- Treatment of Addison's disease during pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018; 2018
- Addison's disease, or primary adrenocortical insufficiency, is a long-term, potentially severe, rare endocrine disorder. In pregnancy, it is even rarer. We report the case of a 30-year-old pregnant p...
Addison's disease, or primary adrenocortical insufficiency, is a long-term, potentially severe, rare endocrine disorder. In pregnancy, it is even rarer. We report the case of a 30-year-old pregnant patient with Addison's disease, referred to Obstetrics-Endocrinology specialty consult at 14 weeks gestation. She had been to the emergency department of her local hospital various times during the first trimester presenting with a clinical scenario suggestive of glucocorticoid under-replacement (nausea, persistent vomiting and hypotension), but this was interpreted as normal pregnancy symptoms. Hydrocortisone dose was adjusted, and the patient maintained regular follow-up. No complications were reported for the remainder of gestation and delivery. Pregnant patients with Addison's disease should be monitored during gestation and in the peripartum period by multidisciplinary teams. Adjustments in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy are often necessary, and monitoring should be based mainly on clinical findings, which becomes increasingly difficult during pregnancy. Patient education and specialized monitoring are key to avoiding complications from under- or over-replacement therapy in this period.
- Thyrotoxicosis leading to adrenal crises reveals primary bilateral adrenal lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017; 2017
- Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare malignancy. It frequently presents bilaterally and with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Amiodarone may induce secondary organ dysfunction, and thyrotoxicosis dev...
Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare malignancy. It frequently presents bilaterally and with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Amiodarone may induce secondary organ dysfunction, and thyrotoxicosis develops in 15% of cases. The symptomatology of both conditions is nonspecific, especially in the elderly, and a high suspicion index is necessary for appropriate diagnosis. A 78-year-old female presented to the emergency department with confusion, nausea and vomiting. She had recently been to the emergency department with urinary tract infection, vomiting and acute hypochloremic hyponatremia. Upon re-evaluation, the leukocyturia persisted and because of TSH 0.01 µU/mL and free-T4 68 (10-18) pmol/L, she was admitted to the Endocrinology ward. Further evaluation supported amiodarone-induced thyroiditis type 2. Sepsis ensued, in the setting of nosocomial pneumonia. Hemodynamic instability, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia and vomiting raised the suspicion of adrenocortical insufficiency. Fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone led to clinical improvement, and adrenal insufficiency was admitted. The thoracoabdominal tomography suggested an endobronchic primary lesion with hepatic and adrenal secondary deposits (6.6 and 7 cm), but this was confirmed neither on pleural effusion nor on bronchofibroscopic fluid analyses. The adrenals were not accessible for biopsy. Despite high-dose hydrocortisone maintenance, the patient died before definite diagnosis. The autopsy confirmed primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Adrenal crisis secondary to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2016; 2016
- Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of adrenal crisis, which requires rapid diagnosis, prompt initiation of parenteral hydrocortisone and haemodynamic monitoring to avoid hypotensive crises. We herei...
Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of adrenal crisis, which requires rapid diagnosis, prompt initiation of parenteral hydrocortisone and haemodynamic monitoring to avoid hypotensive crises. We herein describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy in a 93-year-old female with high-grade colonic adenocarcinoma. This patient's post-operative recovery was complicated by an acute hypotensive episode, hypoglycaemia and syncope, and subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Given her labile blood pressure, intravenous hydrocortisone was commenced with rapid improvement of blood pressure, which had incompletely responded with fluids. A provisional diagnosis of hypocortisolism was made. Initial heparin-induced thrombocytopenic screen (HITTS) was positive, but platelet count and coagulation profile were both normal. The patient suffered a concurrent transient ischaemic attack with no neurological deficits. She was discharged on a reducing dose of oral steroids with normal serum cortisol levels at the time of discharge. She and her family were educated about lifelong steroids and the use of parenteral steroids should a hypoadrenal crisis eventuate.
- Acute psychosis in the course of treatment of acute adrenal crisis with hydrocortisone in the patient with secondary adrenal insufficiency - a case study. [Case Reports]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2015; 49(4):673-81
- CONCLUSIONS: The case focuses attention on the risk of psychosis connected with the treatment of the adrenal crisis with high doses of Hydrocortisone. Because of the risk of psychiatric complications, the patients treated with high doses of corticosteroids, require an evaluation of risk factors for mental disturbances, and safety precautions in cooperation of endocrinologist and psychiatrist.
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- BOOKMDText.com, Inc.: South Dartmouth (MA)
- Congenital adrenal hypoplasia is a rare cause of primary adrenocortical failure, which was first described in 1948. During the last two decades, the genetic basis for several forms of familial adrena...
Congenital adrenal hypoplasia is a rare cause of primary adrenocortical failure, which was first described in 1948. During the last two decades, the genetic basis for several forms of familial adrenal insufficiency syndromes has been elucidated. The molecular mechanisms for these disorders involve a broad spectrum of cellular and physiologic processes, including metabolism, nuclear protein import, oxidative stress defense-mechanisms and regulation of cell cycle. Adrenal hypoplasia can occur: 1) secondary to defects in transcription factors involved in pituitary development or (2) defects in ACTH synthesis and secretion; 3) as a primary defect in the development of the adrenal gland; 4) as part of rare syndromes associated with adrenal hypoplasia/aplasia, which are inherited in an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant manner; and 5) in the context of chromosomal abnormalities. Early diagnosis and management are crucial because of the life-threatening nature of the condition. Depending on the etiology, adrenal crisis may occur in early infancy or could insidiously develop over the course of childhood or adolescence. Moreover, some of these conditions previously thought to occur only in childhood, may also be diagnosed later in adulthood and present with variable phenotypes, including isolated infertility or disorders of sex differentiation. The clinical manifestations of primary adrenal insufficiency result from deficiency of all adrenocortical hormones (aldosterone, cortisol, androgens). The acute presentation can be precipitated by a physiological stress, such as surgery, trauma, or an intercurrent infection. Patients may present with signs and symptoms of complete adrenal insufficiency, usually early in life, including hypoglycemic convulsions, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis or later with hyperpigmentation, vomiting and poor weight gain. To date, molecular genetic testing is commercially available for the identification of several genes involved in adrenal hypoplasia syndromes. The early identification of these diseases can have important prognostic and therapeutic implications for patients with respect to surveillance for associated conditions, initiation of early treatment or screening of family members who are at risk. Adrenal insufficiency is potentially life-threatening, thus treatment should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, or sooner if the patient presents in adrenal crisis. Therapy consists of life-long replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Hypogonadism or other associated disorders should be treated appropriately. Screening of family members for the disease or carrier status may also be indicated and can be critical for family planning. When a monogenic cause of adrenal failure is identified, genetic counseling is indicated. For complete coverage of all related areas, visit www.endotext.org.
- Endotext [BOOK]
- BOOKMDText.com, Inc.: South Dartmouth (MA)
- Adrenal insufficiency results from the failure of corticosteroid hormone secretion either due to adrenocortical disease (primary) or secondary to the lack of ACTH secretion from the pituitary (second...
Adrenal insufficiency results from the failure of corticosteroid hormone secretion either due to adrenocortical disease (primary) or secondary to the lack of ACTH secretion from the pituitary (secondary) and/or CRH and vasopressin secretion form the hypothalamus (tertiary). Presentation can be acute or insidious depending on the underlying cause of the adrenal gland dysfunction. Adrenal crisis is a common presentation in primary disease, but is less common in secondary or tertiary adrenal insufficiency.
- An endocrinological emergency masquerading as an overdose. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2012; 2012
- Primary adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a potentially life-threatening endocrinological disorder caused by destruction of the adrenal cortex with consequent reduction in glucocort...
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a potentially life-threatening endocrinological disorder caused by destruction of the adrenal cortex with consequent reduction in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid function. Although this is a rare condition, misdiagnosis can result in fatal consequences. Previous case reports have described the neuropsychiatric manifestations of Addison's disease which can result in misdiagnosis. Here the authors describe how a psychiatric history combined with atypical biochemical results can point towards a mistaken diagnosis of poisoning and hence disguise an Addisonian crisis.
- [Perioperative Addisonian crisis]. [Case Reports]
- AAnaesthesist 2012; 61(6):503-11
- An Addisonian crisis marks an acute adrenocortical failure which can be caused by decompensation of a chronic insufficiency due to stress, an infarct or bleeding of the adrenal cortex and also abrupt...
An Addisonian crisis marks an acute adrenocortical failure which can be caused by decompensation of a chronic insufficiency due to stress, an infarct or bleeding of the adrenal cortex and also abrupt termination of a long-term glucocorticoid medication. This article reports the case of a 25-year-old patient with Crohn's disease who suffered an Addisonian crisis with hypotension, hyponatriemia and hypoglycemia during an emergency laparotomy after he had terminated prednisolone medication on his own authority. This necessitated an aggressive volume therapy in addition to an initial therapy with 100 mg hydrocortisone, 8 g glucose and a continuous administration of catecholamines. Under this treatment regimen hemodynamic stabilization was achieved. Reduction of the administration of hydrocortisone after 3 days resulted in cardiovascular insufficiency which required an escalation of the hydrocortisone substitution.
- Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency: recognition and management. [Journal Article]
- BBioDrugs 2000; 13(2):107-14
- The main cause of Addison's disease is an autoimmune organ-specific destruction of the cells in the adrenal cortex by an autoreactive process of activated immune cells directed against the steroid-sy...
The main cause of Addison's disease is an autoimmune organ-specific destruction of the cells in the adrenal cortex by an autoreactive process of activated immune cells directed against the steroid-synthesising enzyme 21-hydroxylase. The diagnosis of Addison's disease is suspected in a patient presenting with symptoms of fatigue, bodyweight loss, anorexia, salt craving, and signs of low blood pressure and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Laboratory findings include electrolyte disturbances, and typically an elevated serum potassium level and sometimes a low serum sodium level is found together with low plasma levels of basal and corticotropin-stimulated hydrocortisone (cortisol). An aetiological diagnosis can rapidly be made using commercially available assays demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies directed against 21-hydroxylase. Determination of 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies also permits early diagnosis before a complete adrenocortical destruction has occurred. Thus, a window of opportunity for an early immunomodulatory intervention therapy may exist. Patients presenting with an acute adrenocortical crisis should be treated with 100mg of hydrocortisone and saline intravenously without awaiting laboratory results. Maintenance therapy includes substitution of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid steroids, using divided and lower total dosages of glucocorticoids than previously used.
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- Treatment of acute adrenal insufficiency. [Review]
- CTClin Tech Small Anim Pract 2007; 22(1):36-9
- Hypoadrenocorticism is caused by a lack of endogenous glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid. These deficiencies can cause a myriad of clinical signs. This disease is uncommon and its clinical presenta...
Hypoadrenocorticism is caused by a lack of endogenous glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid. These deficiencies can cause a myriad of clinical signs. This disease is uncommon and its clinical presentation is similar to many much more commonly recognized diseases such as renal failure and various gastrointestinal disorders. Severely affected patients may present in a life-threatening adrenocortical crisis, which is characterized by variable degrees of volume depletion and electrolyte abnormalities. The emergency clinician should maintain a high clinical suspicion for hypoadrenocorticism, as early recognition and rapid treatment of hypovolemia and electrolyte abnormalities can be lifesaving. The approach to emergency treatment of hypoadrenocorticism should be to recognize and treat life-threatening arrhythmias, replace intravascular volume and normalize perfusion, correct electrolyte abnormalities and hypoglycemia, administer glucocorticoids, and perform the adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation test for definitive diagnosis. Patients with this condition should have a favorable outcome when treated appropriately.