- Phenolic Compounds in Honey and Their Associated Health Benefits: A Review. [Review]
- MMolecules 2018 Sep 11; 23(9)
- Honey is a natural substance appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Its content in flavonoids and phenolic acids plays a key role on human health, thanks to the high antioxida...
Honey is a natural substance appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Its content in flavonoids and phenolic acids plays a key role on human health, thanks to the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that they exert. Honey possesses antimicrobial capacity and anticancer activity against different types of tumors, acting on different molecular pathways that are involved on cellular proliferation. In addition, an antidiabetic activity has also been highlighted, with the reduction of glucose, fructosamine, and glycosylated hemoglobin serum concentration. Honey exerts also a protective effect in the cardiovascular system, where it mainly prevents the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, in the nervous system, in the respiratory system against asthma and bacterial infections, and in the gastrointestinal system. A beneficial effect of honey can also be demonstrated in athletes. The purpose of this review is to summarize and update the current information regarding the role of honey in health and diseases.
- Protective effects of Manuka honey on LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Part 1: Enhancement of cellular viability, regulation of cellular apoptosis and improvement of mitochondrial functionality. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018 Sep 03; 121:203-213
- Manuka honey (MH) is a monofloral honey from Australia and New Zealand, well-known for its healthy properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing capacities. The aim of this work wa...
Manuka honey (MH) is a monofloral honey from Australia and New Zealand, well-known for its healthy properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing capacities. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic composition and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of MH, as well as its effects on cellular viability, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, highlighting the molecular mechanisms involved. Up to 18 compounds were identified in MH, with gallic acid and quercetin as the major ones; MH showed also remarkable TAC. In addition, MH was able to enhance cellular viability, decrease apoptosis, promote wound healing and attenuate inflammation in a dose-dependent manner, by reducing the expression of caspase 3, p-p38 and p-Erk1/2 proteins, in macrophages stressed with LPS. In addition, it improved mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic activities, stimulating the expression of p-AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC1α, counteracting in this way the deleterious effects of LPS treatment. In conclusion, one of the possible mechanisms by which MH exerts its beneficial effects could be to its capacity to improve cellular viability, promote proliferation and enhance energetic metabolism, by modulating the expression of several proteins involved in apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis.
- Structure-stability relationship of anthocyanins under cell culture condition. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Aug 30; :1-9
- This work aims to evaluate the structure-stability relationship of anthocyanins in cell culture. An early degradation time (CT10) and half-degradation time (CT50) were used to characterise the stabil...
This work aims to evaluate the structure-stability relationship of anthocyanins in cell culture. An early degradation time (CT10) and half-degradation time (CT50) were used to characterise the stability of 10 of the most common anthocyanins, incubated with DMEM at 37 °C, pH = 7.4, 5% CO2 for different time periods. According to the glycosylation, the glycosylated forms were more stable than the not glycosylated forms. The methylation at 3'' or 5' position at ring B enhanced their stability; contrarily, the hydroxylation at 3' or 5' position at ring B weakened their stability. Glycosylated forms were much more stable in water than in the culture medium. Although not glycosylated forms were also instable in water, their stability was improved compared with culture medium. Together with the cell culture experiments and, in order to avoid artefacts, stability tests of polyphenols should be performed in parallel experiments with DMEM.
- Targeting molecular pathways in cancer stem cells by natural bioactive compounds. [Review]
- PRPharmacol Res 2018 Aug 10; 135:150-165
- Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) or Tumor-Initiating Cells (TICs) are a small sub-population of cells within the tumor, able to give chemio- and radio-resistance and cause the onset of metastasis and the pre...
Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) or Tumor-Initiating Cells (TICs) are a small sub-population of cells within the tumor, able to give chemio- and radio-resistance and cause the onset of metastasis and the presence of relapses; for these reasons, they are recently becoming a potential target for anticancer therapy. One of the main characteristics of these cells is the self-renewal through the capability of modulating different molecular signalling pathways, including Wnt/β-Catenin, Sonic Hedgehog and Notch pathways. Natural bioactive compounds such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin, curcumin, quercetin, ellagic acid, anthocyanins and other compounds and extracts can have a direct or indirect effect on these molecular pathways, decreasing the pathological activities of CSCs. This review aims to report and summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies about the preventive, therapeutic and chemosensitizing effects of these natural bioactive compounds on CSCs deriving from different types of tumors.
- Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Olive Oil as Nutraceutical Tools for the Prevention and Management of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 06; 19(8)
- Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the largest contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality. Among them, cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for a 47% of worldwide...
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the largest contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality. Among them, cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for a 47% of worldwide mortality. In general, preventive approaches modifying lifestyle are more cost-effective than treatments after disease onset. In this sense, a healthy diet could help a range of NCDs, such as cancer and CVDs. Traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD) is associated by the low-prevalence of certain types of cancers and CVDs, where olive oil plays an important role. In fact, different epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil consumption prevents some cancers, as well as coronary heart diseases and stroke incidence and mortality. Historically, the beneficial health effects of virgin olive oil (VOO) intake were first attributed to the high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids. Nowadays, many studies indicate that phenolic compounds contained in olive oil have positive effects on different biomarkers related to health. Among them, phenolic compounds would be partially responsible for health benefits. The present work aims to explore, in studies published during the last five years, the effects of the main phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil on different cancer or CVD aspects, in order to clarify which compounds have more potential to be used as nutraceuticals with preventive or even therapeutic properties.
- Protective effects of Manuka honey on LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Part 2: Control of oxidative stress induced damage, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuation of inflammation. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018 Aug 02; 120:578-587
- The redox-system is altered by oxidative stress that is initiated by oxidative agents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are strongly involved in chronic infla...
The redox-system is altered by oxidative stress that is initiated by oxidative agents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are strongly involved in chronic inflammation. Even if Manuka honey (MH) is a good source of polyphenol rich antioxidants, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are still elusive. The aim of the present work was to explore the protective effects of MH against E.coli LPS stimulated oxidative stress and inflammatory condition and the underlying mechanisms on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pre-treatment with MH markedly inhibited LPS induced ROS and nitrite accumulation and increased the protection against cellular biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Stimulation by LPS suppressed both antioxidant enzyme activities and expressions, and Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway which was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the presence of MH. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and other inflammatory mediators (iNOS) were enhanced after LPS treatment, whereas MH suppressed the expression of these inflammatory markers. Moreover, MH also inhibited the expression of TLR4/NF-кB via IкB phosphorylation in LPS-stressed RAW 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, MH acted as a natural agent for preventing oxidative and inflammatory-related diseases.
- Phytochemical Composition and Cytotoxic Effects on Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells of Different Berries Following a Simulated In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Aug 01; 23(8)
- Berry fruits are rich in nutrients and polyphenols, providing potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect their bioavailability is becoming of utmost importance for evaluating th...
Berry fruits are rich in nutrients and polyphenols, providing potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect their bioavailability is becoming of utmost importance for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food. In this study, the phytochemical composition and the total antioxidant capacity of different varieties of five berries (blackberry, blackcurrant, blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry) were evaluated after an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The cultivar of each berry that showed the higher content of total phenols and flavonoids was selected to study its cytotoxic effect on human hepatoma cells. Digestion resulted in a high reduction (p ˂ 0.05) of total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and total antioxidant capacity, in the "IN" samples compared to the "OUT" extracts, which represent the "serum-available" and the "colon-available" fractions, respectively. Incubation of the digested fraction for 24 h didn't exert any effect on cellular viability, while a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed after 48 h and 72 h of incubation for all the berries analyzed. Our results suggest that the approach proposed in this work may represent a rapid tool for evaluating and identifying new berries with increased phytochemical bioavailability, highlighting their antiproliferative agents after an in vitro digestion.
- Manuka honey synergistically enhances the chemopreventive effect of 5-fluorouracil on human colon cancer cells by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis, altering metabolic phenotypes and suppressing metastasis ability. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Biol Med 2018 Jul 26; 126:41-54
- The development of chemo-sensitizers is urgently needed to overcome 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapeutic resistance and adverse toxicity in colorectal cancer. This work aims to evaluate the synergic eff...
The development of chemo-sensitizers is urgently needed to overcome 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapeutic resistance and adverse toxicity in colorectal cancer. This work aims to evaluate the synergic effects of 5-FU and Manuka honey (MH), a rich source of bioactive compounds, in enhancing the anticancer effects of this drug on human colon cancer HCT-116 and LoVo cells. Compared to 5-FU alone, MH synergistically enhanced the chemotherapeutic effects of 5-FU, by reducing cell proliferation through the suppression of EGFR, HER2, p-Akt and p-mTOR expression, and promoting apoptosis by the modulation pro-apoptotic (p53, Bax, Cyto c, FasL caspase-3, -8, -9 and cleave-PARP) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) markers. The activations of p-p38MAPK and p-Erk1/2 pathways and ROS production were also involved in this process. Downregulation of transcription factor (NF-κB and Nrf2) and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and expression (SOD, catalase and HO-1) were more evident after the combined treatment, leading to more cell death by oxidative stress. Moreover, additive effects were also observed by increasing lipid and protein oxidation and arresting cell cycle. All the parameters of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis function decreased and both cells entered the quiescent stage after the combined treatments. MH also influenced the anti-metastasis effects of 5-FU by decreasing migration ability, suppressing the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and increasing N-cadherin and E-cadherin. In conclusion, MH could be a useful preventive or adjuvant agent in the treatment of colorectal cancer with 5-FU.
- Strawberry and Achenes Hydroalcoholic Extracts and Their Digested Fractions Efficiently Counteract the AAPH-Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Jul 26; 19(8)
- Strawberry fruits are highly appreciated by consumers worldwide due to their bright red color, typical aroma, and juicy texture. While the biological activity of the complete fruit has been widely st...
Strawberry fruits are highly appreciated by consumers worldwide due to their bright red color, typical aroma, and juicy texture. While the biological activity of the complete fruit has been widely studied, the potential beneficial effects of the achenes (commonly named seeds) remain unknown. In addition, when raw fruit and achenes are consumed, the digestion process could alter the release and absorption of their phytochemical compounds, compromising their bioactivity. In the present work, we evaluated the protective effects against oxidative damage of nondigested and digested extracts from strawberry fruit and achenes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. For that purpose, cells were treated with different concentration of the extracts prior to incubation with the stressor agent, AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride). Subsequently, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the percentage of live, dead, and apoptotic cells were determined. Our results demonstrated that all the evaluated fractions were able to counteract the AAPH-induced damage, suggesting that the achenes also present biological activity. The positive effects of both the raw fruit and achenes were maintained after the in vitro digestion process.
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- Role of musculoskeletal disorders in falls of postmenopausal women. [Journal Article]
- OIOsteoporos Int 2018 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: MSDs are common and an important risk factor for falls and especially nonslip falls among postmenopausal women. The number of excess falls due to MSDs in this population group is greater than that due to any other disease class.