothelioma.
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- Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Infections by an Encephalitic Virus, Mouse Adenovirus Type 1. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2017 Jan 04
- Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection causes encephalitis in susceptible strains of mice and alters the permeability of infected brains to small molecules, which indicates disruption of the blood...
Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection causes encephalitis in susceptible strains of mice and alters the permeability of infected brains to small molecules, which indicates disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In pathologic conditions, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can disrupt the BBB through their proteolytic activity on basement membrane and tight junction proteins. We examined whether MAV-1 infection alters MMP activity in vivo and in vitro. Infected MAV-1-susceptible SJL mice had higher MMP2 and MMP9 activity in brains, measured by gelatin zymography, than mock infected mice. Infected MAV-1-resistant BALB/c mice had MMP activity levels equivalent to mock infection. Primary SJL mouse brain endothelial cells (a target of MAV-1 in vivo) infected ex vivo with MAV-1 had no difference in activity of secreted MMP2 or MMP9 from mock cells. We showed for the first time that astrocytes and microglia are also infected in vivo by MAV-1. Infected mixed primary cultures of astrocytes and microglia had higher levels of MMP2 and MMP9 activity than mock infection. These results indicate that increased MMP activity in the brains of MAV-1-infected susceptible mice may be due to MMP activity produced by endothelial cells, astrocytes, and microglia, which in turn may contribute to BBB disruption and encephalitis in susceptible mice.