- Effects of pre-reproductive maternal enrichment on maternal care, offspring's play behavior and oxytocinergic neurons. [Review]
- NNeuropharmacology 2018 Feb 17
- Potentiating social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations the Environmental Enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity experienced by individuals. Growing evidence demonstrates th...
Potentiating social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations the Environmental Enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity experienced by individuals. Growing evidence demonstrates that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects behavioral and neural developmental trajectories of the offspring. To discover how the accumulation of early maternal complex experiences may inform and shape the social behavior of the following generation, we examined the effects of pre-reproductive enrichment of dams (post-natal days 21-72) on the play performances of their male and female adolescent offspring. Furthermore, we examined the effects of pre-reproductive enrichment on maternal behavior (during post-partum days 1-10) and male intruder aggression (on post-partum day 11). Since oxytocin modulates maternal care, social bonding, and agonistic behavior, the number of oxytocinergic neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei was examined in both dams and offspring. Results revealed that enriched females exhibited higher levels of pup-oriented behaviors, especially Crouching, and initiated pup-retrieval more quickly than standard females after the maternal aggression test. Such behavioral peculiarities were accompanied by increased levels of oxytocinergic neurons in PVN and SON. Moreover, pre-reproductive maternal EE cross-generationally influenced the offspring according to sex. Indeed, male pups born to enriched females exhibited a reduced play fighting associated with a higher number of oxytocinergic neurons in SON in comparison to male pups born to standard-housed females. In conclusion, pre-reproductive EE to the mothers affects their maternal care and has a cross-generational impact on the social behavior of their offspring that do not directly experiences EE.
- Defendant's or convict's competency to stand trial - forensic psychiatric evaluation. [Journal Article]
- AMArch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2017; 67(3):214-225
- The purpose of this paper was to draw attention to particularly important aspects of pronouncing forensic psychiatric judgment regarding the accused or convicted individuals' competency to stand tria...
The purpose of this paper was to draw attention to particularly important aspects of pronouncing forensic psychiatric judgment regarding the accused or convicted individuals' competency to stand trial. The level of a person's mental capacity should be established using a structured psychiatric interview concerning a variety of aspects of a trial. Emphasis should be placed on evaluating the defendant's consciousness of the charges, knowledge of the potential punishment, ability to make significant decisions and be engaged in defense, knowledge about the role that particular people present in the courtroom play, understanding of the meaning of the evidence gathered in the case, the risk of aggression. The analysis should take into account the specificity of the mental disorder, the influence of proceedings on the course of disorder, as well as the presence of reactive disorders. Using testing tools by the expert can facilitate the process of evaluation to a certain degree. Forensic psychiatric evaluations can give rise to difficulties for the experts, what with the changing legal regulations and their interpretations. It would be justified to develop the standards of evaluation in this kind of cases, which would on the one hand apply to experts but which would also be respected by the judicial organ.
- Battered child syndrome in the records of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok. [Journal Article]
- AMArch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2017; 67(3):153-165
- Violence against children has been until now recognised as physical aggression escalating from corporal punishment, hard physical labour to homicide. Nowadays child abuse is considered as maltreatmen...
Violence against children has been until now recognised as physical aggression escalating from corporal punishment, hard physical labour to homicide. Nowadays child abuse is considered as maltreatment occurring in four different aspects: physical abuse, psychological abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Child abuse is difficult to disclose, as it is concealed both by the perpetrators and the victims. The child is afraid and at the same time, almost always ashamed of looking for help. The victim frequently feels guilty, considers the violence as a norm, but in many cases is not able to speek precisely and very often has problems in contacting the required person. The objective of this study is to analyse the phenomenon of child abuse on the basis of Department of Forensic Medicine records. The victims were characterized in terms of their age, sex, place of residence and the type and location of injuries. The kind of abuse and perpetrators were also determined by researchers.
- A Three-Year Emotional Intelligence Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Aggression: The Mediating Role of Unpleasant Affectivity. [Journal Article]
- JRJ Res Adolesc 2018; 28(1):186-198
- Adolescents' aggressive behavior is a growing social problem with important implications for psychosocial adjustment. The teaching of emotional skills has an important impact on reducing aggression i...
Adolescents' aggressive behavior is a growing social problem with important implications for psychosocial adjustment. The teaching of emotional skills has an important impact on reducing aggression in schools. However, little scientific evidence has shown the explanatory mechanism through which this training reduces aggression during adolescence. This article aims to provide evidence for the effectiveness of a 3-year longitudinal intervention among adolescents in nine Spanish schools. A total of 476 adolescents participated. Results showed a reduction in physical and verbal aggression in Time 2 through the reduction in negative affect, anger, and hostile feelings, compared with an active control group. The training seems to be crucial for dealing with the emotional and cognitive components of aggression and, thus, their behavioral manifestations.
- Longitudinal Associations Between Family Aggression, Externalizing Behavior, and the Structure and Function of the Amygdala. [Journal Article]
- JRJ Res Adolesc 2018; 28(1):134-149
- Using longitudinal data from 21 adolescents, we assessed family aggression (via mother, father, and youth report) in early adolescence, externalizing behavior in mid-adolescence, and magnetic resonan...
Using longitudinal data from 21 adolescents, we assessed family aggression (via mother, father, and youth report) in early adolescence, externalizing behavior in mid-adolescence, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in late adolescence. Amygdalae were manually traced, and used as seed regions for resting state analyses. Both family aggression and subsequent externalizing behavior predicted larger right amygdala volumes and stronger amygdala-frontolimbic/salience network connectivity and weaker amygdala-posterior cingulate connectivity. Externalizing behavior in mid-adolescence mediated associations between family aggression in early adolescence and resting state connectivity between the amygdala and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex in late adolescence. Family adversity and adolescent behavior problems may share common neural correlates.
- Response to Time-Out Among Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior Problems: The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits. [Journal Article]
- CPChild Psychiatry Hum Dev 2018 Feb 19
- This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% bo...
This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% boys, Mage = 4.92) with at-risk/clinically elevated levels of EBP participated in an 8-week summer treatment program (STP-PreK). Total number of minutes spent daily in TO for intentional aggression (IA) and repeated non-compliance (RNC) were recorded during the initial (T1) and final (T2) phases of the STP-PreK. After accounting for severity of EBP and levels of TO at T1, higher levels of CU traits predicted greater total levels of TO at T2. An interaction also emerged between symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and CU traits in predicting IA. Specifically, greater ODD symptoms predicted fewer number of IA related TO at T2, but only for children with low CU traits. Implications for treatment are discussed.
- Effects of Social Experience on the Habituation Rate of Zebrafish Startle Escape Response: Empirical and Computational Analyses. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neural Circuits 2018; 12:7
- While the effects of social experience on nervous system function have been extensively investigated in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, our understanding of how social status differentially...
While the effects of social experience on nervous system function have been extensively investigated in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, our understanding of how social status differentially affects learning remains limited. In the context of habituation, a well-characterized form of non-associative learning, we investigated how the learning processes differ between socially dominant and subordinate in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We found that social status and frequency of stimulus inputs influence the habituation rate of short latency C-start escape response that is initiated by the Mauthner neuron (M-cell). Socially dominant animals exhibited higher habituation rates compared to socially subordinate animals at a moderate stimulus frequency, but low stimulus frequency eliminated this difference of habituation rates between the two social phenotypes. Moreover, habituation rates of both dominants and subordinates were higher at a moderate stimulus frequency compared to those at a low stimulus frequency. We investigated a potential mechanism underlying these status-dependent differences by constructing a simplified neurocomputational model of the M-cell escape circuit. The computational study showed that the change in total net excitability of the model M-cell was able to replicate the experimental results. At moderate stimulus frequency, the model M-cell with lower total net excitability, that mimicked a dominant-like phenotype, exhibited higher habituation rates. On the other hand, the model with higher total net excitability, that mimicked the subordinate-like phenotype, exhibited lower habituation rates. The relationship between habituation rates and characteristics (frequency and amplitude) of the repeated stimulus were also investigated. We found that habituation rates are decreasing functions of amplitude and increasing functions of frequency while these rates depend on social status (higher for dominants and lower for subordinates). Our results show that social status affects habituative learning in zebrafish, which could be mediated by a summative neuromodulatory input to the M-cell escape circuit, which enables animals to readily learn to adapt to changes in their social environment.
- A descriptive study on selected growth parameters and growth hormone receptor gene in healthy young adults from the American Midwest. [Journal Article]
- GHGrowth Horm IGF Res 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study of growth and anthropometric parameters in relationship to GHR genotypes found no association with height, weight, right index finger length, BMI, bone mass density, % body fat or % body water in healthy young adults. We did identify sex differences with increased body fat, decreased bone density, body water and index finger length in females.
- Nightmare Themes: An Online Study of Most Recent Nightmares and Childhood Nightmares. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Sleep Med 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The variety of nightmare topics clearly indicate that current definitions of nightmare content are too narrow. Future studies should look into nightmare content of persons in whom nightmare disorder has been diagnosed.
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- A QTL on chromosome 1 modulates inter-male aggression in mice. [Journal Article]
- GBGenes Brain Behav 2018 Feb 19
- Aggression between male conspecifics is a complex social behavior that is likely modulated by multiple gene variants. In this study the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains (RIS) were used to map qua...
Aggression between male conspecifics is a complex social behavior that is likely modulated by multiple gene variants. In this study the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains (RIS) were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors associated with intermale aggression. Four hundred and fifty-seven males from 55 strains (including the parentals) were observed at an age of 13 +/- 1 week in a resident-intruder test following 10 days of isolation. Attack latency was measured directly within a 10 minute time period and the test was repeated 24 hours later. The variables we analyzed were the proportion of attacking males in a given strain as well as the attack latency (on days 1 and 2, and both days combined). On day 1, 29% of males attacked, and this increased to 37% on day 2. Large strain differences were obtained for all measures of aggression, indicating substantial heritability (intraclass correlations 0.10-0.18). We identified a significant QTL on chromosome (Chr) 1 and suggestive QTLs on mouse Chrs 1 and 12 for both attack and latency variables. The significant Chr 1 locus maps to a gene-sparse region between 82 and 88.5 Mb with the C57BL/6J allele increasing aggression and explaining about 18% of the variance. The most likely candidate gene modulating this trait is Htr2b which encodes the serotonin 2B receptor and has been implicated in aggressive and impulsive behavior in mice, humans, and other species.