- Spastic paraparesis caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mimicking vacuolar myelopathy in a human immunodeficiency virus patient: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(20):e10756
- CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, isolated spastic paraparesis can occur in HIV patients; additional tests such as VLCFA can be useful for the differential diagnosis. More data are needed to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying the two diseases.
- Garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) - a source of mineral elements and bioactive compounds [Journal Article]
- RPRocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2018; 69(2):119-126
- The garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. Native to South America it was brought to Europe in XVI century. It is a plant with numerous healing properties. Medic...
The garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. Native to South America it was brought to Europe in XVI century. It is a plant with numerous healing properties. Medicinal plants such as the garden nasturtium contain trace elements and bioactive compounds which can be easily absorbed by the human body. The flowers and other parts of the garden nasturtium are a good source of micro elements such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, and macro elements, especially of zinc, copper and iron. The essential oil, the extract from the flowers and leaves, and the compounds isolated from these elements have antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, expectorant and anticancer effects. Antioxidant activity of extracts from garden nasturtium is an effect of its high content of compounds such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and vitamin C. Due to its rich phytochemical content and unique elemental composition, the garden nasturtium may be used in the treatment of many diseases for example the illnesses of the respiratory and digestive systems. High content of erucic acid in nasturtium seeds makes it possible to use its oil as treatment in adrenoleukodystrophy. It is also applied in dermatology because it improves the condition of skin and hair. More recently, the flowers of this species have been used as a decorative and edible element of some types of dishes. Aim of the review was to summarize available data concerning garden nasturtium Tropaeolum majus L.
- Updates in Newborn Screening. [Journal Article]
- PAPediatr Ann 2018 May 01; 47(5):e187-e190
- Newborn screening in the United States is an important public health measure to provide early detection for specified disorders when early treatment is both possible and beneficial. As technology imp...
Newborn screening in the United States is an important public health measure to provide early detection for specified disorders when early treatment is both possible and beneficial. As technology improves, newborn screening can be offered for many more conditions. In the past 10 years, screening has expanded to include severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital heart disease, lysosomal storage disease, and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This article reviews the current state of newborn screening with updates on recent developments. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(5):e187-e190.].
- A Novel Variant in ABCD1 Gene Presenting as Adolescent-Onset Atypical Adrenomyeloneuropathy With Spastic Ataxia. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2018; 9:271
- X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurological disorder with a highly complex clinical presentation. Adrenal function, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebral white matter are comm...
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurological disorder with a highly complex clinical presentation. Adrenal function, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebral white matter are commonly affected in adult-onset male patients. Here, we report a family with unusual presentation of X-ALD. The 19-year-old proband had presented with atypical symptoms of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) for 3 years, only with spastic paraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy with white matter hyperintensity. It is rare for an AMN male patient to present the initial symptoms at such an early age with the adrenal function, sphincter function, and dorsal column of the spinal cord spared. He is also the youngest male AMN patient reported to have cerebellar ataxia. His mother also presented unusually early onset of the similar manifestations. A novel variant c.1144A>C (p.Thr382Pro) in exon 3 of the ABCD1 gene was identified. Family study involving the grandparents of the proband revealed the de novo occurrence of the variant in the mother.
- Etiology and treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy: new insights from Drosophila. [Journal Article]
- DMDis Model Mech 2018 May 08
- Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain white matter. The most common form of ALD is X-linked (X-ALD) and results from mutation of the ABCD1-encod...
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain white matter. The most common form of ALD is X-linked (X-ALD) and results from mutation of the ABCD1-encoded very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) transporter. X-ALD is clinically heterogeneous, with the cerebral form being the most severe. Diagnosed in boys usually between the ages of 4 and 8, cerebral X-ALD symptoms progress rapidly (in as little as two years) through declines in cognition, learning, and behavior, to paralysis and ultimately to a vegetative state and death. Currently, there are no good treatments for X-ALD. Here we exploit the Drosophila bubblegum (bgm) double bubble (dbb) model of neurometabolic disease to expand diagnostic power and therapeutic potential for adrenoleukodystrophy. We show that loss of the Drosophila long/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase genes bgm and/or dbb is indistinguishable from loss of the Drosophila ABC transporter gene dABCD1 Shared loss-of-function phenotypes for synthetase and transporter mutants point to a lipid metabolic pathway association with ALD-like neurodegenerative disease in Drosophila; a pathway association that has yet to be established in humans. We also show that manipulation of environment increases the severity of neurodegeneration in bgm and dbb flies, adding even further to a suite of new candidate ALD disease-causing genes and pathways in humans. Finally, we show that it is a lack of lipid metabolic pathway product and not (as commonly thought) an accumulation of pathway precursor that is causative of neurometabolic disease: addition of medium chain fatty acids to the diet of bgm or dbb flies prevents the onset of neurodegeneration. Taken together, our data provide new foundations both for diagnosing adrenoleukodystrophy and for designing effective, mechanism-based treatment protocols.
- Plasma oxysterol profiling in children reveals 24-hydroxycholesterol as a potential marker for Autism Spectrum Disorders. [Journal Article]
- BBiochimie 2018 May 03
- Cholesterol and its oxygenated metabolites, such as oxysterols, are intensively investigated as potential players in the pathophysiology of brain disorder. Altered oxysterol levels have been describe...
Cholesterol and its oxygenated metabolites, such as oxysterols, are intensively investigated as potential players in the pathophysiology of brain disorder. Altered oxysterol levels have been described in patients with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome. Recent studies have shown that Autism Spectrum Disorders are associated with disruption of cholesterol metabolism. The present study aimed at investigating the profile of oxysterols in plasma and their association with clinical parameters in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Thirty-six children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and thirty-eight healthy children, from Sfax (a southern area of Tunisia) matched for age and sex, were included in the study. The severity of Autism Spectrum Disorders was evaluated using the childhood autism rating scale. Standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), serum glucose, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and orosomucoid levels were measured utilizing standard techniques; oxysterol levels were measured by isotope-dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Standard lipid profile, serum glucose, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and orosomucoid levels were similar between the two studied populations. Compared to the control group, children with Autism Spectrum Disorders showed a significant higher plasma level of 24-hydroxycholesterol, while borderline significance was observed for 7α-Hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholersterol. In patients, 24-hydroxycholesterol was inversely correlated with age. Multivariate analysis showed that high plasma levels of 24-hydroxycholesterol are independent risk factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders. On the other hand, an analysis of the receiver's operating characteristics proved that the measured parameters recorded satisfactory levels of specificity and sensitivity. The present study provides evidence that Autism Spectrum Disorders are associated with altered levels in circulating oxysterols. The finding that 24-hydroxycholesterol is an independent risk factor for the disease and suggests the use of this oxysterol as a diagnostic tool in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
- Busulfan, Fludarabine, and Cyclophosphamide (BFC) conditioning allowed stable engraftment after haplo-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children with adrenoleukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. [Letter]
- BMBone Marrow Transplant 2018 May 03
- When multiple sclerosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy are tangled: A challenging case. [Journal Article]
- NCNeurol Clin Pract 2018; 8(2):156-158
- Vanishing 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Concentrations in 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. [Journal Article]
- HRHorm Res Paediatr 2018 Apr 25; :1-7
- We present a boy with a genetically proven congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. While massively elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations after birth l...
We present a boy with a genetically proven congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. While massively elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations after birth led to the diagnosis, 17-OHP concentrations became immeasurable starting with the second year of life even though the dose of hydrocortisone was continuously decreased to ∼7 mg/m2/day. Furthermore, 17-OHP levels were immeasurable during the ACTH test and after withdrawing hydrocortisone medication. In contrast, ACTH levels increased after cessation of hydrocortisone treatment suggesting complete primary adrenal cortex failure. We discuss this case based on the differential diagnosis of complete adrenal cortex failure including other genetic causes in addition to CAH, prednisolone treatment, autoimmune adrenalitis, adrenoleukodystrophy, CMV infection, and adrenal hemorrhage infarction. The most likely disease in our boy is autoimmune adrenalitis, which is difficult to prove years after the onset of the disease. Treatment of CAH had masked the classical symptoms of complete adrenal cortex insufficiency leading to delayed diagnosis in this case.
New Search Next
- Multiplex tandem mass spectrometry assay for newborn screening of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, biotinidase deficiency, and galactosemia with flexibility to assay other enzyme assays and biomarkers. [Journal Article]
- MGMol Genet Metab 2018 Mar 29
- All States screen for biotinidase deficiency and galactosemia, and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) has recently been added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP).We sought to consoli...
All States screen for biotinidase deficiency and galactosemia, and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) has recently been added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP).We sought to consolidate these tests by combining them into a single multiplex tandem mass spectrometry assay as well as to improve the current protocol for newborn screening of galactosemia.A 3 mm punch of a dried blood spot (DBS) was extracted with organic solvent for analysis of the C26:0-lysophosphatidylcholine biomarker for X-ALD.An additional punch was used to assay galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and biotinidase.All assays were combined for a single injection for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (2.3 min per sample).The GALT LC-MS/MS assay does not give a false positive for galactosemia if glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is deficient.The multiplex assay shows acceptable reproducibility and provides for rapid analysis of X-ALD, biotinidase deficiency, and galactosemia.The throughput and ease of sample preparation are acceptable for newborn screening laboratories.We also show that the LC-MS/MS assay is expandable to include several other diseases including Pompe and Hurler diseases (enzymatic activities and biomarkers).Because of consolidation of assays, less manpower is needed compared to running individual assays on separate platforms.The flexibility of the LC-MS/MS platform allows each newborn screening laboratory to analyze the set of diseases offered in their panel.