- Vanishing of ruptured adrenal mass with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. [Journal Article]
- EJEndocr J 2018 Sep 08
- A 45-year-old male suddenly experienced left-flank abdominal pain. Echocardiography revealed akinesis of the 'takotsubo cardiomyopathy' type. He experienced a sudden haemodynamic collapse (blood pres...
A 45-year-old male suddenly experienced left-flank abdominal pain. Echocardiography revealed akinesis of the 'takotsubo cardiomyopathy' type. He experienced a sudden haemodynamic collapse (blood pressure, 324/154 mmHg; pulse rate, 180 beats/min) during emergency cardiac catheterisation. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed expansion of a soft tissue mass 64 × 33 mm in dimension in the left adrenal region, with accumulation of fluid surrounding the left pararenal space. Three days after the attack, his urinary catecholamine concentrations were slightly elevated. We suspected the patient as having a pheochromocytoma followed by acute haemorrhagic rupture, based on signatures of adrenal mass, 'takotsubo cardiomyopathy', and the hypertensive crisis. Over the next few weeks, he recovered well as an outpatient, and his blood pressure remained around 110/60 mmHg without medication. Three weeks after the attack, an abdominal CT showed shrinkage of the ruptured adrenal mass (to a diameter of 30 mm) and absorption of the retroperitoneal hematoma. On day 190 after the attack, abdominal CT did not detect any left adrenal mass. This is the first report of the case showing a complete vanishing of ruptured adrenal mass with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Although surgical approaches for ruptured adrenal mass involve either emergency or elective surgery, the patients did not need even the elective surgery. Accumulation of the similar cases may unravel clinical factors predicting self-limiting of the ruptured adrenal mass to avoid unnecessary risky surgery.
- Masking and misleading: concomitant actinomycosis and B-cell lymphoma - a case report and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- SMScott Med J 2018 Aug 30; :36933018789312
- We report a 72-year-old patient who presented with an ulcerated palatal mass, weight loss and adrenal insufficiency. Repeated biopsies from the mass revealed actinomycosis with no features of maligna...
We report a 72-year-old patient who presented with an ulcerated palatal mass, weight loss and adrenal insufficiency. Repeated biopsies from the mass revealed actinomycosis with no features of malignancy, while computed tomography scanning revealed a left maxillary sinus mass with invasive features and bilateral large adrenal masses. Blood and urine investigations showed adrenal insufficiency. The patient was treated as actinomycosis with adrenal involvement and was given intravenous penicillin and intravenous hydrocortisone. However, his condition did not improve and new signs appeared, that of left facial swelling and lymphadenopathy. A repeat biopsy of the palatal and adrenal masses revealed B-cell lymphoma. This case highlights the possibility that actinomycosis and lymphoma may share similar clinical presentations and may coexist. Either may mask and/or mimic the other, thus causing a delay in diagnosis. We describe the clinical progress and review the related literature. Interestingly, 9 out of the 12 reported cases of concomitant actinomycosis and malignancy (including this case) involve haematological malignancy. A high index of suspicion and treatment response reassessment is important in the management of either rare clinical entity.
- A Sarcoidosis Patient Presents with Adrenal Insufficiency: A Standardized Patient Scenario for Medical Students and Residents. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 18; 10(6):e2833
- Introduction The widespread use of corticosteroids for treatment of inflammatory conditions has resulted in the need to promptly recognize drug-induced adrenal insufficiency. This scenario was inspir...
Introduction The widespread use of corticosteroids for treatment of inflammatory conditions has resulted in the need to promptly recognize drug-induced adrenal insufficiency. This scenario was inspired by an actual case and aims to enhance critical thinking. Our case is unique as we use a case-based format with written tests to track progress. Methods A pre-assessment was conducted to measure baseline knowledge with residents and medical students. A standardized patient played a 70-year-old female with sarcoidosis who was in the emergency department with weakness and fatigue. The learners obtained her history whereby they discovered that she had recently stopped taking prednisone. They identified adrenal insufficiency and reinstated glucocorticoid therapy. The scenario lasted 10 minutes after which there were a debriefing session and post-debriefing assessment. All were completed in under one hour. Results Our pre-scenario assessment revealed that all learners had less knowledge of adrenal insufficiency than thyroid disease with average scores of 66.63% and 91.25%, respectively. The average score of the adrenal insufficiency test increased from 66.63% to 87.45% on the post-debriefing assessment and the largest improvement was seen in first-year residents. Assessments measured via the Likert scale determined that all learners found the case well-devised to contribute to their understanding of adrenal insufficiency. Discussion The largest improvement unexpectedly was seen in first-year residents which may be due to variations in repetition and retention of medical knowledge in the months prior to starting residency. This module is best suited for first-year internal medicine, family medicine, and emergency medicine residents and upper-level medical students.
- What about my daughter's future? Parental concerns when considering female genital restoration surgery in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Urol 2018 Jul 23
- CONCLUSIONS: Initial efforts to understand the complex process of parental decision-making regarding FGRS in the context of CAH, a complex, multifactorial disease, are presented. Parents of infant girls with CAH simultaneously weigh multiple life-threatening concerns with a decision about FGRS. While issues of genital ambiguity and surgery are important, they are not overriding concerns for parents of girls with CAH. Parents report significant uncertainty about appropriate timing and approach to disclosing FGRS to their daughters. Unfortunately, best practice guidelines for this process are lacking. The findings are not based on actual history of disclosure but on parents' anticipated behavior. Further data are need from parents, children, and women with CAH about successful disclosure. Being a single-center series, these data may not correspond to the wider CAH community.Parental decision-making regarding FGRS is multifactorial. Even when considering FGRS, parents' largest concerns remain focused on the life-threatening and developmental effects of CAH and side-effects of its medical treatment. The disclosure process deserves further attention.
- Extreme and Cyclical Blood Pressure Elevation in a Pheochromocytoma Hypertensive Crisis. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Endocrinol 2018; 2018:4073536
- Pheochromocytomas are rare adrenal neoplasms characterized by excess secretion of catecholamines. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man, known for hypertension, with no family history of heredita...
Pheochromocytomas are rare adrenal neoplasms characterized by excess secretion of catecholamines. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man, known for hypertension, with no family history of hereditary pheochromocytoma syndromes. He reported a two-year history of flushing, systolic blood pressure surges to 200 mmHg, headaches, tremors, and syncope. His initial workup revealed elevated 24h urine catecholamines and metanephrines. An adrenal MRI in March 2017 showed a large 7.6 cm heterogeneous right adrenal lesion. Given orthostatic hypotension, his final preoperative dose was limited to a low dose of terazosin and metoprolol. In the operating room, shortly after intubation and Foley insertion, his blood pressure rose to 350 mmHg. Surgery was cancelled and he was admitted to the intensive care unit, where intravenous phentolamine, nitroprusside, and nicardipine were started. His systolic blood pressure would oscillate between 60 mmHg and 350 mmHg at 2-3 minutes' intervals. After 3 days, he was weaned off intravenous medications. His oral medications were uptitrated to high doses of phenoxybenzamine, metoprolol, and nifedipine. Three weeks later, he underwent successful open right adrenalectomy. This case outlines the importance of preoperative preparation of pheochromocytomas and raises the question if phenoxybenzamine is the alpha-blocker of choice for larger tumours with significant hormonal secretion.
- Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in antiphospholipid syndrome. Anticoagulation for the treatment of hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- SMSaudi Med J 2018; 39(8):829-833
- A 43-year-old man with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and previous thromboembolic events treated with warfarin for 6 months, presented with right flank pain accompanied with vomiting, dizziness, and altered...
A 43-year-old man with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and previous thromboembolic events treated with warfarin for 6 months, presented with right flank pain accompanied with vomiting, dizziness, and altered mental status 2 weeks after discontinuation of warfarin. His clinical examination findings were unremarkable. Routine blood work showed lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hypoosmolar hyponatremia. Random serum cortisol level was low (14 nmol/L). Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral bulky heterogeneous suprarenal gland surrounded by fat stranding representing adrenal hemorrhage. He was treated for acute adrenal crisis and subsequently started on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, with significant clinical improvement. His diagnosis was secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Bilateral adrenal thrombosis lead to hemorrhage in the adrenals as a paradoxical effect after warfarin cessation and primarily caused by APS. Bilateral adrenal bleeding should lead to the suspicion of thrombophilic disorders, such as APS, with cautious anticoagulation as the treatment of choice.
- Diagnostic and surgical challenges of a giant pheochromocytoma in a resource limited setting-A case report. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Case Rep 2018 Aug 01; 50:111-115
- CONCLUSIONS: Giant pheochromocytomas by definition are tumours more than 7 cm in size and are rare. They rarely secrete catecholamines and commonly present with vague abdominal symptoms. A computerized tomogram helps suggest the diagnosis whilst the biochemical workup for pheochromocytoma may be diagnostic. If the tumours are biochemically active, preoperative alpha-blockade is necessary and care must be taken at operation in handling the tumour. The surgical and anaesthetic team must be prepared to manage hypertensive crisis should it occur.This case brings to the attention of clinicians the need to have a high index of suspicion of a giant pheochromocytoma in a patient presenting with vague abdominal symptoms whose CT scan shows a large retroperitoneal tumour, even in the absence of clinical symptoms and negative or absent biochemical workup.
- A Case of Brugada Pattern Associated with Adrenal Insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 06; 10(6):e2752
- Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy disease, caused by genetic changes in transmembrane ion channels. It has an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the absence of a struc...
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy disease, caused by genetic changes in transmembrane ion channels. It has an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the absence of a structural heart disease. We report a case in which the presenting electrocardiogram (EKG) exhibited a type 1 Brugada-like pattern during an adrenal crisis with transformation into a type 2 Brugada-like pattern as the crisis improved.
- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome presenting as acute adrenal crisis in a child: a case report. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2018 Aug 10; 12(1):217
- CONCLUSIONS: This case describes a rare and atypical presentation of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and highlights the importance of making early and accurate syndromic diagnoses in children with dysmorphism to avoid sudden and life-threatening complications.
New Search Next
- Variations in the management of acute illness in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: An audit of three paediatric hospitals. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Aug 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Pre-hospital and in-hospital management of children with CAH can vary between health services. Children under 12 months have lower levels of stress dosing prior to hospital than other age groups. Experience with acute episodes improves self-management of CAH in the context of acute illness in educated patient populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.