- A case study of gastric type adenocarcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix. [Letter]
- CCytopathology 2018 Nov 12
- Gastric type Adenocarcinoma (GAS) is a rare subtype of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma, which unlike usual endocervical-type adenocarcinoma (UEA), is not related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). ...
Gastric type Adenocarcinoma (GAS) is a rare subtype of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma, which unlike usual endocervical-type adenocarcinoma (UEA), is not related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). GAS is distinguished by aggressive behavior, higher stage presentation, unusual patterns of metastasis and poor survival outcome as compared to UEA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Clinicopathologic features of Anaplastic Myxopapillary Ependymomas. [Journal Article]
- BPBrain Pathol 2018 Nov 12
- Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPE) are considered benign (WHO grade I) neoplasms with favorable prognosis. However, malignant behavior occurs in a small subset. To our knowledge, only five anaplastic MP...
Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPE) are considered benign (WHO grade I) neoplasms with favorable prognosis. However, malignant behavior occurs in a small subset. To our knowledge, only five anaplastic MPEs have been reported without consensus on diagnostic criteria. We retrieved fourteen anaplastic MPEs from the pathology archives of six institutions. Each tumor included at least two of the following features: > 5 mitoses per 10 high power fields, Ki-67 labeling index (LI) > 10%, microvascular proliferation (MVP), and spontaneous necrosis. These features were typically encountered in foci of hypercellularity and reduced mucin. There were 8 male and 6 female patients (age range 6-57 years, median=16.5). Ten tumors displayed anaplasia at initial resection, and four were anaplastic at a second surgery for recurrence (ranging from 9 months to 14 years following initial resection). The Ki-67 LI ranged between 8 and 40% in anaplastic foci and <3% in foci of classic MPE. There was documented CSF dissemination in seven cases, recurrence following an anaplastic diagnosis in three cases, and bone or soft tissue invasion in two cases. One patient suffered lung metastases. Two cases evaluated by targeted next-generation sequencing and one evaluated by FISH showed nonspecific chromosomal gains. We conclude that although rare, anaplastic MPE occurs in both pediatric and adult patients, similar to other ependymomas. At a minimum, closer follow-up is recommended, given the concern for aggressive biologic potential. Further study is needed to determine WHO grading criteria and genetic indicators of tumor progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Dyadic Peer Interactions: the Impact of Aggression on Impression Formation with New Peers. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Nov 12
- Little is known about youth's initial interactions with previously unfamiliar peers and how aggression can affect behavior in these interactions. We observed previously unfamiliar youth engaging in a...
Little is known about youth's initial interactions with previously unfamiliar peers and how aggression can affect behavior in these interactions. We observed previously unfamiliar youth engaging in a dyadic activity to determine how tendencies toward aggression related to behavior within the activity (i.e., collaboration) and how collaboration affected initial impression formation. From a dyadic perspective, we assessed how similarities versus differences in tendencies toward aggression affected the nature of the interaction. Participants were 108 5th grade dyads (M = 11.13 years; 50% female; 67% White), observed in a laboratory session. Teachers rated individuals' aggression; ratings were used to calculate dyadic-level aggression (the discrepancy between partners). Observers rated dyads' collaboration during the interaction and participants reported perceptions about their partner after the interaction. Results indicated that collaboration mediated the link between discrepancy in aggression and peers' perceptions of one another. Specifically, dyads more discrepant in their aggression collaborated less and had less positive perceptions of one another. Results highlight the importance of considering a dyadic perspective and indicate a potential intervention point to improve youth's peer relationships.
- A Brain Module for Scalable Control of Complex, Multi-motor Threat Displays. [Journal Article]
- NNeuron 2018 Nov 06
- Threat displays are a universal feature of agonistic interactions. Whether threats are part of a continuum of aggressive behaviors or separately controlled remains unclear. We analyze threats in Dros...
Threat displays are a universal feature of agonistic interactions. Whether threats are part of a continuum of aggressive behaviors or separately controlled remains unclear. We analyze threats in Drosophila and show they are triggered by male cues and visual motion, and comprised of multiple motor elements that can be flexibly combined. We isolate a cluster of ∼3 neurons whose activity is necessary for threat displays but not for other aggressive behaviors, and whose artificial activation suffices to evoke naturalistic threats in solitary flies, suggesting that the neural control of threats is modular with respect to other aggressive behaviors. Artificially evoked threats suffice to repel opponents from a resource in the absence of contact aggression. Depending on its level of artificial activation, this neural threat module can evoke different motor elements in a threshold-dependent manner. Such scalable modules may represent fundamental "building blocks" of neural circuits that mediate complex multi-motor behaviors.
- Anti-depressive-like effect of 2-phenylethanol inhalation in mice. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 05
- Rose oil has traditionally been used to treat psychiatric disorders, but the scientific basis of this treatment remains poorly understood. The main odor component of rose oil is 2-phenylethanol (2-PE...
Rose oil has traditionally been used to treat psychiatric disorders, but the scientific basis of this treatment remains poorly understood. The main odor component of rose oil is 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), but the neuropsychological effects of 2-PE have not been investigated in detail. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of 2-PE on mouse behavior. We first investigated whether 2-PE is attractive or repulsive to mice. After 2-PE inhalation, the mice underwent a series of behavioral experiments, such as the elevated plus maze, open field, Y-maze, tail-suspension, and Porsolt forced-swim tests. Mice did not have a strong interest in 2-PE but were not repelled by it nor were fearful. In the open field test, mice that had inhaled 2-PE spent less time in the center area, while in the tail suspension test, their immobility time decreased. There was no change in cognitive function, activity level, muscle strength, or aggression in these mice. Our results suggest that 2-PE elicits neuropsychological effects that alter the behavior of mice and may also elicit anti-depressive effects. Inhalation of rose oil containing 2-PE may be effective against depression and stress-related diseases.
- The relation between the age at diagnosis of problem behaviors related to aggression and distal outcomes in Swedish children. [Journal Article]
- ECEur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Nov 10
- Severe childhood aggressive behaviors are known to predict negative outcomes later in life; however, little is known about the effect of when in childhood aggression problems are diagnosed. While an ...
Severe childhood aggressive behaviors are known to predict negative outcomes later in life; however, little is known about the effect of when in childhood aggression problems are diagnosed. While an earlier first diagnosis of problematic aggressive behavior might be associated with increased severity and, thus, worse outcomes, it is also possible that an earlier diagnosis affords an earlier start of treatment programs or indicates that greater attention is being paid to behavioral problems, thus resulting in attenuation of the severity of childhood aggression's impact on distal outcomes. The current study analyzed data from the population-based Swedish Data Registries, which include data on all children formally diagnosed by the Swedish medical system with a wide range of aggression problems between ages 8 and 18 (N = 5816) during the years 1987-2013, along with a matched control. Time-to-event analyses investigated whether the age at time of diagnosis affects later life outcomes while controlling for relevant confounders. Results show that for both boys and girls, those with a later diagnosis had lower average incomes (regression coefficient b = - 0.055, p < 0.005) and a higher probability of having a criminal record (odds ratio 1.126, p < 0.005) than children with earlier diagnoses. The effect on suicide attempts was not significant after correcting for multiple testing (odds ratio 1.264, p = 0.016). Grade score was not significantly affected. The results warrant further research concerning the potential advantage of earlier diagnoses, especially concerning generalizability beyond the Swedish population.
- Behavioural responses to unexpected changes in reward quality. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 09; 8(1):16652
- Successive negative contrast (SNC) effects are changes in anticipatory or consummatory behaviour when animals unexpectedly receive a lower value reward than they have received previously. SNC effects...
Successive negative contrast (SNC) effects are changes in anticipatory or consummatory behaviour when animals unexpectedly receive a lower value reward than they have received previously. SNC effects are often assumed to reflect frustration and appear to be influenced by background affective state. However, alternative explanations of SNC, such as the functional-search hypothesis, do not necessarily imply an aversive affective state. We tested 18 dogs in a SNC paradigm using a patch foraging task. Dogs were tested in two conditions, once with the low value reward in all of five trials (unshifted) and once when reward value was altered between high and low (shifted). Following a reward downshift, subjects showed a SNC effect by switching significantly more often between patches compared to the unshifted condition. However, approach latency, foraging time and quantity consumed did not differ between conditions, suggesting non-affective functional search behaviour rather than frustration. There was no relationship between strength of SNC and anxiety-related behaviours as measured in a novel object test and a personality questionnaire (C-BARQ). However, associations with the C-BARQ scores for Trainability and Stranger directed aggression suggest a possible link with behavioural flexibility and coping style. While reward quality clearly affects incentive motivation, the relationship between SNC, frustration and background affective state requires further exploration.
- Mammalian Susceptibility to a Neonicotinoid Insecticide after Fetal and Early Postnatal Exposure. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 09; 8(1):16639
- Neonicotinoids have become the most widely used class of insecticides world-wide. Although numerous studies have documented neonicotinoid toxicity in bees and other insects, the effects of exposure d...
Neonicotinoids have become the most widely used class of insecticides world-wide. Although numerous studies have documented neonicotinoid toxicity in bees and other insects, the effects of exposure during early development in mammals remain largely unexplored. We assessed the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMI) in adult male and female mice after in utero and early postnatal exposure. Pregnant mice were infused with IMI (0.5 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 4 to the end of nursing at postnatal day 21. The young adult offspring were studied in a series of biochemical and behavioral tests. To assess reproducibility, the behavioral analyses were conducted in three separate studies using multiple exposed litters. Exposure to IMI reduced fecundity, and in adult offspring, decreased body weight in male but not female pups. Offspring from IMI-treated mothers displayed lower triglycerides, elevated motor activity, enhanced social dominance, reduced depressive-like behavior, and a diminution in social aggression compared to vehicle treated controls. Low levels of IMI were detected in the brains and livers of the treated mothers, while trace levels were detected in some offspring. Our results demonstrate that transient exposure to a neonicotinoid over the early developmental period induces long-lasting changes in behavior and brain function in mice.
- Perceptions of middle school youth about school bullying. [Review]
- JAJ Adolesc 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Asking students about their perspectives of the main tenants of bully prevention programs provides opportunities to craft prevention program content that better speaks to the experiences and concerns that youth have when trying to navigate these difficult situations. Focus groups are also useful in identifying the ways in which youth talk about bullying and other types of peer aggression to guide the 'voice' of the program.
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- Institutional effects on nurses' working conditions: a multi-group comparison of public and private non-profit and for-profit healthcare employers in Switzerland. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Resour Health 2018 Nov 09; 16(1):58
- CONCLUSIONS: Due to their structural characteristics, NPOs, SOMEDs and HCs can attract nurses seeking greater self-determination, PuHs can attract career-oriented nurses, and PrOs and PrHs are likely to attract nurses through offering less-stressful working conditions.