- Strawberry extracts efficiently counteract inflammatory stress induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide in Human Dermal Fibroblast. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018 Feb 16
- A protracted pro-inflammatory state is the common denominator in the development, progression and complication of the common chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants represent an efficient tool to coun...
A protracted pro-inflammatory state is the common denominator in the development, progression and complication of the common chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants represent an efficient tool to counteract this inflammatory state. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of strawberry extracts on inflammation evoked by E. Coli lipopolysaccharide in Human Dermal Fibroblast, by measuring reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis rate, antioxidant enzymes activity, mitochondria functionality and also investigating the molecular pathway involved in inflammatory and antioxidant response. The results demonstrated that strawberry pre-treatment reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, apoptotic rate, improved antioxidant defences and mitochondria functionality in lipopolysaccharide -treated cells. Strawberry exerted these protective activities through the inhibition of the NF-kB signalling pathway and the stimulation of the Nrf2 pathway, with a mechanism AMPK-dependent. These results confirm the health benefits of strawberry in the prevention of inflammation and oxidative stress condition in lipopolysaccharide-treated cells.
- Guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) Crude Extract Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Cytotoxic Damage Mediated by Oxidative Stress. [Journal Article]
- PFPlant Foods Hum Nutr 2018 Feb 17
- We analyzed guava fruits (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) from Cuba to determine their chemical composition, total antioxidant capacity, as well as their protective effect against oxidative damag...
We analyzed guava fruits (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) from Cuba to determine their chemical composition, total antioxidant capacity, as well as their protective effect against oxidative damage using an in vitro model of human dermal fibroblasts. The guava fruit is a natural source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, folates and beta carotenes with proven health benefits. Human dermal fibroblasts were pre-incubated with different concentrations of guava crude extract and then subjected to oxidative stress using the AAPH stressor. The number of apoptotic and dead cells, as well as the markers of oxidative damage such as lipid and protein oxidation significantly decreased when cells were pre-incubated with guava crude extract and then exposed to the stressor. The activity of antioxidant enzymes also improved when cells were pre-incubated with guava crude extract in comparison to cells subjected to stress without prior pre-incubation with the guava extract. The results obtained in this study highlight the health benefits of guava regarding oxidative stress, proving it to be an important source of bioactive compounds associated with important biological properties.
- Identification of duck IL-4 and its inhibitory effect on IL-17A expression in R. anatipestifer-stimulated splenic lymphocytes. [Journal Article]
- MIMol Immunol 2018 Feb 02; 95:20-29
- As the dysregulation of IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the suppression of IL-17 production by Th2 cytokines could alleviate the development o...
As the dysregulation of IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the suppression of IL-17 production by Th2 cytokines could alleviate the development of these diseases. Previously, we confirmed that inflammatory cytokines including IL-17A are strongly associated with R. anatipestifer infection, which is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the duck industry. Here, we found that IL-4 treatment downregulated the expression of IL-17A and IL-17F transcripts in splenic lymphocytes stimulated with R. anatipestifer. Moreover, duck IL-4 (duIL-4) treatment in R. anatipestifer-stimulated lymphocytes suppressed the expression of IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 transcripts compared to untreated and stimulated lymphocytes. Conversely, duIL-4 increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. We identified a full-length duIL-4 cDNA encoding 136 amino acids from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes that shares 49.3-50% amino acid sequence identity with chicken and quail IL-4 and 21-29.7% with mammalian and piscine homologues. Low or moderate levels of duIL-4 transcript were observed in healthy tissues, including the spleen, bursa, and thymus, whereas duIL-4 expression was higher in the kidney and lung. Levels of duIL-4 were generally upregulated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes but lower in the liver and spleen of R. anatipestifer-infected ducks compared to those of infected chickens. Recombinant duIL-4 promoted nitric oxide synthesis in duck macrophages stimulated by R. anatipestifer compared to untreated and stimulated control macrophages. These results demonstrate that IL-4 is an important Th2 cytokine that inhibits inflammatory responses in splenic lymphocytes stimulated with R. anatipestifer.
- Responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes to different levels of submergence. [Journal Article]
- CRC R Biol 2018 Feb 01
- The study aims at identifying some submergence-tolerant rice genotypes through morphological and molecular characterization and their genetic variability analysis. Ten rice genotypes including two su...
The study aims at identifying some submergence-tolerant rice genotypes through morphological and molecular characterization and their genetic variability analysis. Ten rice genotypes including two submergence-tolerant checks, two susceptible varieties and six advanced lines were evaluated for submergence tolerance in the laboratory and in the field during January-December 2015. The experiment was conducted in the field following randomized complete block design in a two-factor arrangement using five replications. Ten characters, viz. days to flowering, plant height, tiller number plant-1, effective tiller plant-1, and yield plant-1etc. were studied for four treatments. A significant genotype×environment interaction was observed for all traits studied in this experiment. The yield was reduced for all genotypes at a different level of submergence stress compared to control. Binadhan-11, Binadhan-12, RC 249 and RC 251 showed tolerance, whereas RC 192, RC 193 and RC 225 showed moderate tolerance in submerged condition. The phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) in all the studies traits. High heritability (75-97%) was found for all traits. High heritability along with high genetic advance was found for days to flowering (45.55) and plant height (40.05). Molecular characterization of the used genotypes was done with three SSR markers viz. RM 24, and submergence specific SC3 and SUB1. SC3 was found reliable for detection of submergence tolerant genotypes due to the highest gene diversity (0.840) compared to others. The banding pattern of the submergence specific markers SC3 and SUB1 identified in Binadhan-11, Binadhan-12, RC 192, RC 193, RC 225, RC 227, RC 249, and RC 251, which possess the SUB1 gene. Finally, clustering also separates the tolerant genotypes from the susceptible by dividing them into different clusters. The identified genotypes might be useful for the breeding programme for the development of submergence tolerant as well as resistant rice variety in Bangladesh.
- Size-Dependent Affinity of Glycine and Its Short Oligomers to Pyrite Surface: A Model for Prebiotic Accumulation of Amino Acid Oligomers on a Mineral Surface. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 25; 19(2)
- The interaction strength of progressively longer oligomers of glycine, (Gly), di-Gly, tri-Gly, and penta-Gly, with a natural pyrite surface was directly measured using the force mode of an atomic for...
The interaction strength of progressively longer oligomers of glycine, (Gly), di-Gly, tri-Gly, and penta-Gly, with a natural pyrite surface was directly measured using the force mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). In recent years, selective activation of abiotically formed amino acids on mineral surfaces, especially that of pyrite, has been proposed as an important step in many origins of life scenarios. To investigate such notions, we used AFM-based force measurements to probe possible non-covalent interactions between pyrite and amino acids, starting from the simplest amino acid, Gly. Although Gly itself interacted with the pyrite surface only weakly, progressively larger unbinding forces and binding frequencies were obtained using oligomers from di-Gly to penta-Gly. In addition to an expected increase of the configurational entropy and size-dependent van der Waals force, the increasing number of polar peptide bonds, among others, may be responsible for this observation. The effect of chain length was also investigated by performing similar experiments using l-lysine vs. poly-l-lysine (PLL), and l-glutamic acid vs. poly-l-glutamic acid. The results suggest that longer oligomers/polymers of amino acids can be preferentially adsorbed on pyrite surfaces.
- Overexpression of the Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene in Strawberry Enhances Antioxidant Capacity and Cytotoxic Effects on Human Hepatic Cancer Cells. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2018 Jan 24; 66(3):581-592
- Food fortification through the increase and/or modulation of bioactive compounds has become a major goal for preventing several diseases, including cancer. Here, strawberry lines of cv. Calypso trans...
Food fortification through the increase and/or modulation of bioactive compounds has become a major goal for preventing several diseases, including cancer. Here, strawberry lines of cv. Calypso transformed with a construct containing an anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene were produced to study the effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis, metabolism, and transcriptome. Three strawberry ANS transgenic lines (ANS L5, ANS L15, and ANS L18) were analyzed for phytochemical composition and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and their fruit extracts were assessed for cytotoxic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma. ANS L18 fruits had the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, while those of ANS L15 had the highest anthocyanin concentration; TAC positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Fruit transcriptome was also specifically affected in the polyphenol biosynthesis and in other related metabolic pathways. Fruit extracts of all lines exerted cytotoxic effects in a dose/time-dependent manner, increasing cellular apoptosis and free radical levels and impairing mitochondrial functionality.
- Are by-products from beeswax recycling process a new promising source of bioactive compounds with biomedical properties? [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018; 112:126-133
- During the process of beeswax recycling, many industrial derivatives are obtained. These matrices may have an interesting healthy and commercial potential but to date they have not been properly stud...
During the process of beeswax recycling, many industrial derivatives are obtained. These matrices may have an interesting healthy and commercial potential but to date they have not been properly studied. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the proximal and phytochemical composition, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effects of two by-products from beeswax recycling process named MUD 1 and MUD 2 on liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results showed that MUD 1 presented the highest (P < .05) fiber, protein, carbohydrate, polyphenol and flavonoid concentration, as well as the highest (P < .05) total antioxidant capacity than the MUD 2 samples. MUD1 exerted also anticancer activity on HepG2 cells, by reducing cellular viability, increasing intracellular ROS levels and affecting mitochondrial functionality in a dose-dependent manner. We showed for the first time that by-products from beeswax recycling process can represent a rich source of phytochemicals with high total antioxidant capacity and anticancer activity; however, further researches are necessary to evaluate their potentiality for human health by in vivo studies.
- Downregulation of common cytokine receptor γ chain inhibits inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with Riemerella anatipestifer. [Journal Article]
- DCDev Comp Immunol 2018; 81:225-234
- Th17-cell-mediated inflammation is affected by the soluble form of common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc). We previously suggested that inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17A are associ...
Th17-cell-mediated inflammation is affected by the soluble form of common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc). We previously suggested that inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17A are associated with Riemerella anatipestifer infection, which a harmful bacterial pathogen in ducks. Here, the expression profiles of membrane-associated γc(duγc-a) and soluble γc(duγc-b) in R. anatipestifer-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and macrophages, and in the spleens and livers of R. anatipestifer-infected ducks, were investigated. In vitro and in vivo results indicated that the expression levels of both forms of γcwere increased, showing that marked increases were detected in the expression of the duγc-b form rather than the duγc-a form. Treatment with γc-specific siRNA downregulated mRNA expression of Th17-related cytokines, including IL-17A and IL-17F, in duck splenic macrophages stimulated with R. anatipestifer, whereas the expressions of interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-2 were enhanced. The results showed that the upregulation of γc, especially the duγc-b form, was associated with expression of Th17-related cytokines during R. anatipestifer infection.
- Risk of solid cancer in patients with mast cell activation syndrome: Results from Germany and USA. [Journal Article]
- FF1000Res 2017; 6:1889
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the view that mast cells may promote development of certain malignant tumors. These findings indicate a need for increased surveillance of certain types of cancer in MCAS patients irrespective of its individual clinical presentation.
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- Improved developmental competence in embryos treated with lycopene during in vitro culture system. [Journal Article]
- MRMol Reprod Dev 2018; 85(1):46-61
- In vitro embryo development remains suboptimal compared to in vivo development due to the challenge from various stressors associated with in vitro culturing of oocytes. When 0.2 μM lycopene was adde...
In vitro embryo development remains suboptimal compared to in vivo development due to the challenge from various stressors associated with in vitro culturing of oocytes. When 0.2 μM lycopene was added to oocyte in vitro maturation and embryo culture media, to assess its antioxidant effects on embryo development, we observed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cleavage and blastocyst development rates compared to the corresponding controls (84.3 ± 0.6% vs. 73.1 ± 1.9% and 41.0 ± 1.4% vs. 33.4 ± 0.7%, respectively). Lycopene also significantly reduced (p < 0.05) intracellular reactive oxygen species concentrations in oocytes and blastocysts, whereas lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial activity increased compared to control conditions. The number of apoptotic nuclei was significantly reduced in the lycopene-treated compared to the control group (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 4.7 ± 0.3), and the quantity of cells in the trophectoderm (207.1 ± 1.6 vs. 171.3 ± 1.0, respectively) and inner cell mass (41.9 ± 0.4 vs. 36.7 ± 0.4, respectively) was higher following treatment-although the inner cell mass-to-trophectoderm ratio was unchanged (1:3.3 vs. 1:3.4 for lycopene vs. control, respectively). Lycopene supplementation also significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated expression of IKBKB (Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase, subunit beta) and reduced Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 protein abundance, while up-regulating GDF9 (Growth and differentiation factor 9), BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15), SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2), NDUFA2 (NADH dehydrogenase), ACADL (Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain), and ACSL3 (Acyl-CoA synthetase 3, long-chain membrane 3) transcription compared to control. Therefore, co-culturing with lycopene during oocyte maturation improved bovine embryo developmental potential during in vitro culture by improving embryonic resilience to stress.