- Glycometabolic Alterations in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: Does Replacement Therapy Play a Role? [Review]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018; 9:434
- Secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a potentially life-threatening endocrine disorder due to an impairment of corticotropin (ACTH) secretion from any process affecting the hypothalamus or pituit...
Secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a potentially life-threatening endocrine disorder due to an impairment of corticotropin (ACTH) secretion from any process affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. ACTH deficit can be isolated or associated with other pituitary failures (hypopituitarism). An increased mortality due to cardiovascular, metabolic, and infectious diseases has been described in both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency. However, few studies have provided compelling evidences on the underlying mechanism in SAI, because of the heterogeneity of the condition. Recently, some studies suggested that inappropriate glucocorticoid (GCs) replacement therapy, as for dose and/or timing of administration, may play a role. Hypertension, insulin resistance, weight gain, visceral obesity, increased body mass index, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia have all been associated with GC excess. These conditions are particularly significant when SAI coexists with other pituitary alterations, such as growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, and residual tumor. Novel regimen schemes and GC preparations have been introduced to improve compliance and better mimick endogenous cortisol rhythm. The controlled trials on the improved replacement therapies, albeit in the short-term, show some beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk, glucose metabolism, and quality of life. This review examines the current evidence from the available clinical trials investigating the association between different glucocorticoid replacement therapies (type, dose, frequency, and timing of treatment) and glycometabolic alterations in SAI.
- Body Image Dissatisfaction and the Adrenarchal Transition. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Adolesc Health 2018 Aug 11
- CONCLUSIONS: The adrenarchal transition brings a heightened risk for body dissatisfaction. Whether this arises from the neuroendocrine effects of adrenal androgens or as a reaction to the greater body mass that accompanies adrenarche requires further exploration.
- Clinical characteristics of exogenous progestogen hypersensitivity. [Journal Article]
- APAsian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2018 Aug 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of exogenous PH were similar to those of type I hypersensitivity reactions, but tended to develop later and did not respond to antihistamines or steroids. As use of progesterone increases, an understanding of the clinical features of exogenous PH becomes ever-more important.
- A rare case of co-existing adrenal and pelvic myelolipomas. [Journal Article]
- RCRadiol Case Rep 2018; 13(5):999-1002
- We are reporting a case of co-existing left sided pelvic and right sided adrenal myelolipomas in a 68-year-old male patient. Both lesions were incidentally discovered on CT whilst undergoing a stagin...
We are reporting a case of co-existing left sided pelvic and right sided adrenal myelolipomas in a 68-year-old male patient. Both lesions were incidentally discovered on CT whilst undergoing a staging scan for suspected urinary bladder cancer. The patient had a background of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Contrast enhanced CT scan showed both lesions to be of mixed fat and soft tissue density. Given the size, location, and attenuation characteristics of the pelvic mass, retroperitoneal liposarcoma was thought to be a differential diagnosis, prompting the decision for an elective CT-guided biopsy. Both masses were targeted successfully using core biopsy needles. Subsequently, histopathology results for both the right adrenal and the left pelvic masses showed features compatible with myelolipomas. The right retroperitoneal mass was compatible with an adrenal myelolipoma and left pelvic mass was deemed as an extra-adrenal myelolipoma (EAML).
- What are the odds? Prostate metastases to ureter and peritoneum. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 16; 2018
- In patients with prostate cancer, metastases mostly develop in bone, lung, liver, pleura and adrenal glands. Prostate carcinoma metastases to the ureter are very rare, and the peritoneum is an even r...
In patients with prostate cancer, metastases mostly develop in bone, lung, liver, pleura and adrenal glands. Prostate carcinoma metastases to the ureter are very rare, and the peritoneum is an even rarer site of prostate metastases. We present two cases of ureteral metastases of prostate cancer, of which one patient also developed malignant ascites and peritoneal metastases. An overview of the literature on these metastatic sites is also provided. Both patients presented with hydronephrosis and a ureteral mass. Biopsies of the masses were taken, which showed the presence of prostate carcinoma metastases. The first patient was treated with chemotherapy but was diagnosed with progressive disease and died 3 years later. The second patient was diagnosed with pathology-confirmed peritoneal metastases 8 months later. He died 2 years after presentation with hydronephrosis.
- Hypertension and severe hypokalaemia associated with ectopic ACTH production. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 16; 2018
- Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion represents 5%-10% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS), and approximately 50%-60% of these arise from neuroendocrine lung tumours, including small-...
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion represents 5%-10% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS), and approximately 50%-60% of these arise from neuroendocrine lung tumours, including small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a 42-year-old man admitted with hypertension, metabolic alkalosis and severe hypokalaemia. On physical examination, centripetal obesity with 'moon face' and 'buffalo's hump' were identified, and wheezing on left lung was heard. A markedly elevated serum cortisol, ACTH and urine free cortisol production supported the diagnosis of CS. Chest CT showed a left hilar mass with metastasis to the liver, adrenal glands and lymph nodes. Bronchoscopy identified bronchial infiltration by SCLC. Treatment with metyrapone and chemotherapy was started. Despite initial improvement, progressive clinical deterioration occurred, culminating in death 1 year after diagnosis. Ectopic ACTH secretion is uncommon but should be suspected in patients with severe hypokalaemia, hypertension and metabolic alkalosis, especially in the context of lung cancer.
- [Giant adrenal cyst]. [Case Reports]
- RMRev Med Liege 2018; 73(7-8):402-407
- Adrenal cysts are a rare entity which makes their treatment somewhat tough. Discovered in a fortuitous way or in the course of explorations for very aspecific symptoms, it is necessary to decide on a...
Adrenal cysts are a rare entity which makes their treatment somewhat tough. Discovered in a fortuitous way or in the course of explorations for very aspecific symptoms, it is necessary to decide on a case-by-case basis, and after a careful clinical examination, whether the lesion is to be treated through surgery or if a follow-up iconography is sufficient. Three main parameters will influence this choice: the functional status of the cyst, its malignant potential and the potential complications related to the cyst. Current recommendations suggest a surgical treatment for all symptomatic cysts, for functional cysts, for cysts with a diameter exceeding 5 cm, for hemorrhagic cysts and for cysts with malignant imaging potential. The progress and surgical advantages brought by the development of laparoscopy make it the first technique to be chosen.
- Cortisol excess in patients with primary aldosteronism impacts on left ventricular hypertrophy. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Aug 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol excess appears to have an additional impact on cardiac remodeling in patients with PA. Treatment of PA by either adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist improves LVMI. This effect was most pronounced in patients with high total glucocorticoid excretion.
- Neonatal Screening for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Turkey: A Pilot Study with 38,935 Infants. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2018 Aug 14
- CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CAH due to classical 21-OHD is higher in Turkey in comparison to previous reports. Thus, it is suggested to add CAH to newborn screening panel in Turkey. The use of steroid profiling as a second-tier test improves the efficacy of the screening and reduces false-positives.
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- Adrenocortical adenoma manifesting as false-positive iodine accumulation in a patient with history of thyroid carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- RCRadiol Case Rep 2018; 13(5):949-951
- A 47-year-old female diagnosed with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our center for a 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy as follow-up. The patient had been previously tr...
A 47-year-old female diagnosed with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our center for a 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy as follow-up. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and ablative dose of 175mCi 131I three years ago. Diagnostic 131I scan showed a zone of radioiodine uptake in posterior aspect of the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Spiral abdominal and pelvic CT scan showed an enhancing solid mass in superior aspect of the left adrenal gland, which was in favor of metastasis to the lymph node or an adrenal tumor. A biopsy was performed from the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen was consistent with adrenocortical adenoma. Even though rare, adrenocortical adenoma should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.