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- Acute effects of zinc and insulin on arcuate anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest insulin inhibits arcuate POMC neurons independent of zinc, and highlights a possible role of putative PDGF receptors in the acute effects of guinea pig insulin.
- Dietary phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment: A focus on the molecular mechanisms involved. [Review]
- BABiotechnol Adv 2018 Nov 23
- Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cancer type and leading cause of death. Unfortunately, current medical treatments are not sufficient due to lack of effective therapy, adverse side ...
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cancer type and leading cause of death. Unfortunately, current medical treatments are not sufficient due to lack of effective therapy, adverse side effects, chemoresistance and disease recurrence. In recent decades, epidemiologic observations have highlighted the association between the ingestion of several phytochemical-enriched foods and nutrients and the lower risk of CRC. According to preclinical studies, dietary phytochemicals exert chemopreventive effects on CRC by regulating different markers and signaling pathways; additionally, the gut microbiota plays a role as vital effector in CRC onset and progression, therefore, any dietary alterations in it may affect CRC occurrence. A high number of studies have displayed a key role of growth factors and their signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of CRC. Indeed, the efficiency of dietary phytochemicals to modulate carcinogenic processes through the alteration of different molecular targets, such as Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK (p38, JNK and Erk1/2), EGFR/Kras/Braf, TGF-β/Smad2/3, STAT1-STAT3, NF-кB, Nrf2 and cyclin-CDK complexes, has been proven, whereby many of these targets also represent the backbone of modern drug discovery programs. Furthermore, epigenetic analysis showed modified or reversed aberrant epigenetic changes exerted by dietary phytochemicals that led to possible CRC prevention or treatment. Therefore, our aim is to discuss the effects of some common dietary phytochemicals that might be useful in CRC as preventive or therapeutic agents. This review will provide new guidance for research, in order to identify the most studied phytochemicals, their occurrence in foods and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of dietary phytochemicals for the prevention or treatment of CRC by targeting several genes and signaling pathways, as well as epigenetic modifications. In addition, the results obtained by recent investigations aimed at improving the production of these phytochemicals in genetically modified plants have been reported. Overall, clinical data on phytochemicals against CRC are still not sufficient and therefore the preventive impacts of dietary phytochemicals on CRC development deserve further research so as to provide additional insights for human prospective studies.
- In vitro production of sex preselected cattle embryos using a monoclonal antibody raised against bull sperm epitopes. [Journal Article]
- ARAnim Reprod Sci 2018 Nov 16
- Sex preselection has always generated great interest among livestock producers. Among the prevalent sperm sorting methods, there is much evidence that sex sorting has a negative effect on sperm quali...
Sex preselection has always generated great interest among livestock producers. Among the prevalent sperm sorting methods, there is much evidence that sex sorting has a negative effect on sperm quality with an altered pattern of sperm motility, ultimately reducing the period of cell viability. In this study, we have established a new approach for the preselected embryo production by using WholeMom®; a monoclonal antibody developed against bull sperm epitopes for simple and easy separation of X- and Y-sperm. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the percentage of presumptive zygotes between the control and the X-sperm sorted group, but there was a difference in early cleaving embryos with there being 81.2 ± 1.4%, 78.3 ± 1.0%, and 66.7 ± 1.1% for the control, X-sperm sorted, and Y-sperm sorted groups, respectively. Similarly, the percentage of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage (Day 7) were also greater (P < 0.05) in the control and X-sperm sorted group compared with the Y-sperm sorted group being 34.8 ± 1.0%, 32.1 ± 0.8%, and 23.7 ± 1.0% in the control, X-sperm sorted, and Y-sperm sorted groups, respectively. Furthermore, B-SRY F2 and B-SRY R2 gene expression data indicated there was a detection accuracy of 81.0% for the female embryos and 72.5% for the male embryos produced in vitro. In conclusion, in cattle in vitro derived embryo production using pre-selected sexed semen and subsequent embryo transfer can facilitate the mass production of individuals that are genetically superior.
- Relevance of functional foods in the Mediterranean diet: the role of olive oil, berries and honey in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. [Journal Article]
- CRCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Nov 13; :1-28
- The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is a well-known dietary pattern associated with longevity and improvement of life quality as it reduces the risk of the most common chronic pathologies, s...
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is a well-known dietary pattern associated with longevity and improvement of life quality as it reduces the risk of the most common chronic pathologies, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), that represent the principal cause of death worldwide. One of the most characteristic foods of MedDiet is olive oil, a very complex matrix, which constitutes the main source of fats and is used in the preparation of foods, both raw as an ingredient in recipes, and in cooking. Similarly, strawberries and raspberries are tasty and powerful foods which are commonly consumed in the Mediterranean area in fresh and processed forms and have attracted the scientific and consumer attention worldwide for their beneficial properties for human health. Besides olive oil and berries, honey has lately been introduced in the MedDiet thanks to its relevant nutritional, phytochemical and antioxidant profile. It is a sweet substance that has recently been classified as a functional food. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the recent evidence, obtained from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies, on the potential roles exerted by these foods in the prevention and progression of different types of cancer and CVDs.
- Transcriptome profiling of two contrasting ornamental cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) lines provides insights into purple and white inner leaf pigmentation. [Journal Article]
- BGBMC Genomics 2018 Nov 06; 19(1):797
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the purple inner leaves of purple ornamental cabbage result from a high level of anthocyanin biosynthesis, a high level of chlorophyll degradation and an extremely low level of chlorophyll biosynthesis, whereas the bicolor (purple/green) outer leaves are due to a moderate level of anthocyanin biosynthesis, a high level of chlorophyll degradation and a very low level of chlorophyll biosynthesis. In white ornamental cabbage, the white inner leaves are due to an extremely low level or absence of anthocyanin biosynthesis, a high level of chlorophyll degradation and a very low level of chlorophyll biosynthesis, whereas the bicolor (white/green) leaves are due to a high level of chlorophyll degradation and a low level of chlorophyll biosynthesis and absence of anthocyanin biosynthesis. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying inner and bicolor leaf pigmentation in ornamental cabbage and offer a platform for assessing related ornamental species.
- The Significance of Mast Cell Activation in the Era of Precision Medicine. [Letter]
- AJAm J Gastroenterol 2018; 113(11):1725-1726
- Cellular and synaptic reorganization of arcuate NPY/AgRP and POMC neurons after exercise. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Metab 2018; 18:107-119
- CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data support a rapid reorganization of synaptic inputs and biophysical properties in response to exercise, which may facilitate adaptations to altered energy balance and glucose metabolism.
- Mast cell deposition and activation may be a new explanation for epiploic appendagitis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 23; 2018
- Epiploic appendagitis is as an acute painful condition of the fat on the outside of the intestine. Thus far, there have been no publications to our knowledge that appendagitis can be caused by mast c...
Epiploic appendagitis is as an acute painful condition of the fat on the outside of the intestine. Thus far, there have been no publications to our knowledge that appendagitis can be caused by mast cells or can be associated with chronic pain. A patient with multisystemic disorders suffered with both chronic and acute attacks of abdominal pain for a year. The worst attack led to surgical resection of an enlarged sigmoid colon epiploic appendage. Careful review of her complex medical history and mast cell stains of gastrointestinal biopsies led to the diagnosis of mast cell activation syndrome. Re-examination of the resected appendage using an immunohistochemical stain demonstrated a high mast cell density which is a new histopathological finding. Treatment of mast cell activation syndrome and other related syndromes led to marked improvement in her health, including all types of chronic abdominal pain.
- Beeswax by-Products Efficiently Counteract the Oxidative Damage Induced by an Oxidant Agent in Human Dermal Fibroblasts. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 19; 19(9)
- The antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical composition of two by-products from beeswax recycling processes were recently investigated. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of ...
The antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical composition of two by-products from beeswax recycling processes were recently investigated. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of one of these by-products, MUD1, against the oxidative stress induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. After a preliminary viability assay, the protective effect of MUD1 was investigated through the measurement of apoptosis level, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrite (NO₂-) production, the level of protein and lipid biomarkers (carbonyl groups, total glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) of oxidative damage, and the measurement of antioxidant enzymes activities (glutatione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The obtained results showed that MUD1 exerted protective effects on HDF, increasing cell viability and counteracted the oxidative stress promoted by AAPH-treatment, and improved mitochondria functionality and wound healing capacities. This work shows the antioxidant effects exerted by beeswax by-products, demonstrating for the first time their potential against oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast cells; however, further research will be necessary to evaluate their potentiality for human health by more deeply in vitro and in vivo studies.
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- Phenolic Compounds in Honey and Their Associated Health Benefits: A Review. [Review]
- MMolecules 2018 Sep 11; 23(9)
- Honey is a natural substance appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Its content in flavonoids and phenolic acids plays a key role on human health, thanks to the high antioxida...
Honey is a natural substance appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Its content in flavonoids and phenolic acids plays a key role on human health, thanks to the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that they exert. Honey possesses antimicrobial capacity and anticancer activity against different types of tumors, acting on different molecular pathways that are involved on cellular proliferation. In addition, an antidiabetic activity has also been highlighted, with the reduction of glucose, fructosamine, and glycosylated hemoglobin serum concentration. Honey exerts also a protective effect in the cardiovascular system, where it mainly prevents the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, in the nervous system, in the respiratory system against asthma and bacterial infections, and in the gastrointestinal system. A beneficial effect of honey can also be demonstrated in athletes. The purpose of this review is to summarize and update the current information regarding the role of honey in health and diseases.