- Effect of resveratrol on platelet aggregation by fibrinogen protection. [Journal Article]
- BCBiophys Chem 2017 Jan 02; 222:41-48
- The effect of resveratrol (RSV) in inhibiting platelet adhesion and aggregation, as well as fibrinogen (FBG) conformational changes promoted by epinephrine (EP), were studied, by using complementary ...
The effect of resveratrol (RSV) in inhibiting platelet adhesion and aggregation, as well as fibrinogen (FBG) conformational changes promoted by epinephrine (EP), were studied, by using complementary experimental techniques. NMR and IR spectroscopies were used to investigate possible protective effects by RSV towards FBG, in presence of EP. The protective effect of RSV towards FBG was highlighted by spin nuclear relaxation experiments that were interpreted for determining the thermodynamic equilibrium constants of FBG-EP interaction, and by infrared measurements, that showed EP-induced conformational changes of FBG. The ability of RSV in inhibiting platelet adhesion and aggregation promoted by EP was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measuring the platelet adhesion and aggregation degree, in comparison to data obtained for platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP). The experimental combined approach pointed out that RSV is able to protect both FBG and platelets from the denaturant and aggregating action of EP at stress level concentration.
- Neuroendocrinology of mast cells: Challenges and Controversies. [Review]
- EDExp Dermatol 2017 Jan 17
- Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and ute...
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP). Moreover, MC can synthesize and release most of their neurohormonal triggers, including adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), CRH, endorphins, HKA, leptin, melatonin, NT, SP and VIP. Animal experiments have shown that diencephalic MC increase in number during courting in doves, while stimulation of brain and nasal MC leads to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that MC reactivity exhibits diurnal variations and it is interesting that melatonin appears to regulate MC secretion. However, the way MC change their phenotype or secrete specific molecules selectively at different pathophysiological settings still remains unknown. Mast cells developed over 500 million years ago and may have served as the original prototype neuroimmunoendocrine cell and then evolved into a master regulator of such interactions, especially since most of the known diseases involve neuroinflammation that worsens with stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Three Year Old Male with Multiple Dieulafoy Lesions Treated with Epinephrine Injections via Therapeutic Endoscopy. [Journal Article]
- PGPediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2016; 19(4):276-280
- Dieulafoy lesions, vascular anomalies typically found along the gastrointestinal tract, have been viewed as rare and obscure causes of sudden intestinal bleeding, especially in pediatric patients. Si...
Dieulafoy lesions, vascular anomalies typically found along the gastrointestinal tract, have been viewed as rare and obscure causes of sudden intestinal bleeding, especially in pediatric patients. Since their discovery in the late 19th century, the reported incidence has increased. This is due to an increased awareness of, and knowledge about, their presentation and to advanced endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Our patient was a three-year-old male, without a complex medical history. He presented to the emergency department with acute hematemesis with blood clots and acute anemia requiring blood transfusion. Endoscopy revealed four isolated Dieulafoy lesions along the lesser curvature of the stomach, which were treated with an epinephrine injection. The Dieulafoy lesion, although thought to be rare, should be considered when investigating an acute gastrointestinal bleed. These lesions have been successfully treated endoscopically. Appropriate anticipation and preparation for diagnosis and therapy can lead to optimal outcomes for the pediatric patient.
- Catecholamines are produced by ascidian immune cells: the involvement of PKA and PKC in the adrenergic signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- BBBrain Behav Immun 2017 Jan 12
- The stress response is a complex mechanism, which includes changes in the immune system to enable organisms to maintain homeostasis. The neurohormones dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenalin are r...
The stress response is a complex mechanism, which includes changes in the immune system to enable organisms to maintain homeostasis. The neurohormones dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenalin are responsible for the physiological modulations that occur during acute stress. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of NA on the immune system specific to nitric-oxide (NO) production by subpopulations of immune cells (hemocytes) of the ascidian Phallusia nigra. We also investigated the capability of immune cells to produce catecholamine (CA). Finally, we tested the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC) in the NA downstream signaling pathway. The results revealed that NA can reduce NO production by P. nigra hemocytes three-fold, and that signet-ring cells, univacuolar refractile granulocytes and morula cells are the cell types most involved in this event. A challenge effected with Zymosan A induced CA production, and co-incubation with both inhibitors of the second messengers PKA and PKC revealed the involvement of these molecules in the adrenergic pathway of P. nigra hemocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that NO production can be down-regulated by NA through α- and β-adrenoceptors via the second messengers PKA and PKC.
- Effect of Periarticular Morphine Injection for Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Arthroplasty 2016 Dec 27
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggested that addition of morphine to the multimodal cocktail injection is not effective for relieving postoperative pain, alleviating swelling, or improving range of motion, and results in nausea and vomiting.
- Quick epinephrine administration induces favorable neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Emerg Med 2017 Jan 03
- This research is to study if quick administration of adrenaline on OHCA prior to hospitalization has an effect on improving CPC1-2 at one month.
This research is to study if quick administration of adrenaline on OHCA prior to hospitalization has an effect on improving CPC1-2 at one month.
- Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2017 Jan 15; 95(2):94-99
- Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through...
Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or self-inoculation by contaminated secretions on surfaces. Patients with RSV bronchiolitis usually present with two to four days of upper respiratory tract symptoms such as fever, rhinorrhea, and congestion, followed by lower respiratory tract symptoms such as increasing cough, wheezing, and increased respiratory effort. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and management of RSV bronchiolitis to minimize unnecessary diagnostic testing and interventions. Bronchiolitis remains a clinical diagnosis, and diagnostic testing is not routinely recommended. Treatment of RSV infection is mainly supportive, and modalities such as bronchodilators, epinephrine, corticosteroids, hypertonic saline, and antibiotics are generally not useful. Evidence supports using supplemental oxygen to maintain adequate oxygen saturation; however, continuous pulse oximetry is no longer required. The other mainstay of therapy is intravenous or nasogastric administration of fluids for infants who cannot maintain their hydration status with oral fluid intake. Educating parents on reducing the risk of infection is one of the most important things a physician can do to help prevent RSV infection, especially early in life. Children at risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection should receive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, in up to five monthly doses. Prophylaxis guidelines are restricted to infants born before 29 weeks' gestation, infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, and infants and children with hemodynamically significant heart disease.
- Improved milk production through PG-PL system by provision of in-house shelter management in lactating Murrah buffaloes during winter season. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2017 Jan 13
- Comprehensive information on the role of β-casein and plasminogen-plasmin (PG-PL) system in milk secretion of Murrah buffaloes during winter season is lacking, although effects of cold stress can be ...
Comprehensive information on the role of β-casein and plasminogen-plasmin (PG-PL) system in milk secretion of Murrah buffaloes during winter season is lacking, although effects of cold stress can be ameliorated to an extent by altering microclimate at farm level. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the changes in productivity along with PG-PL system of milk, plasma hormones and metabolites of buffaloes during winter (December-January) season under two different management systems. Average minimum temperature and wind chill index during this season were 7.02 and 12.74 °C respectively. Buffaloes were divided in two groups of six animals each: control and treatment, where treatment group animals were placed in-house with floor bedding of paddy straw and the control group animals in loose housing system without straw bedding. Physiological responses were recorded, and milk and blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for six-week experimental period. Under in-house management system, buffaloes experienced better comfort by alleviating environmental stress as their physiological responses such as respiration rate and pulse rate were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) as compared to the control, which subsequently resulted higher milk yield by 9.92% (p < 0.05). Analysis of milk samples revealed higher concentration of plasminogen (10.6 vs. 8.05 μg/ml; p < 0.01) and β-casein (p < 0.05), and lower plasmin level (0.299 vs. 0.321 μg/ml; p < 0.05) in buffaloes under treatment group. It was also found that plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids levels were higher (p < 0.01) in control group as compared to the treatment animals by 13.6%, 8.14% and 12.6% respectively. However, milk composition, growth hormone, epinephrine and norepinephrine level in plasma were similar in both the groups. Hence, it may be concluded that provision of in-house shelter management with floor bedding of paddy straw during winter was effective to minimize environmental stress and improved milk production through manipulation of PG-PL system in buffaloes.
- Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) effects on the anaerobic bacteria. [Review]
- AAnaerobe 2017 Jan 08; 44:13-19
- Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as ...
Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation.
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- Regulation of Active ICAM-4 on Normal and Sickle Cell Disease RBCs via AKAPs Is Revealed by AFM. [Journal Article]
- BJBiophys J 2017 Jan 10; 112(1):143-152
- Human healthy (wild-type (WT)) and homozygous sickle (SS) red blood cells (RBCs) express a large number of surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion between RBCs, and between RBCs and white blood ...
Human healthy (wild-type (WT)) and homozygous sickle (SS) red blood cells (RBCs) express a large number of surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion between RBCs, and between RBCs and white blood cells, platelets, and the endothelium. In sickle cell disease (SCD), abnormal adhesion of RBCs to endothelial cells is mediated by the intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), which appears on the RBC membrane and binds to the endothelial αvβ3 integrin. This is a key factor in the initiation of vaso-occlusive episodes, the hallmark of SCD. A better understanding of the mechanisms that control RBC adhesion to endothelium may lead to novel approaches to both prevention and treatment of vaso-occlusive episodes in SCD. One important mechanism of ICAM-4 activation occurs via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA)-dependent signaling pathway. Here, we employed an in vitro technique called single-molecule force spectroscopy to study the effect of modulation of the cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway on ICAM-4 receptor activation. We quantified the frequency of active ICAM-4 receptors on WT-RBC and SS-RBC membranes, as well as the median unbinding force between ICAM-4 and αvβ3. We showed that the collective frequency of unbinding events in WT-RBCs is not significantly different from that of SS-RBCs. This result was confirmed by confocal microscopy experiments. In addition, we showed that incubation of normal RBCs and SS-RBCs with epinephrine, a catecholamine that binds to the β-adrenergic receptor and activates the cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway, caused a significant increase in the frequency of active ICAM-4 receptors in both normal RBCs and SS-RBCs. However, the unbinding force between ICAM-4 and the corresponding ligand αvβ3 remained the same. Furthermore, we demonstrated that forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, significantly increased the frequency of ICAM-4 receptors in WT-RBCs and SS-RBCs, confirming that the activation of ICAM-4 is regulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. Finally, we showed that A-kinase anchoring proteins play an essential role in ICAM-4 activation.