- Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenonephrectomy: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(51):e9091
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians must be aware of chronic adrenal insufficiency as a possible complication of unilateral adrenalectomy, especially when patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy experience severe adrenal stress.
- A new mutation site in the AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. [Case Reports]
- IImmunogenetics 2017; 69(10):643-651
- Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 2403000) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is caused by autoimmune regulator (AIRE). The main symptoms of APS-1 are chronic mucocutaneou...
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 2403000) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is caused by autoimmune regulator (AIRE). The main symptoms of APS-1 are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) and hypoparathyroidism. We collected APS-1 cases and analysed them. The AIRE genes of the patient and his family members were sequenced to identify whether the APS-1 patient had an AIRE mutation. We discovered a mutation site (c.206A>C) that had never before been reported in the AIRE gene located in exon 2 of the AIRE gene. This homogyzous mutation caused a substitution of the 69th amino acid of the AIRE protein from glutamine to proline (p.Q69P). A yeast two-hybrid assay, which was used to analyse the homodimerization properties of the mutant AIRE protein, showed that the mutant AIRE protein could not interact with the normal AIRE protein. Flow cytometry and RT-qPCR analyses indicated that the new mutation site could decrease the expression levels of the AIRE, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) proteins to affect central immune tolerance. In conclusion, our research has shown that the new mutation site (c.206A>C) may influence the homodimerization and expression levels and other aspects of the AIRE protein. It may also impact the expression levels of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), leading to a series of autoimmune diseases.
- A Complex Interplay: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Severe Health Anxiety in Addison's Disease to Reduce Emergency Department Admissions. [Journal Article]
- BCBehav Cogn Psychother 2017; 45(4):419-426
- CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study provides a sound rationale for further research into AD complicated by anxiety. Findings support the clinical utility of the cognitive behavioural therapy model for complex presentations of AD, offering a potential treatment option where anxiety is elevated and interfering with self-management and leading to high levels of health service use.
- From Appearance of Adrenal Autoantibodies to Clinical Symptoms of Addison's Disease: Natural History. [Review]
- FHFront Horm Res 2016; 46:133-45
- Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be ...
Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be a chronic illness characterized by adrenocortical gland insufficiency that develops following a long and mainly asymptomatic period, characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed to adrenal cortex antigens. In this chapter we describe the groups of subjects at risk of developing Addison's disease, together with the diagnostic tests considered the most appropriate for evaluating adrenal function: determination of basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, and cortisol levels after intravenous stimulation with ACTH (ACTH test). The employment of specific clinical, immunological and functional criteria in the subjects with autoantibodies to the adrenal cortex allows identifying those at risk of developing overt disease. The independent risk factors for the progression to adrenal failure have also been identified and they contribute to different risks of developing clinical Addison's disease. Based on the risk level, the subjects should be monitored over time to observe early signs of adrenal dysfunction, and start substitutive treatment as soon as possible. For patients presenting with high risk, prevention strategies and trials might be available.
- Sarcoidosis Presenting Addison's Disease. [Case Reports]
- IMIntern Med 2016; 55(9):1223-8
- We herein describe a second Japanese case of sarcoidosis presenting Addison's disease. A 52-year-old man was diagnosed with sarcoidosis based on clinical and laboratory findings, including bilateral ...
We herein describe a second Japanese case of sarcoidosis presenting Addison's disease. A 52-year-old man was diagnosed with sarcoidosis based on clinical and laboratory findings, including bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and elevated levels of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and lysozyme, as well as the presence of noncaseating epithelioid granulomas. The patient also exhibited general fatigue, pigmentation, weight loss, hypotension and hyponatremia, suggestive of chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. An endocrine examination confirmed primary adrenocortical insufficiency. This case suggests the direct involvement of sarcoid granuloma in the adrenal glands.
- Polymorphisms of the GR and HSD11B1 genes influence body mass index and weight gain during hormone replacement treatment in patients with Addison's disease. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016; 85(2):180-8
- CONCLUSIONS: The BclI polymorphism of the GR gene and the rs4844880 of the HSD11B1 gene may contribute to weight gain and may affect the individual need of glucocorticoid substitution dose in these patients.
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- X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, involving mainly the white matter and axons of the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the testis and a fr...
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, involving mainly the white matter and axons of the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the testis and a frequent but under-recognized cause of primary adrenocortical insufficiency. X-ALD is caused by a defect in the gene ABCD1 that maps to Xq 28 locus. The primary biochemical disorder is the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) secondary to peroxisomal dysfunction. The incidence in males is estimated to be 1:21,000 and in females 1:14,000, without any difference in the prevalence among different ethnicities. At least six distinct phenotypes have been described that differ in the age and severity of clinical presentation; however, there is no correlation between X-ALD phenotype and mutations in the ABCD1 gene. When suspected, the diagnosis is established biochemically, and prenatal testing is possible in affected families. Currently, there is no satisfying treatment to prevent the onset or modify the progression of the chronic myelopathy of X-ALD. The administration of a mixture of glyceryl trioleate and glyceryl trierucate, also referred as Lorenzo's Oil has been shown to prevent disease progression in asymptomatic patients with cerebral involvement of X-ALD. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the treatment of choice for individuals with early stages of the cerebral form of the disease. An alternative option for patients without HLA-matched donors is autologous HSC-gene therapy with lentivirally corrected cells. Once adrenal insufficiency is present, the hormonal replacement therapy is identical to that of autoimmune Addison’s disease.
- Ketoacidosis and adrenocortical insufficiency. [Case Reports]
- JFJ Forensic Sci 2014; 59(4):1146-52
- We herein report an autopsy case involving a 27-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from chronic adrenocortical insufficiency with a background of a polyendocrine disorder. Postmortem biochemistry rev...
We herein report an autopsy case involving a 27-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from chronic adrenocortical insufficiency with a background of a polyendocrine disorder. Postmortem biochemistry revealed pathologically decreased aldosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in postmortem serum from femoral blood as well as decreased cortisol and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid in urine. Decreased vitreous sodium and increased 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate and C-reactive protein concentrations were observed. The cause of death was determined to be acute adrenocortical insufficiency. Fasting ketoacidosis was postulated to have precipitated the Addisonian crisis. Traumatic causes of death and third-party involvement were excluded. The case highlights the importance of systematically performing exhaustive postmortem biochemical investigations to formulate appropriate hypothesis regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the death process.
- Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases. [Review]
- BPBest Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2013; 27(4):553-63
- The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and ...
The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations that are features of the syndrome, including insulin resistance, central obesity, and hyperlipidaemia. Clinical practice must integrally evaluate the effects of the intricate and tight relationship between the liver and the endocrine system, in order to better address all manifestations, complications, and prevent deterioration of one or the other organ-system.
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- Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- JJAAPA 2012; 25(5):68