- Association between hidradenitis suppurativa and hospitalization for psychiatric disorders: A cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2018 Nov 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Inpatients with HS had increased odds of comorbid mental health disorders, overall, and multiple primary mental health admissions, in particular, which were associated with considerable excess costs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Molecular mechanisms that stabilize short term synaptic plasticity during presynaptic homeostatic plasticity. [Journal Article]
- EElife 2018 Nov 13; 7
- Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) compensates for impaired postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor function through a rapid, persistent adjustment of neurotransmitter release, an effect that ca...
Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) compensates for impaired postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor function through a rapid, persistent adjustment of neurotransmitter release, an effect that can exceed 200%. An unexplained property of PHP is the preservation of short-term plasticity (STP), thereby stabilizing activity-dependent synaptic information transfer. We demonstrate that the dramatic potentiation of presynaptic release during PHP is achieved while simultaneously maintaining a constant ratio of primed to super-primed synaptic vesicles, thereby preserving STP. Mechanistically, genetic, biochemical and electrophysiological evidence argue that a constant ratio of primed to super-primed synaptic vesicles is achieved by the concerted action of three proteins: Unc18, Syntaxin1A and RIM. Our data support a model based on the regulated availability of Unc18 at the presynaptic active zone, a process that is restrained by Syntaxin1A and facilitated by RIM. As such, regulated vesicle priming/super-priming enables PHP to stabilize both synaptic gain and the activity-dependent transfer of information at a synapse.
- Overground walking patterns after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury show distinct response patterns to unloading. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroeng Rehabil 2018 Nov 12; 15(1):102
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that continuous, dynamic unloading during overground walking results in subtle and proportional gait adjustments corresponding to changes in body load. CiSCI demonstrated diminished responses in specific domains of gait, indicating that their altered neural processing impeded the adjustment to environmental constraints. CiSCI retain their movement patterns under overground unloading, indicating that this is a viable locomotor therapy tool that may also offer a potential window on the diminished neural control of intralimb coordination.
- Distribution of Extreme Vital Signs and Complete Blood Count Values of Healthy Parturients: A Retrospective Database Analysis and Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- A&AAnesth Analg 2018 Nov 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings justify the practice of using ≥2 repeated measurements for diagnosing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Lower normal blood pressure limits may be below those defining hypotensive shock. Normal heart rates exceed the accepted definitions of both tachy- and bradycardia. Normal temperatures at all times have a more narrow range than previously thought, and the normal range of white blood cell count has outliers exceeding the current definitions of leukocytosis or leukopenia at all times. The normal lower range of hemoglobin was constantly below 10 g/dL, and normal platelet counts were considerably lower than those previously described. The vital signs and complete blood count values thus far considered normal for the peripartum period may require some adjustment. New definitions for hypotension, tachy- and bradycardia, fever, and leukocyte quantitative disorders should be considered.
- Whole-exome sequencing of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome families and review of Human Gene Mutation Database PTCH1 mutation data. [Journal Article]
- MGMol Genet Genomic Med 2018 Nov 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 89% of our NCI families had a pathogenic PTCH1 mutation. The identification of PTCH1 mutations in previously mutation-negative families underscores the importance of repeated testing when new technologies become available. Additional clinical information linked to mutation databases would enhance follow-up and future studies of genotype-phenotype relationships.
- Transition-transversion encoding and genetic relationship metric in ReliefF feature selection improves pathway enrichment in GWAS. [Journal Article]
- BMBioData Min 2018; 11:23
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that using more genetically motivated encodings, such as transition/transversion, and metrics that adjust for allele frequency heterogeneity, such as GRM, lead to ReliefF attribute scores with improved pathway enrichment.
- Elevated serum IL-6 and adiponectin levels are associated with frailty and physical function in Chinese older adults. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Interv Aging 2018; 13:2013-2020
- CONCLUSIONS: High levels of IL-6, adiponectin, vaspin, and glucose as well as low levels of IGF-1 were found in frail older adults. Furthermore, IL-6, adiponectin, and leptin levels were negatively correlated with physical function, suggesting that inflammatory mediators and adipokines are biomarkers for frailty and decreased function in older adults.
- The effect of body mass index on glucagon-like peptide receptor gene expression in the post mortem brain from individuals with mood and psychotic disorders. [Journal Article]
- ENEur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Nov 05
- There is an increasing interest in the putative role of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists as novel therapeutic agents for mental disorders. Herein, we investigated the expressions of...
There is an increasing interest in the putative role of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists as novel therapeutic agents for mental disorders. Herein, we investigated the expressions of GLP-1R and GLP-2R genes, and its relationship with body mass index (BMI), in the post-mortem brain tissue of patients with mood (MD) and psychotic disorders. Brain samples were localized to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (n = 459) and hippocampus (n = 378). After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, post-mortem interval (PMI) and BMI, we observed significant differences, between healthy controls and MD subjects, in GLP-1R and GLP-2R gene expression in the dlPFC (β = 1.504, p = 0.004; and β = 1.305, p = 0.011, respectively); whereas in the hippocampus, only GLP-1R expression was significantly associated with MD (β = -1.28, p = 0.029). No significant differences were found in relation to schizophrenia. In addition, we observed a moderating effect of MD diagnosis on the associations between BMI, GLP-1R and GLP-2R expression values in the dlPFC (β = -0.05, p = 0.003; and β = -0.04, p = 0.004, respectively). There was a similar moderating effect for GLP-1R in the hippocampus (β = 0.043, 95% CI 0.003; 0.08 p = 0.03), but in an opposite direction than observed in the dlPFC. This is the first evidence of abnormal gene expression of GLP-1R and GLP-2R in postmortem brain of individuals with MD, providing a rationale for further inquiry and proof of principle interventional studies.
- Rate of and time to symptomatic remission in first-episode psychosis in Northern Malawi: A STROBE-compliant article. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(45):e13078
- Although longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor response to antipsychotic treatment, it remains unclear whether it independently influences time to symptomatic remission...
Although longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor response to antipsychotic treatment, it remains unclear whether it independently influences time to symptomatic remission in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study examined rate of symptomatic remission, and explored if DUP, premorbid functioning, global functioning, insight and socio-demographic characteristics were independently associated with time to symptomatic remission in FEP.This prospective study enrolled 126 FEP patients (aged 18-65) between June 2009 and September 2012. Subjects were followed-up monthly over 18 months after they had received antipsychotic medication. Remission in positive and negative symptoms was defined as in the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) criteria. Subjects were defined as "in symptomatic remission" if they remitted in both negative and positive symptoms. At baseline, the following explanatory variables were measured: socio-demographic characteristics; DUP as short (≤5 months) and long (>5 months); premorbid functioning as deteriorating, stable poor, and stable good according to Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale; global functioning as "worst (1-10) to serious (41-50)" and "moderate (51-60) to superior (91-100)," according to the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale; and insight as poor (≤8) and good (≥9) according to the Insight Scale (Birchwood). Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to generate results.Out of 126 subjects, 98 (78%) completed follow-up, of which 70 (71.4%) achieved symptomatic remission within mean duration of 8.05 (4.54) months. Besides, having long DUP and separated/divorced/widowed (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.07, 95%CI = [0.01, 0.46]), long DUP and poor insight (aHR = 0.18, 95%CI = [0.04, 0.89]), poor insight and separated/divorced/widowed (aHR = 0.09, 95%CI = [0.01, 0.70]), deteriorating premorbid functioning (aHR = 0.47, 95%CI = [0.23, 0.97]), family history of psychiatric disorders (aHR = 0.52, 95%CI = (0.30, 0.93]), and being male (aHR = 0.47, 95%CI = [0.24, 0.92]) delayed symptomatic remission.These results propose that psychological interventions and social support for mental health problems are warranted and may enhance better response to antipsychotic medications among separated/divorced/widowed patients with long DUP or poor insight, and poor insight patients with long DUP. Deteriorating premorbid functioning, family history of psychiatric disorders and being male continue being important risk factors for poor odds of remission.
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- Sex differences in HIV-associated cognitive impairment. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2018 Nov 28; 32(18):2719-2726
- CONCLUSIONS: Women, particularly black women, were most at-risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Higher rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in women versus men may reflect differences in educational quality.