- Molecular dissection of an inhibitor targeting the HIV integrase dependent preintegration complex nuclear import. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Microbiol 2018 Sep 14; :e12953
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing nations where high cost and logistical issues severely limit th...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing nations where high cost and logistical issues severely limit the use of current HIV therapeutics. This, combined HIV's high propensity to develop resistance, means that new antiviral agents against novel targets are still urgently required. We previously identified novel anti-HIV agents directed against the nuclear import of the HIV integrase (IN) protein, which plays critical roles in the HIV lifecycle inside the cell nucleus, as well as in transporting the HIV preintegration complex (PIC) into the nucleus. Here we investigate the structure activity relationship of a series of these compounds for the first time, including a newly identified anti-IN compound, budesonide, showing that the extent of binding to the IN core domain correlates directly with the ability of the compound to inhibit IN nuclear transport in a permeabilised cell system. Importantly, compounds that inhibited the nuclear transport of IN were found to significantly decrease HIV viral replication, even in a dividing cell system. Significantly, budesonide or its analogue flunisolide, were able to effect a significant reduction in the presence of specific nuclear forms of the HIV DNA (2-LTR circles), suggesting that the inhibitors work though blocking IN, and potentially PIC, nuclear import. The work presented here represents a platform for further development of these specific inhibitors of HIV replication with therapeutic and prophylactic potential.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Although not measured, the amounts of inhaled corticosteroids absorbed into the maternal bloodstream and excreted into breastmilk are probably too small to affect a breastfed infant. Reviewers and an...
Although not measured, the amounts of inhaled corticosteroids absorbed into the maternal bloodstream and excreted into breastmilk are probably too small to affect a breastfed infant. Reviewers and an expert panel consider inhaled and oral corticosteroids acceptable to use during breastfeeding.
- The vagal ganglia transcriptome identifies candidate therapeutics for airway hyperreactivity. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Aug 01; 315(2):L133-L148
- Mainstay therapeutics are ineffective in some people with asthma, suggesting a need for additional agents. In the current study, we used vagal ganglia transcriptome profiling and connectivity mapping...
Mainstay therapeutics are ineffective in some people with asthma, suggesting a need for additional agents. In the current study, we used vagal ganglia transcriptome profiling and connectivity mapping to identify compounds beneficial for alleviating airway hyperreactivity (AHR). As a comparison, we also used previously published transcriptome data from sensitized mouse lungs and human asthmatic endobronchial biopsies. All transcriptomes revealed agents beneficial for mitigating AHR; however, only the vagal ganglia transcriptome identified agents used clinically to treat asthma (flunisolide, isoetarine). We also tested one compound identified by vagal ganglia transcriptome profiling that had not previously been linked to asthma and found that it had bronchodilator effects in both mouse and pig airways. These data suggest that transcriptome profiling of the vagal ganglia might be a novel strategy to identify potential asthma therapeutics.
- Insight into the interaction of inhaled corticosteroids with human serum albumin: A spectroscopic-based study. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Anal 2018; 8(1):37-44
- It is well known that the safety and efficacy profile of an inhaled cortocosteroid (ICS) is influenced by the pharmacokinetic properties and associated pharmacodynamic effects of the drug. Freely cir...
It is well known that the safety and efficacy profile of an inhaled cortocosteroid (ICS) is influenced by the pharmacokinetic properties and associated pharmacodynamic effects of the drug. Freely circulating, protein unbound, and active ICS can cause systemic adverse effects. Therefore, a detailed investigation of drug-protein interaction could be of great interest to understand the pharmacokinetic behaviour of corticosteroids and for the design of new analogues with effective pharmacological properties. In the present work, the interaction between some corticosteroids and human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied by spectroscopic approaches. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed that all the investigated corticosteroids can bind to HSA forming a protein-drug complex. The intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by all the investigated drugs, which was rationalized in terms of a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters determined by the Van't Hoff analysis of the binding constants (negative ΔH and ΔS values) clearly indicate thathydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces play a major role in the binding process between albumin and betamethasone, flunisolide and prednisolone, while hydrophobic forces may play a major role in stabilizing albumin-triamcinolone complexes.
- Late (≥ 7 days) inhalation corticosteroids to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 08 24; 8:CD002311
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of the currently available evidence, inhalation corticosteroids initiated at ≥ 7 days of life for preterm infants at high risk of developing BPD cannot be recommended at this point in time. More and larger randomised, placebo-controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of inhalation corticosteroids.
- Inhaled corticosteroids: Effects on growth and bone health. [Review]
- AAAnn Allergy Asthma Immunol 2016; 117(6):595-600
- CONCLUSIONS: Because of the systemic effects on growth and bone health, children should be monitored for growth using stadiometry every 3 to 6 months and BMD should be monitored yearly in patients being treated with high doses of ICSs.
- Quality by design (QbD) approach for design and development of drug-device combination products: a case study on flunisolide nasal spray. [Journal Article]
- PDPharm Dev Technol 2016 Oct 25; :1-10
- The objective of the present study was to design and develop drug-device combination product in particular flunisolide nasal spray (FNS) using quality by design (QbD) approach. Quality target product...
The objective of the present study was to design and develop drug-device combination product in particular flunisolide nasal spray (FNS) using quality by design (QbD) approach. Quality target product profile (QTPP) of FNS was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. viscosity (cp) (Y1) and D50 droplet size distribution (DSD) (μm) (Y2) were identified. Potential risk factors were identified using a fish bone diagram and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) tools. Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs were used for screening the significant factors and optimizing the variables range, respectively. It was observed that viscosity (cp) (Y1) was significantly impacted by formulation variables X1: propylene glycol (PG) (%) and X2: polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (%), while D50 DSD (μm) (Y2) was significantly impacted by formulation variables X1: PG (%), X2: PEG 3350 (%) and device variable X8: delivery volume (μl). A design space plot within which the CQAs remained unchanged was established at laboratory scale. In conclusion, this study demonstrated how QbD based development approach can be applied to the development of drug-device combination products with enhanced understanding of the impact of formulation, process and device variables on CQAs of drug-device combination products.
- Dilemmas, Confusion, and Misconceptions Related to Small Airways Directed Therapy. [Review]
- ChestChest 2017; 151(6):1345-1355
- During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways < 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of...
During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways < 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of asthma and COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result of innovation in small-particle aerosol formulations that better target the distal lung and also advanced physiologic methods of assessing small airway responses. Increasing the precision of drug deposition may improve targeting of specific diseases or receptor locations, decrease airway drug exposure and adverse effects, and thereby increase the efficiency and effectiveness of inhaled drug delivery. The availability of small-particle aerosols of corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or their combination enables a higher total lung deposition and better peripheral lung penetration and provides added clinical benefit, compared with large-particle aerosol treatment. However, a number of questions remain unanswered about the pragmatic approach relevant for clinicians to consider the role of small airways directed therapy in the day-to-day management of asthma and COPD. We thus have tried to clarify the dilemmas, confusion, and misconceptions related to small airways directed therapy. To this end, we have reviewed all studies on small-particle aerosol therapy systematically to address the dilemmas, confusion, and misconceptions related to small airways directed therapy.
- Intranasal steroids versus placebo or no intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Apr 26; 4:CD011996
- CONCLUSIONS: Most of the evidence available was from studies in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. There is little information about quality of life (very low quality evidence). For disease severity, there seems to be improvement for all symptoms (low quality evidence), a moderate-sized benefit for nasal blockage and a small benefit for rhinorrhoea (moderate quality evidence). The risk of epistaxis is increased (high quality evidence), but these data included all levels of severity; small streaks of blood may not be a major concern for patients. It is unclear whether there is a difference in the risk of local irritation (low quality evidence).
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- Different types of intranasal steroids for chronic rhinosinusitis. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Apr 26; 4:CD011993
- CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence to suggest that one type of intranasal steroid is more effective than another in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nor that the effectiveness of a spray differs from an aerosol. We identified no studies that compared drops with spray.It is unclear if higher doses result in better symptom improvements (low quality evidence), but there was moderate quality evidence of an increased risk of epistaxis as an adverse effect of treatment when higher doses were used. This included all levels of severity of epistaxis and it is likely that the proportion of events that required patients to discontinue usage is low due to the low numbers of withdrawals attributed to it. If epistaxis is limited to streaks of blood in the mucus it may be tolerated by the patient and it may be safe to continue treatment. However, it may be a factor that affects compliance.There is insufficient evidence to suggest that the different types of corticosteroid molecule or spray versus aerosol have different effects. Lower doses have similar effectiveness but fewer side effects.Clearly more research in this area is needed, with specific attention given to trial design, disease-specific health-related quality of life outcomes and evaluation of longer-term outcomes and adverse effects.