- Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue. [Journal Article]
- PPPulm Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jan 30
- Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a main characteristic of horses with severe equine asthma syndrome. The presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airways of horses is thought to pla...
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a main characteristic of horses with severe equine asthma syndrome. The presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airways of horses is thought to play a crucial role in the clinical expression of this disorder. This study pharmacologically characterized the effect of LPS on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue. Equine isolated bronchi were incubated overnight with LPS (0.1-100 ng/ml) and then stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS). The role of capsaicin sensitive-sensory nerves (capsaicin desensitization treatment), neurokinin-2 (NK2) receptors (blocked by GR159897), transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptors (TRPV1; blocked by SB366791), and neurokinin A (NKA) were investigated. Untreated bronchi were used as control tissues. LPS (1 ng/ml) significantly increased the EFS-evoked contractility of equine bronchi compared with control tissues (+742 ± 123 mg; P < 0.001). At higher concentrations LPS induced desensitization to airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR; EC50: 5.9 ± 2.6 ng/ml). Capsaicin desensitization and GR159897 significantly prevented AHR induced by LPS at EFS1-50Hz(-197 ± 25%; P < 0.01). SB366791 inhibited AHR at very low EFS frequency (EFS1Hz-193 ± 29%; P < 0.01 vs. LPS-treated bronchi). LPS (1 ng/ml) significantly (P < 0.01) increased 3.7 ± 0.7 fold the release of NKA compared with control bronchi. LPS induces biphasic dysfunctional bronchial contractility due to the stimulation of capsaicin sensitive-sensory nerves, increased release of NKA, and activation of NK2receptors, whereas TRPV1 receptors appear to play a marginal role in this response. The overnight challenge with low concentrations of LPS represents a suitable model to investigate pharmacological options that may be of value in the treatment of equine RAO.
- [Non-CF bronchiectasis of adults: short review for clinical practice Position paper of Board of disease with bronchial obstruction Czech Pulmonological and Phthiseological Society Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyne]. [Journal Article]
- VLVnitr Lek 2018; 63(11):821-833
- Bronchiectasis is a clinically important, but poorly understood, pulmonary condition characterized by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. Bronchiectasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mor...
Bronchiectasis is a clinically important, but poorly understood, pulmonary condition characterized by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. Bronchiectasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Targeted effort to early high-resolution computed tomography diagnosis and detailed confirmation of causation are in the spotlight of respiratory physicians in the developed countries. The risk population consists of subjects with persistent and/or productive cough, where another clear diagnosis has not been performed. Specific treatment tailored on underlying diseases and non-specific airway clearance techniques are able to improve symptoms, and reduce lung impairment. Evidence-based treatment algorithms for anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic treatment of stable non-CF BE will have to await large-scale, long-term controlled studies. Surgery should be reserved for individuals with highly symptomatic, localized bronchiectasis who have failed medical management. Unfortunately, there have been few well designed longitudinal or cross-sectional studies in the field of bronchiectasis. To give truly meaningful and generalizable results, a longitudinal observational study of bronchiectasis would require to enrol several thousand patients, more than any one center can enrol. The European Bronchiectasis Registry will create an open, pan-European registry of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. The authors emphatically recommend that all respiratory specialist managed non-CF BE subjects should be actively involved in the European Bronchiectasis Registry.Key words: bronchiectasis - diagnosis - registry - treatment.
- Assessment of Bronchial Obstruction Using Lateral Pressure Measurement during Bronchoscopy. [Journal Article]
- RRespiration 2017 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: The shape of the P-P curve could be used to detect the site of maximal obstruction for the optimal positioning of the stent and assess the need for additional procedures in real time in patients with bronchial obstruction.
- The use of CT-scan in foreign body aspiration in children: A 6 years' experience. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017; 102:169-173
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of CT -scan with multiplanar reconstruction in suspected foreign body aspiration is a reliable alternative to endoscopy under general anesthesia, especially in asymptomatic patients, avoiding too many negative endoscopies.
- Iron-pill inhalation. [Case Reports]
- NZN Z Med J 2017 10 27; 130(1464):72-74
- Airway pathology in severe asthma is related to airflow obstruction but not symptom control. [Journal Article]
- AAllergy 2018; 73(3):635-643
- CONCLUSIONS: Symptom control in severe asthmatics was not associated with airway tissue inflammation and remodeling, although persistent airflow obstruction in these patients was associated with bronchial inflammation and airway structural changes.
- Use of MDCT to Assess the Results of Bronchial Thermoplasty. [Journal Article]
- AAAJR Am J Roentgenol 2017; 209(4):752-756
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed improvement in CT measurements after bronchial thermoplasty, along with Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score changes. Thus, MDCT could be useful for imaging evaluation of patients undergoing this treatment.
- PULMONARY LESIONS CAUSED BY THE LUNGWORM (DIDELPHOSTRONGYLUS HAYESI) IN THE OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA) IN COLIMA, MEXICO. [Journal Article]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2017; 48(2):404-412
- Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking...
Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites. The left lung was fixed and cut serially for subgross microscopic examination and sections of lung were cut and stained for histopathologic examination. The most remarkable gross change in parasitized lungs was a poorly collapsible pulmonary parenchyma and mild emphysema. The right lung tested positive for lungworms on gross examination in 20/44, and 11/44 (25%) of the left lungs showed tan nodules on the pleural surface. Microscopically, the bronchi of 20/44 animals harbored adult and larval stages of D. hayesi (left lung), the same 20 opossums from which nematodes were grossly evident at necropsy (right lung). Adults and larvae were present in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli mixed with desquamated cells and many eosinophils, and to a lesser extent neutrophils, alveolar macrophages, and giant cells. Bronchi and bronchioles exhibited goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia respectively, and infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the interstitium and lamina propria. The tan nodules consisted of focal alveolar endogenous lipidosis, which likely resulted from parasitic airway obstruction. The lungs of 3/20 parasitized opossums also showed alveolar bronchiolization (Lambertosis). The absence of Eucoleus aerophilus or bacterial pneumonia incriminates D. hayesi as the putative cause of pulmonary lesions in these opossums.
- Pharmacological characterization of the interaction between tiotropium and olodaterol administered at 5:5 concentration-ratio in equine bronchi. [Journal Article]
- COPDCOPD 2017; 14(5):526-532
- Equine airways represent a suitable ex vivo model to study the functional impact of pharmacological treatments on human chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders, such as asthma and chronic obstructive...
Equine airways represent a suitable ex vivo model to study the functional impact of pharmacological treatments on human chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to characterize the pharmacological interaction between the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) tiotropium and the long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) olodaterol in equine airways. The effect of tiotropium and olodaterol, administered alone and in combination at the ratio of concentrations reproducing ex vivo the concentration-ratio delivered by the currently available fixed-dose combination (FDC) (5:5), was investigated on the cholinergic contractile tone induced by the parasympathetic activation of equine isolated airways. The drug interaction was analysed by using the Bliss Independence and Unified Theory models. Both tiotropium and olodaterol induced a sub-maximal concentration-dependent inhibition of bronchial contractility (Emax: tiotropium 83.6 ± 14.8%, olodaterol 76.9 ± 17.9%; pEC50: tiotropium 8.2 ± 0.5; olodaterol 8.3 ± 0.6). When administered at 5:5 concentration-ratio, tiotropium plus olodaterol completely inhibited the bronchial contractility (Emax102.7 ± 8.4%; pEC509.0 ± 0.7). Strong synergistic interaction was detected for tiotropium/olodaterol combination (combination index 0.011). When administered at low concentrations, the drug mixture elicited up to 94.6 ± 9.5% effect that was 36.0 ± 8.1% greater than the expected additive effect. The results of this study demonstrate that the co-administration of tiotropium plus olodaterol at 5:5 concentration-ratio leads to synergistic inhibition of equine bronchial contractility when compared with either drug administered alone. These findings suggest that the currently available LABA/LABA FDC may be effective in delivering tiotropium/olodaterol combination at equipotency concentrations of each monocomponent into the lung and, thus, inducing synergistic effect in the airways.
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- Airway stenting in a child with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita: 13-Year survival. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017; 99:13-16
- We describe the case of a boy with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. At birth, he experienced severe respiratory distress necessitating tracheotomy. Endoscopy done because mechanical ventilatio...
We describe the case of a boy with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. At birth, he experienced severe respiratory distress necessitating tracheotomy. Endoscopy done because mechanical ventilation failed to resolve desaturations disclosed severe tracheo-bronchomalacia. A Polyflex silicone stent was placed in the trachea (replaced by Y-Dumon stent) and 2 Palmaz metallic stents in the mainstem bronchi (overlapped with 2 Jomed stents 5 years later). Airway stenting guaranteed a suitable respiratory status and allowed a child who was expected to die at birth, to reach 13.5 years old in good conditions.