- Digging deeper in the differential effects of inflammatory and psychosocial stressors in remitted depression: Effects on cognitive functioning. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2018 Nov 06; 245:356-363
- Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) covers a wide spectrum of symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction, which can persist during remission. Both inflammatory states and psychosocial stress play a role i...
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) covers a wide spectrum of symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction, which can persist during remission. Both inflammatory states and psychosocial stress play a role in MDD pathogenesis.
- Effects of Cage Enrichment on Behavior, Welfare and Outcome Variability in Female Mice. [Journal Article]
- FBFront Behav Neurosci 2018; 12:232
- The manner in which laboratory rodents are housed is driven by economics (minimal use of space and resources), ergonomics (ease of handling and visibility of animals), hygiene, and standardization (r...
The manner in which laboratory rodents are housed is driven by economics (minimal use of space and resources), ergonomics (ease of handling and visibility of animals), hygiene, and standardization (reduction of variation). This has resulted in housing conditions that lack sensory and motor stimulation and restrict the expression of species-typical behavior. In mice, such housing conditions have been associated with indicators of impaired welfare, including abnormal repetitive behavior (stereotypies, compulsive behavior), enhanced anxiety and stress reactivity, and thermal stress. However, due to concerns that more complex environmental conditions might increase variation in experimental results, there has been considerable resistance to the implementation of environmental enrichment beyond the provision of nesting material. Here, using 96 C57BL/6 and SWISS female mice, respectively, we systematically varied environmental enrichment across four levels spanning the range of common enrichment strategies: (1) bedding alone; (2) bedding + nesting material; (3) deeper bedding + nesting material + shelter + increased vertical space; and (4) semi-naturalistic conditions, including weekly changes of enrichment items. We studied how these different forms of environmental enrichment affected measures of animal welfare, including home-cage behavior (time-budget and stereotypic behavior), anxiety (open field behavior, elevated plus-maze behavior), growth (food and water intake, body mass), stress physiology (glucocorticoid metabolites in fecal boluses and adrenal mass), brain function (recurrent perseveration in a two-choice guessing task) and emotional valence (judgment bias). Our results highlight the difficulty in making general recommendations across common strains of mice and for selecting enrichment strategies within specific strains. Overall, the greatest benefit was observed in animals housed with the greatest degree of enrichment. Thus, in the super-enriched housing condition, stereotypic behavior, behavioral measures of anxiety, growth and stress physiology varied in a manner consistent with improved animal welfare compared to the other housing conditions with less enrichment. Similar to other studies, we found no evidence, in the measures assessed here, that environmental enrichment increased variation in experimental results.
- Primary aldosteronism with nonlocalizing imaging. [Journal Article]
- SSurgery 2018 Nov 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Primary aldosteronism patients with nonlocalizing imaging but lateralizing adrenal vein sampling benefit from adrenalectomy. Regardless of imaging findings, adrenal vein sampling is indicated to determine whether patients may be surgically curable.
- Giant nonfunctioning adrenal tumors: two case reports and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2018 Nov 10; 12(1):335
- CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma present with symptoms and signs of hormonal secretion. Our cases' adrenocortical carcinomas were not functional. Hormone secretion is not a discriminating feature between benign and malignant adrenocortical masses. The silent clinical nature of nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma results in late diagnosis, while the majority of patients present with locally advanced and/or metastatic disease. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumor with a poor prognosis that can be diagnostically challenging and demands high clinical suspicion. The work-up for adrenal masses must include determination of whether the mass is functioning or nonfunctioning and whether it is benign or malignant.
- Efficient Synthesis and in Silico Studies of the Benzimidazole Hybrid Scaffold with the Quinolinyloxadiazole Skeleton with Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, Anticoagulant, and Antiplatelet Activities for Type-II Diabetes Mellitus Management and Treating Thrombotic Disorders. [Journal Article]
- AOACS Omega 2018 Oct 31; 3(10):12562-12574
- The current study evaluates antidiabetic, anticoagulant, and antiplatelet activity of novel benzimidazole-containing quinolinyl oxadiazoles. These derivatives are synthesized and characterized using ...
The current study evaluates antidiabetic, anticoagulant, and antiplatelet activity of novel benzimidazole-containing quinolinyl oxadiazoles. These derivatives are synthesized and characterized using spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectroscopy) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The inhibitory effects of these compounds were evaluated by the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay and shows the activity in the range of IC50 = 0.66 ± 0.05 to 3.79 ± 0.46 μg/mL. In addition, molecular docking studies revealed that benzimidazole-containing quinolinyl oxadiazoles can correctly dock into the target receptor protein of the human intestinal α-glucosidase, while their bioavailability/drug-likeness was predicted to be acceptable but requires further optimization. On the other hand, compound 8a and 8d showed anticoagulant activity as they enhanced the clotting time from control 180-410 and 180-390 s, respectively, in platelet rich plasma and 230-460 and 230-545 s in platelet poor plasma. Furthermore, only 8a showed antiplatelet activity by inhibiting epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation, and the observed aggregation inhibition was found to be 93.4%. Compounds 8a-f show nontoxic properties because of the non-hydrolyzing properties in the RBC cells. In addition, 8a and 8d show anti-edema and anti-hemorrhagic properties in the experimental mice. These findings reveal that benzimidazole-containing quinolinyl oxadiazoles act as α-glucosidase inhibitors to develop novel therapeutics for treating type-II diabetes mellitus and can act as lead molecules in drug discovery as potential antidiabetic and antithrombotic agents.
- Metabolic Syndrome as a Predictor of Adrenal Functional Status: A Discriminant Multivariate Analysis Versus Logistic Regression Analysis. [Journal Article]
- HMHorm Metab Res 2018 Nov 07
- Patients harboring adrenal tumors are characterized by higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications, especially in cases of subclin...
Patients harboring adrenal tumors are characterized by higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications, especially in cases of subclinical or overt hormonal hypersecretion. Early detection and referral of those patients in tertiary centers could prevent unfavorable outcomes. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study, we evaluated 111 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas and 14 patients with known hypersecretory adrenal lesions (autonomous cortisol secretion, primary aldosteronism, and pheochromocytoma), who were investigated in our clinic. Based on the different distribution of MetS components in patients with non-functional and functional adrenal lesions we introduced a predictive model of hormonal hypersecretion using those components. We performed multivariate discriminant analysis and compared predictive results with conventional multiple logistic regression analysis. Diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, body mass index, HDL-cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, drug treatment for lipid disorder (statins, fenofibrate, and fish oils, alone or in combination), and maximal adrenal lesion diameter were used as discriminating covariates. Multivariate discriminant function exhibited a sensitivity of 77.27% and specificity of 73.08% in predicting adrenal hormonal hypersecretion. Receiver operating characteristic curve of discriminant predictive function had an area under the curve value of 0.785, S.E. 0.04. Logistic function delivered comparable results. MetS components exhibit a good predictive feature of hormonal hypersecretion in patients with adrenal tumors. Predictive functions may help in the search for an easy and generally available algorithm to validly predict the functional activity of adrenal masses.
- Impact of Tumor Burden on Quantitative [68Ga] DOTATOC Biodistribution. [Journal Article]
- MIMol Imaging Biol 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant impact on normal organ biodistribution with increasing tumor burden on [68Ga] DOTATOC PET/CT. Potential implications include increased normal organ dose with [177Lu-DOTA]0-D-Phe1-Tyr3-Octreotide and decreased absolute lesion detection with [68Ga] DOTATOC in high NET burden.
- Simultaneous Pheochromocytoma, Paraganglioma, and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma without Known Mutation. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Endocrinol 2018; 2018:6358485
- CONCLUSIONS: Whether paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma/PTC combination is coincidental or resulted from an underlying unknown mutation cannot be excluded.
- Da-Bu-Yin-Wan Improves the Ameliorative Effect of DJ-1 on Mitochondrial Dysfunction Through Augmenting the Akt Phosphorylation in a Cellular Model of Parkinson's Disease. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1206
- Da-Bu-Yin-Wan (DBYW) is recorded originally in China over six centuries ago, and it is used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) clinically in recent decades. DJ-1 is a homodimeric protein linked to ear...
Da-Bu-Yin-Wan (DBYW) is recorded originally in China over six centuries ago, and it is used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) clinically in recent decades. DJ-1 is a homodimeric protein linked to early-onset PD, and found in the mitochondria. In addition, DJ-1 could protect the cells by regulating gene transcription and modulating the Akt signal pathways. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to investigate the ameliorative effect of DBYW on mitochondria in the view of the DJ-1 and Akt signaling. Rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 was transfected with the plasmid pcDNA3-Flag-DJ-1 (pDJ-1). Subsequently, PC-12 cells were exposed to the PD-related mitochondrial toxin (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) without/with the DBYW. After transfected with the plasmid pDJ-1, the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced toxicity was decreased, and the DJ-1 expression in protein level was increased. DJ-1 overexpression not only increased the mitochondrial mass, but also improved the total ATP content. Moreover, Akt phosphorylation was augmented by DJ-1 overexpression. Additionally, DBYW enhanced the above effects. Conclusively, these findings indicate that DBYW promotes the ameliorative effects of DJ-1 on mitochondrial dysfunction at least through augmenting the Akt phosphorylation in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-treated PC-12 cells.
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- [Research Advances in Hypothalamic-pituitary Dysfunction Related to Traumatic Brain Injury]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2018 Oct 30; 40(5):699-704
- Traumatic brain injury(TBI)is a major cause of hypothalamopituitary dysfunction. TBI-related hypothalamopituitary dysfunction is more common in the acute phase. Disturbance of pituitary/gonadal axis ...
Traumatic brain injury(TBI)is a major cause of hypothalamopituitary dysfunction. TBI-related hypothalamopituitary dysfunction is more common in the acute phase. Disturbance of pituitary/gonadal axis and growth hormone axis,as well as posterior pituitary dysfunction including central diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,are the most frequently seen. During the chronic phase of TBI,anterior hypopituitarism is the major concern,which affects the quality of life. Risk factors for hypothalamopituitary dysfunction following TBI include low Glasgow score,high body mass index,hypoxia,older age,longer intensive care unit stay and longer coma status,radiological evidence of acute brain injury,and increased intracranial pressure. Children and adolescents are in a crucial period of growth and development,and therefore TBI-related pituitary dysfunction during this period can substantially affect the cognition and behaviors. There is currently no reliable biochemical marker predicting hypothalamopituitary dysfunctions. Therefore,it is of great importance to evaluate the pituitary function and take appropriate hormone replacement for moderate-severe TBI patients or mild TBI patients with apparent symptoms,especially for patients with water-electrolyte disturbance and adrenal deficiency. Growth hormone and gonadal hormone replacement therapies are crucial for children and adolescents.