- Development of an Inline Dry Powder Inhaler for Oral or Trans-Nasal Aerosol Administration to Children. [Journal Article]J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2019JA
- CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study has proposed and initially developed an efficient inline DPI for delivering spray-dried formulations to children using positive pressure operation. Actuation of the device with positive pressure enabled effective N2L aerosol administration with a DPI, which may be beneficial for subjects who are too young to use a mouthpiece or to simultaneously treat the nasal and lung airways of older children.
- "At a loss of what to do": a qualitative analysis of parents' online discussion forums about their administration of asthma inhalers to their young children. [Journal Article]J Asthma 2019; :1-10JA
- CONCLUSIONS: The online discussions highlight parents' distress, lack of preparedness, and understanding of administering inhaler devices to young children. While the prevalence of the problem cannot be estimated from our data, it illustrates a need for some healthcare professionals to review their own knowledge and skills in administration of inhaled medication to younger patients, and their provision of patient and family centered care.
- Metabolic bone disease of prematurity: causes, recognition, prevention, treatment and long-term consequences. [Review]Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2019; 104(5):F560-F566AD
- Metabolic bone disease of prematurity (MBDP) is characterised by skeletal demineralisation, and in severe cases it can result in fragility fractures of long bones and ribs during routine handling. MBDP arises from prenatal and postnatal factors. Infants who are born preterm are deprived of fetal mineral accumulation, 80% of which occurs in the third trimester. Postnatally, it is difficult to main…
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity (MBDP) is characterised by skeletal demineralisation, and in severe cases it can result in fragility fractures of long bones and ribs during routine handling. MBDP arises from prenatal and postnatal factors. Infants who are born preterm are deprived of fetal mineral accumulation, 80% of which occurs in the third trimester. Postnatally, it is difficult to maintain a comparable intake of minerals, and medications, such as corticosteroids and diuretic therapy, lead to bone resorption. With improvements in neonatal care and nutrition, the incidence of MBDP in preterm infants appears to have decreased, although the recent practice of administering phosphate supplements alone will result in secondary hyperparathyroidism and associated bone loss, worsening MBDP. Postnatal immobilisation and loss of placental supply of oestrogen also contribute to skeletal demineralisation. There is no single diagnostic or screening test for MBDP, with pitfalls existing for most radiological and biochemical investigations. By reviewing the pathophysiology of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, one can establish that plasma parathyroid hormone is important in determining the aetiology of MBDP - primarily calcipaenia or phosphopaenia. This will then direct treatment with the appropriate supplements while considering optimal physiological calcium to phosphate ratios.
- Extraskeletal Calcifications in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome. [Journal Article]Bone 2019; 125:103-111BONE
- CONCLUSIONS: Extraskeletal calcifications increased with age in children with HGPS and were composed of hydroxyapatite. The urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and TRP were elevated for age while FGF23 was decreased. Magnesium decreased and PTH increased after lonafarnib therapy which may alter the ability to mobilize calcium. These findings demonstrate that children with HGPS with normal renal function and an unremarkable Ca × Pi develop extraskeletal calcifications by an unidentified mechanism that may involve decreased plasma magnesium and FGF23. Calcium carbonate accelerated their development and is, therefore, not recommended for routine supplementation in these children.
- Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia: An Unusual Case of Fright-Induced Prehospital Cardiac Arrest in a Healthy 6-Year-Old Child. [Journal Article]Prehosp Emerg Care 2019; :1-6PE
- Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia is a rare but often lethal genetic disorder that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 people. It often first manifests as stress or exercise-related syncope or sudden unexplained cardiac death, primarily in the pediatric and young adult population. We present a case of a 6-year-old male who had a sudden unexplained prehospital cardiac arrest afte…
Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia is a rare but often lethal genetic disorder that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 people. It often first manifests as stress or exercise-related syncope or sudden unexplained cardiac death, primarily in the pediatric and young adult population. We present a case of a 6-year-old male who had a sudden unexplained prehospital cardiac arrest after being scared by a domestic animal and who presented in ventricular fibrillation. The patient was subsequently defibrillated with a return of spontaneous circulation. During the course of care, medications with beta-1 and -2 agonist properties were administered, followed by multiple further episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF). Once these medications were discontinued and beta blockers were administered, the patient had no further episodes of PVT/VF and was subsequently discharged from hospital 7 days later, completely neurologically intact. This case suggests the need for caution when considering administering beta agonists in a pediatric cardiac arrest patient with no known history of heart disease who presents in VF or PVT after an incident of extreme stress or strenuous physical activity.
- [Survey on the Efficacy of Two Types of Medication Administration-assisting Food for Hospitalized Children]. [Journal Article]Yakugaku Zasshi 2019; 139(6):939-953YZ
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two types of medication administration-assisting food. The subjects were 30 caregivers of children from one to eight years old hospitalized in the pediatrics unit of a university hospital, and 30 nurses caring for them. The caregivers gave medications to their children using two types of administration-assisting food, "chocolate" and "j…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two types of medication administration-assisting food. The subjects were 30 caregivers of children from one to eight years old hospitalized in the pediatrics unit of a university hospital, and 30 nurses caring for them. The caregivers gave medications to their children using two types of administration-assisting food, "chocolate" and "jelly". A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the efficacy of the administration-assisting food, and the caregivers and nurses responded to the questionnaire after the medication was given. The questionnaire data included many positive responses regarding the administration-assisting food, demonstrating its efficacy. The caregivers of children aged ≥4 years responded that the "chocolate" type was more effective than the "jelly" type in administering medications. There also tended to be a positive opinion of the "chocolate" among the nurses of children aged ≥4 years. However, the opinion of the "chocolate" and "jelly" were equivalent among the nurses of children aged <4 years. The reasons for these results were thought to be that the children were at an age when their sense of taste was developing and changing, plus correlations with past experience of the food and differences in the properties of the administration-assisting food. Easiness of swallowing of administration-assisting foods may be important for children whose taste is underdeveloped. However, the taste of administration-assisting foods may be important for children with taste development. Selecting administration-assisting foods based on these factors may be useful for the smooth administration of medication.
- Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus no intervention or placebo for chronic hepatitis B. [Journal Article]Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 4:CD013089CD
- CONCLUSIONS: The included trials lacked data on health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and hepatitis B-related morbidity. The effects of Radix Sophorae flavescentis on all-cause mortality and on the proportion of participants with serious adverse events and adverse events considered 'not to be serious' remain unclear. We advise caution in interpreting results showing that Radix Sophorae flavescentis reduced the proportion of people with detectable HBV-DNA and detectable HBeAg because the trials reporting on these outcomes are at high risk of bias and both outcomes are non-validated surrogate outcomes. We were unable to obtain information on the design and conduct of a large number of trials; therefore, we were deterred from including them in our review. Undisclosed funding may influence trial results and may lead to poor trial design. Given the wide usage of Radix Sophorae flavescentis, we need large, unbiased, high-quality placebo-controlled randomised trials in which patient-centred outcomes are assessed.
- Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for refractory epilepsy and medication refusal. [Journal Article]Arch Dis Child 2019; 104(7):690-692AD
- CONCLUSIONS: This case series of children with resistant epilepsy demonstrates improvement in seizure control and QOL following PEG tube placement for AED administration.
- Care performed by family caregivers of children submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [Journal Article]Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2019; 27:e3120RL
- CONCLUSIONS: the different aspects in which the caregiver acts in the care of the child were understood. Such care equips the health team to elaborate measures for guidance and preparation of home care that are effective and directed to the needs of the patient and their family. The understanding of the care that they accomplish enables the caregiver a greater understanding of their role, as well as of the decisions they will make by their being under treatment.
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- Pyronaridine-artesunate for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. [Meta-Analysis]Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 1:CD006404CD
- CONCLUSIONS: Pyronaridine-artesunate was efficacious against uncomplicated P falciparum malaria, achieved a PCR-adjusted treatment failure rate of less than 5% at days 28 and 42, and may be at least as good as, or better than other marketed ACTs.Pyronaridine-artesunate increases the risk of episodes of raised ALT > 5 x ULN. This meets criteria for mild drug-induced liver injury. On one instance this was linked to raised bilirubin, indicating moderate drug-induced liver injury. No episodes of severe drug-induced liver injury were reported. The findings of this review cannot fully inform a risk-benefit assessment for an unselected population. Readers should remain aware of this uncertainty when considering use of pyronaridine-artesunate in patients with known or suspected pre-existing liver dysfunction, and when co-administering with other medications which may cause liver dysfunction.