- Population pharmacokinetic model for tumescent lidocaine in women undergoing breast cancer surgery. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jun 16
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first popPK model developed to describe kinetic profiles of TLA. These findings confirm the slow diffusion of lidocaine from the tumescent deposit.
- Repurposing drugs as inhaled therapies in asthma. [Journal Article]
- ADAdv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Jun 12
- For the first 40 years of the 20th century treatment for asthma occurred in response to an asthma attack. The treatments were given by injection or orally and included the adrenergic agonists adrenal...
For the first 40 years of the 20th century treatment for asthma occurred in response to an asthma attack. The treatments were given by injection or orally and included the adrenergic agonists adrenalin/epinephrine and ephedrine and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline. Epinephrine became available as an aerosol in 1930. After 1945, isoprenaline, a non-selective beta agonist, became available for oral use but it was most widely used by inhalation. Isoprenaline was short-acting with unwanted cardiac effects. More selective beta agonists, with a longer duration of action and fewer side-effects became available, including orciprenaline in 1967, salbutamol in 1969 and terbutaline in 1970. The inhaled steroid beclomethasone was available by 1972 and budesonide by 1982. Spirometry alone and in response to exercise was used to assess efficacy and duration of action of these drugs for the acute benefits of beta2 agonists and the chronic benefits of corticosteroids. Early studies comparing oral and aerosol beta2 agonists found equivalence in bronchodilator effect but the aerosol treatment was superior in preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Inhaled drugs are now widely used including the long-acting beta2 agonists, salmeterol and formoterol, and the corticosteroids, fluticasone, ciclesonide, mometasone and triamcinolone, that act locally and have low systemic bio-availability. Repurposing drugs as inhaled therapies permitted direct delivery of low doses of drug to the site of action reducing the incidence of unwanted side-effects and permitting the prophylactic treatment of asthma.
- Pharmacokinetics of 400 mg Locally Infiltrated Ropivacaine After Total Knee Arthroplasty Without Perioperative Tourniquet Use. [Journal Article]
- RAReg Anesth Pain Med 2018 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Although great interindividual variability in ropivacaine concentration was found, both total and unbound maximum serum concentrations remained below the assumed systemic toxic thresholds in all samples.
- THE FEATURES OF THE WOMEN'S SIMPATHOADRENAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL STATE WITH RISK OF EARLY PREGNANCY TERMINATION. [Journal Article]
- GMGeorgian Med News 2018; (278):34-38
- Preterm labor is an urgent medical-social and demographic issue at the present stage. A considerable number of factors affects the course of pregnancy and its outcome, their effect is realized at the...
Preterm labor is an urgent medical-social and demographic issue at the present stage. A considerable number of factors affects the course of pregnancy and its outcome, their effect is realized at the level of the central nervous system through numerical metabolic interactions, where monoaminergic systems play an important role. Objective - to study the features of the sympathoadrenal system state by determining the excretion level of DOPHA, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in women's daily urine with different periods of abortion. 227 pregnant women who were admitted to the Kharkiv perinatal center have been examined, 190 of them had clinical signs of premature delivery in the gestation period of 23-36 weeks. Formation of clinical groups was carried out depending on the pregnancy term in the form of premature and timely delivery. Diagnosis of preterm labor was carried out in the presence of abdominal pain syndrome and structural changes in the cervix. Consequently, pregnancy compensatory and adaptive mechanisms are complex of neurohumoral process, which are realized through monoaminergic systems and a significant factor in its interruption is their destabilization. Reducing of sympathoadrenal system activity and reserve capacity in pregnant women may be a pathogenetic factor in the development of preterm labor. Therefore determination of the imbalance initial manifestations in the catecholamines exchange may possibly prevent the loss of pregnancy in the early stages.
- Hyperinflation-Definitions and Causes. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Pract 2018 Jan 01; :897190018776392
- Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced compet...
Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced competition, shortages in the manufacturing supply chain, very small markets, market consolidation, the Unapproved Drugs Initiative of 2006, and unanticipated manufacturing safety issues. In one survey, over 90% of hospital administrators reported that higher drug prices had a moderate or severe impact on their budgets. Whereas compounding pharmacies may present an effective solution to high drug prices, it is a potentially dangerous one, as the case of New England Compounding Center makes clear. The risks make a meticulous vetting process necessary.
- Food-Induced Anaphylaxis: an Update. [Review]
- CACurr Allergy Asthma Rep 2018 Jun 14; 18(8):41
- This review aims to provide an update of recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis, and management of food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA).
This review aims to provide an update of recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis, and management of food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA).
- Single-Injection Adductor Canal Block With Multiple Adjuvants Provides Equivalent Analgesia When Compared With Continuous Adductor Canal Blockade for Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled, Equivalency Trial. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Arthroplasty 2018 May 24
- CONCLUSIONS: An SACB provides equivalent analgesia for up to 36 hours after block placement when compared with a CACB for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, though a CACB was favored at 42 hours and beyond.
- HYPERKALEMIA IN TWO JAGUARS ( PANTHERA ONCA) ANESTHETIZED WITH DEXMEDETOMIDINE, KETAMINE, AND ISOFLURANE. [Journal Article]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2018; 49(2):505-507
- Two jaguars were anesthetized with dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and isoflurane. Arterial blood samples analyzed shortly after darting revealed no abnormalities. Samples analyzed 2 and 1.5 hr after da...
Two jaguars were anesthetized with dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and isoflurane. Arterial blood samples analyzed shortly after darting revealed no abnormalities. Samples analyzed 2 and 1.5 hr after darting revealed moderate hyperkalemia in both animals (6.8 and 6.2 mEq/L, respectively). Shortly after hyperkalemia was recognized, one jaguar developed electrocardiographic abnormalities (sinoventricular rhythm and widened QRS complexes), and a few minutes later, suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. Resuscitation with chest compressions, intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and epinephrine was successful, and autonomous breathing and circulation resumed within a few minutes. Anesthesia-related hyperkalemia has been reported in a variety of large felids but has not been reported previously in jaguars. In all reports, α-2 adrenergic agonists were used as part of the immobilization protocol. Due to the presumptively high incidence and mortality caused by this complication, frequent monitoring of electrolyte concentrations and prompt treatment of hyperkalemia is recommended when anesthetizing large felids, including jaguars.
- Are reinfusion drains safe to use with periarticular liposomal bupivacaine? An analysis of systemic bupivacaine toxicity. [Journal Article]
- ATArthroplast Today 2018; 4(2):227-231
- CONCLUSIONS: Use of a reinfusion drain after PAI with liposomal bupivacaine in TJA appears safe, as bupivacaine levels in the autotransfused blood remains well below the reported minimum serum toxic dose.
New Search Next
- Adrenal serotonin derives from accumulation by the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter. [Journal Article]
- PRPharmacol Res 2018 Jun 09
- Adrenal chromaffin cells comprise the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and secrete catecholamines to coordinate the appropriate stress response. Deletion of the serotonin (5-HT) t...
Adrenal chromaffin cells comprise the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and secrete catecholamines to coordinate the appropriate stress response. Deletion of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) gene in mice (SERT-/- mice) or pharmacological block of SERT function in rodents and humans augments this sympathoadrenal stress response (epinephrine secretion). The prevailing assumption is that loss of CNS SERT alters central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells also prominently express SERT where it might coordinate accumulation of 5-HT for reuse in the autocrine control of stress-evoked catecholamine secretion. To help test this hypothesis, we have generated a novel mouse model with selective excision of SERT in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SERTΔTH), generated by crossing floxed SERT mice with tyrosine hydroxylase Cre driver mice. SERT expression, assessed by western blot, was abolished in the adrenal gland but not perturbed in the CNS of SERTΔTH mice. SERT-mediated [3H] 5-HT uptake was unaltered in midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord synaptosomes, confirming transporter function was intact in the CNS. Endogenous midbrain and whole blood 5-HT homeostasis was unperturbed in SERTΔTH mice, contrasting with the depleted 5-HT content in SERT-/- mice. Selective SERT excision reduced adrenal gland 5-HT content by ≈ 50 % in SERTΔTH mice but had no effect on adrenal catecholamine content. This novel model confirms that SERT expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells is essential for maintaining wild-type levels of 5-HT and provides a powerful tool to help dissect the role of SERT in the sympathetic stress response.