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- Paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- ADAnticancer Drugs 2018 Dec 04
- The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (TFL) as first-line treatment in patients ...
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (TFL) as first-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in the study who were confirmed to have AGC by histopathology. These patients were treated with TFL: paclitaxel at a dose of 135 mg/m as a 3-h intravenous infusion on day 1, LV 400 mg/m as an intravenous infusion over 2 h on day 1, followed by 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m as an infusion over a 46-h period on 3 consecutive days. Cycles were repeated every 2 weeks. A total of 113 patients were assessed for their response to therapy. A total of three patients achieved complete responses and 46 patients achieved partial responses, yielding an overall objective response rate of 43.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.3-52.5%]. Fifty-four cases of stable disease and 10 cases of progressive disease were observed in the remaining patients. The median time to progression and overall survival were 5.2 months (95% CI: 4.7-5.8 months) and 14.1 months (95% CI: 12.5-15.8 months), respectively. Toxicities were tolerable and moderate. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities included leukopenia (16.8%), neutropenia (17.7%), anemia (8.0%), thrombocytopenia (5.3%), and fatigue (6.2%). Combination chemotherapy with TFL offers an active and safe therapeutic approach for patients with AGC.
- Evaluation of Cytotoxic Potentials of Some Isoindole-1,3-Dione Derivatives on HeLa, C6 and A549 Cancer Cell Lines. [Journal Article]
- MCMed Chem 2018 Dec 05
- CONCLUSIONS: According to the results found, isoindole derivatives 7, 9, and 11 might be good potential anticancer agents for the treatment of cervical and glioma cancer due to their antiproliferative properties, having less cytotoxic effects on healthy cells. In addition, compound 7 could be used in in vivo studies of all three cancer cell lines (C6, HeLa, and A549).
- 5-Fluorouracil inhibits neural differentiation via Mfn1/2 reduction in human induced pluripotent stem cells. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol Sci 2018; 43(12):727-734
- 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used for the treatment of tumors. Regardless of its widespread use as an anti-cancer drug, 5-FU therapy can cause several side effects, including developmental t...
5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used for the treatment of tumors. Regardless of its widespread use as an anti-cancer drug, 5-FU therapy can cause several side effects, including developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity. However, the potential action of 5-FU at the early fetal stage has not yet been completely elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 5-FU exposure on neural induction, using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a model of human fetal stage. 5-FU exposure reduced the expression of several neural differentiation marker genes, such as OTX2, in iPSCs. Since the neural differentiation process requires ATP as a source of energy, we next examined intracellular ATP content using iPSCs. We found that 5-FU decreased intracellular ATP levels in iPSCs. We further focused on the effects of 5-FU on mitochondrial dynamics, which plays a role of ATP production. We found that 5-FU induced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced the level of mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusin 1 and 2 (Mfn1/2). Double knockdown of Mfn1/2 genes in iPSCs downregulated the gene expression of OTX2, suggesting that Mfn mediates neural differentiation in iPSCs. Taken together, these results indicate that 5-FU has a neurotoxicity via Mfn-mediated mitochondria dynamics in iPSCs. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction in iPSCs could be used as a possible marker for cytotoxic effects of drugs.
- Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of sulfonamides and carboxylates incorporating trimellitimides: Dual cyclooxygenase/carbonic anhydrase inhibitory actions. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2018 Nov 22; 84:260-268
- Trimellitimides 6-21 were prepared and investigated in vivo for anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects and in vitro for cytotoxicity. They were subjected to in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX-1/2) and c...
Trimellitimides 6-21 were prepared and investigated in vivo for anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects and in vitro for cytotoxicity. They were subjected to in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX-1/2) and carbonic anhydrase inhibition protocols. Compounds 6-11 and 18 exhibited anti-inflammatory activities and had median effective doses (ED50) of 34.3-49.8 mg kg-1 and 63.6-86.6% edema inhibition relative to the reference drug celecoxib (ED50: 33.9 mg kg-1 and 85.2% edema inhibition). Compounds 6-11 and 18 were weakly cytotoxic at 10 μM against 59 cell lines compared with the reference standard 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Compounds 6-11 had optimal selectivity against COX-2. The selectivity index (SI) range was >200-490 and was comparable to that for celecoxib [COX-2 (SI) > 416.7]. In contrast, compounds 12, 13, and 16-18 were nonselective COX inhibitors with a selectivity index range of 0.92-0.25. The carbonic anhydrase inhibition assay showed that sulfonamide incorporating trimellitimides 6-11 inhibited the cytosolic isoforms hCA I and hCA II, and tumor-associated isoform hCA IX. They were relatively more susceptible to inhibition by compounds 8, 9, and 11. The KI ranges were 54.1-81.9 nM for hCA I, 25.9-55.1 nM for hCA II, and 46.0-348.3 nM for hCA IX. © 2018 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.
- Synthesis and biological profile of substituted benzimidazoles. [Journal Article]
- CCChem Cent J 2018 Dec 01; 12(1):125
- CONCLUSIONS: The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the tube dilution method and were found to exhibit good antimicrobial potential against selected Gram negative and positive bacterial and fungal species. The compounds were also assessed for their anticancer activity exhibited using the SRB assay and were found to elicit antiproliferative activity against MCF7 breast cancer cell line, which was comparable to the standard drug.Antimicrobial screening results indicated that compounds 1, 2 and 19 to be promising antimicrobial agents against selected microbial species and comparable to standard drugs which included norfloxacin and fluconazole. The anticancer screening results revealed that compounds, 12, 21, 22 and 29 to show the highest activity against MCF7 and their IC50 values were more potent than 5-fluorouracil.
- Mitochondria-targeting drug conjugates for cytotoxic, anti-oxidizing and sensing purposes: current strategies and future perspectives. [Review]
- APActa Pharm Sin B 2018; 8(6):862-880
- Mitochondrial targeting is a promising approach for solving current issues in clinical application of chemotherapy and diagnosis of several disorders. Here, we discuss direct conjugation of mitochond...
Mitochondrial targeting is a promising approach for solving current issues in clinical application of chemotherapy and diagnosis of several disorders. Here, we discuss direct conjugation of mitochondrial-targeting moieties to anticancer drugs, antioxidants and sensor molecules. Among them, the most widely applied mitochondrial targeting moiety is triphenylphosphonium (TPP), which is a delocalized cationic lipid that readily accumulates and penetrates through the mitochondrial membrane due to the highly negative mitochondrial membrane potential. Other moieties, including short peptides, dequalinium, guanidine, rhodamine, and F16, are also known to be promising mitochondrial targeting agents. Direct conjugation of mitochondrial targeting moieties to anticancer drugs, antioxidants and sensors results in increased cytotoxicity, anti-oxidizing activity and sensing activity, respectively, compared with their non-targeting counterparts, especially in drug-resistant cells. Although many mitochondria-targeted anticancer drug conjugates have been investigated in vitro and in vivo, further clinical studies are still needed. On the other hand, several mitochondria-targeting antioxidants have been analyzed in clinical phases I, II and III trials, and one conjugate has been approved for treating eye disease in Russia. There are numerous ongoing studies of mitochondria-targeted sensors.
- Radiation Therapy for Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(12):6931-6938
- CONCLUSIONS: RT, mainly with concurrent chemotherapy, showed acceptable treatment outcomes and safe toxicity profiles.
- Chemotherapy in Patients with Hereditary Angioedema. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(12):6801-6807
- CONCLUSIONS: The stress induced by chemotherapy such a standard oxaliplatin/fluorouracil increases the risk of attacks in patients with HAE. However, circulating biomarkers such as D-dimers, C3 and C1-inhibitor functional may serve as early predictors of acute HAE crisis.
- Iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency following drainage surgery for glaucoma. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Ophthalmol 2018; 53(6):574-579
- CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma drainage surgery can damage the adjacent corneal limbal epithelial stem cell population. This can be associated with recurrent epithelial breakdown and reduced vision. If there is visual loss, limbal epithelial transplantation is a potential treatment option.
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- Development of a bioreactor system for cytotoxic evaluation of pharmacological compounds in living cells using NMR spectroscopy. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: The immobilization and perfusion system here detailed, along with 31P NMR, is useful in toxicological evaluation of new pharmacological compounds, enabling the continuous assessment of drugs' effect on energy levels, intracellular pH and [Mg2+]f in intact cells, for several hours without compromising cell viability.