- Mental Health and Psychosocial Functioning Over the Lifespan of German Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization for Coronary Artery Disease. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychiatry 2018; 9:338
- Background: Psychological problems are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and are associated with poor outcome. However, data on the prevalence of distinct mental disorders and th...
Background: Psychological problems are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and are associated with poor outcome. However, data on the prevalence of distinct mental disorders and their relevance to patients' functioning in daily life are scarce. Method: In this retrospective study, a total of 514 German patients with CAD as diagnosed by cardiac catheterization were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0 (M.I.N.I.) and psychosocial functioning was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the participants suffered from at least one mental disorder after the onset of their CAD (mean time since onset = 10.86 years, SD = 8.15). In comparison to the period before onset of CAD, elevated prevalence rates were found for severe depressive episodes, agoraphobia, dysthymia, panic disorder, and hypochondria. Predictors of mental disorders after the onset of CAD were female gender, younger age at onset of CAD as well as mental disorders and low GAF scores before onset. GAF scores decreased after the onset of CAD, recovered only partially, and were influenced by mental disorders before onset in women but not in men. Conclusions: Mental disorders-especially depression and agoraphobia-are frequent in patients with CAD, with women, patients with a younger age at onset of CAD and patients with any history of mental disorders especially at risk. Regardless of whether patients meet any specific diagnostic criteria, psychosocial functioning is markedly impaired after the onset of CAD, underscoring the need for specific mental health programs for this patient population. Future research, ideally using a prospective design, is necessary to confirm these findings and to further the knowledge of prevalence rates of mental disorders and of modifiable risk factors for the development of mental disorders in patients with CAD.
- Integration of EMDR and CBT Techniques in Treatment of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia - A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- PDPsychiatr Danub 2018; 30(Suppl 5):326-329
- Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Findings from a multicentric study from northern India. [Journal Article]
- AJAsian J Psychiatr 2018 Aug 01; 37:3-9
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenotypically heterogeneous. Gender is an important factor mediating this heterogeneity. We examined gender differences in a large sample (n = 945) of OCD pati...
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenotypically heterogeneous. Gender is an important factor mediating this heterogeneity. We examined gender differences in a large sample (n = 945) of OCD patients under a multi-centric study in India. Cross-sectional assessments were done on consecutive adult (>18 years) treatment-seeking patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of OCD. Subjects were assessed on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5-Research Version for comorbid psychiatric illnesses, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for OCD phenomenology and symptom severity, Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale for insight, Beck's Depression Inventory for severity of depressive symptoms, and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire. On multivariate backward Wald logistic regression analysis, males (59.7%) had more years of education, had a higher rate of checking compulsions and comorbid substance use disorders. Women were more likely to be married, more commonly reported precipitating factors, had a higher rate of hoarding compulsions and comorbid agoraphobia. Findings from this large study validate gender as an important mediator of phenotypic heterogeneity in OCD. The mechanistic basis for these differences might involve complex interactions between biological, cultural and environmental factors.
- Alprazolam-induced dose-dependent anorgasmia: case analysis. [Journal Article]
- BOBJPsych Open 2018; 4(4):274-277
- CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction is an important adverse effect negatively influencing therapeutic outcome. This case reports alprazolam-induced dose-dependent anorgasmia. Clinicians/patients should be aware of this adverse effect. Routine sexual histories are indicated.
- Hypovitaminosis D is associated with negative symptoms, suicide risk, agoraphobia, impaired functional remission, and antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Aug 04
- Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with, respectively, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia (SZ), and cognitive disorders in the general population, and with positive and negative symptoms and...
Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with, respectively, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia (SZ), and cognitive disorders in the general population, and with positive and negative symptoms and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in a non-selected multicentric sample of SZ subjects in day hospital. Hypovitaminosis D was defined by blood vitamin D level < 25 nM. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Calgary Depression Rating Scale Score and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Score. Anxiety disorders and suicide risk were evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders. Functioning was evaluated with the Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia Scale. Hypovitaminosis D has been found in 27.5% of the subjects. In multivariate analysis, hypovitaminosis D has been significantly associated with, respectively, higher suicide risk (aOR = 2.67 [1.31-5.46], p = 0.01), agoraphobia (aOR = 3.37 [1.66-6.85], p < 0.0001), antidepressant consumption (aOR = 2.52 [1.37-4.64], p < 0.001), negative symptoms (aOR = 1.04 [1.01-1.07], p = 0.04), decreased functioning (aOR = 0.97[0.95-0.99], p = 0.01), and increased leucocytosis (aOR = 1.17 [1.04-1.32], p = 0.01) independently of age and gender. No association with alcohol use disorder, metabolic syndrome, peripheral inflammation, insulin resistance, or thyroid disturbances has been found (all p > 0.05). Despite some slight abnormalities, no major cognitive impairment has been associated with hypovitaminosis D in the present sample (all p > 0.05 except for WAIS similarities score). Hypovitaminosis D is frequent and associated with suicide risk, agoraphobia and antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia, and more slightly with negative symptoms. Patients with agoraphobia, suicide risk and antidepressant consumption may, therefore, benefit in priority from vitamin D supplementation, given the benefit/risk profile of vitamin D. Further studies should evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes of SZ subjects.
- Are there advances in pharmacotherapy for panic disorder? A systematic review of the past five years. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Jul 31; :1-12
- Several effective medications are available for treating panic disorder (PD). However, outcomes are unsatisfactory in a number of patients, suggesting the usefulness of expanding the array of antipan...
Several effective medications are available for treating panic disorder (PD). However, outcomes are unsatisfactory in a number of patients, suggesting the usefulness of expanding the array of antipanic drugs and improving the quality of response to current recommended treatments. Areas covered: The authors have performed an updated systematic review of pharmacological studies (phase III onwards) to examine whether advances have been made in the last five years. Only four studies were included. D-cycloserine no longer seemed promising as a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) enhancer. Some preliminary findings concerning the optimization of recommended medications deserved consideration, including: the possibility that SSRIs are more effective than CBT alone in treating panic attacks, combined therapy is preferable when agoraphobia is present, and clonazepam is more potent than paroxetine in decreasing panic relapse. Expert opinion: Given the lack of novel treatments, expanding a personalized approach to the existing medications seems to be the most feasible strategy to improve pharmacotherapy outcomes regarding PD. Recent technological progress, including wearable devices collecting real-time data, 'big data' platforms, and application of machine learning techniques might help make outcome prediction more reliable. Further research on previously promising novel treatments is also recommended.
- Moving to Beat Anxiety: Epidemiology and Therapeutic Issues with Physical Activity for Anxiety. [Review]
- CPCurr Psychiatry Rep 2018 Jul 24; 20(8):63
- The purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the relationship between physical activity (PA) and anxiety and the rationale for including it as a treatment option for a...
The purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the relationship between physical activity (PA) and anxiety and the rationale for including it as a treatment option for anxiety disorders. Several gaps in the literature are highlighted alongside recommendations for future research.
- Towards a comprehensive assessment of school absenteeism: development and initial validation of the inventory of school attendance problems. [Journal Article]
- ECEur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Jul 24
- School attendance problems (SAPs) become manifest in many ways and are associated with multiple risk factors, calling for comprehensive assessment methods. This study documents the development of the...
School attendance problems (SAPs) become manifest in many ways and are associated with multiple risk factors, calling for comprehensive assessment methods. This study documents the development of the inventory of school attendance problems (ISAP), which assesses both the quality and the function of a broad spectrum of SAPs by first asking students with SAPs to rate the intensity of symptoms prior to or at school and then to rate their impact on school attendance. An empirically generated pool of 124 items was analyzed (explorative factor analysis) using a clinical sample of N = 245 students with SAPs (53.5% male; Mage: 14.4). The Youth Self Report (YSR), a German version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS), and the extent of school absenteeism were used to determine construct validity. The resulting 48 items loaded on 13 factors. The 13 scales assess internalizing and externalizing symptoms (Depression, Social Anxiety, Performance Anxiety, Agoraphobia/Panic, Separation Anxiety, Somatic Complaints, Aggression, School Aversion/Attractive Alternatives) as well as emotional distress due to problems in the school or family context (Problems with Teachers, Dislike of the Specific School, Problems with Peers, Problems Within the Family, Problems with Parents). All scales showed good internal consistencies. Their correlations with the YSR and the SRAS indicated convergent and discriminant validity. Positive associations between most of the scales and the extent of school absenteeism were obtained. Although preliminary, these results support the usefulness of the ISAP for a comprehensive assessment of SAPs in clinical settings.
- Prevalence of seasonal depression in a prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul 18
- The prevalence of autumn/winter seasonality in depression has been documented in the longitudinal Zurich cohort study by five comprehensive diagnostic interviews at intervals over more than 20 years ...
The prevalence of autumn/winter seasonality in depression has been documented in the longitudinal Zurich cohort study by five comprehensive diagnostic interviews at intervals over more than 20 years (N = 499). Repeated winter major depressive episodes (MDE-unipolar + bipolar) showed a prevalence of 3.44% (5× more women than men), whereas MDE with a single winter episode was much higher (9.96%). A total of 7.52% suffered from autumn/winter seasonality in major and minor depressive mood states. The clinical interviews revealed novel findings: high comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia within the repeated seasonal MDE group, high incidence of classic diurnal variation of mood (with evening improvement), as well as a high rate of oversensitivity to light, noise, or smell. Nearly twice as many of these individuals as in the other MDE groups manifested the syndrome of atypical depression (DSM-V), which supports the prior description of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) as presenting primarily atypical symptoms (which include hypersomnia and increase in appetite and weight). This long-term database of regular structured interviews provides important confirmation of SAD as a valid diagnosis, predominantly found in women, and with atypical vegetative symptoms.
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- Mood instability contributes to impulsivity, non-suicidal self-injury, and binge eating/purging in people with anxiety disorders. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychol Psychother 2018 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Mood instability and impulsivity are common in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are associated with impulsivity largely because of the association between mood instability and impulsivity. Mood instability may contribute to non-suicidal self-injury and binge eating/purging in people with anxiety disorders. Treatments for mood instability in addition to standard anxiety disorder treatment may reduce impulsivity, non-suicidal self-injury, and binge eating/purging in people with anxiety disorders.