- [The application of cineMRI in evaluation of upper airway obstruction levels in complicated pediatric OSAS]. [Journal Article]
- LCLin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018; 32(24):1886-1889
- Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the role of cineMRI in the localization of upper airway obstruction in complicated pediatric OSAS. Method:Eleven persistent OSAS and 11 complex OSAS pat...
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the role of cineMRI in the localization of upper airway obstruction in complicated pediatric OSAS. Method:Eleven persistent OSAS and 11 complex OSAS patients underwent cineMRI. Each patient was imaged midline sagittal and axial magnetic resonance cine image. The obtained sagittal and axial images were displayed in cine format, creating a real time "movie" of airway motion, to make a personalized treatment for each child. Polysomnography was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of cineMRI directed treatment for pediatric OSAS. Result:cineMRI could effectively define the upper airway obstruction level. There was a significant improvement in AHI (P=0.019) and saturation nadir (P<0.01). Conclusion: cineMRI is an effective method for assessing the level of airway obstruction on persistent or complex pediatric OSAS.
- A Novel Non-invasive Approach for Measuring Upper Airway Collapsibility in Mice. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2018; 9:985
- Introduction: Invasive procedures were previously developed for measuring pharyngeal collapsibility in rodents during expiration, when declining neuromuscular activity makes the airway unstable. We d...
Introduction: Invasive procedures were previously developed for measuring pharyngeal collapsibility in rodents during expiration, when declining neuromuscular activity makes the airway unstable. We developed a non-invasive approach for streamlining collapsibility measurements by characterizing responses in physiologic markers of dynamic expiratory airflow obstruction to negative nasal pressure challenges. Methods: Anesthetized mice were instrumented to monitor upper airway pressure-flow relationships with head-out plethysmography while nasal pressure was ramped down from ~ +5 to -20 cm H2O over several breaths. Inspiratory and expiratory flow, volume, and timing characteristics were assessed breath-wise. Pcrit was estimated at transitions in expiratory amplitude and timing parameters, and compared to gold standard PCRIT measurements when nasal and tracheal pressures diverged during expiration. Predictions equations were constructed in a development data set (n = 8) and applied prospectively to a validation data set (n = 16) to estimate gold standard PCRIT. Results: The development data demonstrated that abrupt reversals in expiratory duration and tidal volume during nasal pressure ramps predicted gold standard PCRIT measurements. After applying regression equations from the development to a validation dataset, we found that a combination of expiratory amplitude and timing parameters proved to be robust predictors of gold standard PCRIT with minimal bias and narrow confidence intervals. Conclusions: Markers of expiratory airflow obstruction can be used to model upper airway collapsibility, and can provide sensitive measures of changes in airway collapsibility in rodents. This approach streamlines repeated non-invasive PCRIT measurements, and facilitates studies examining the impact of genetic, environmental, and pharmacologic factors on upper airway control.
- Characterizing post-extubation negative pressure pulmonary edema in the operating room-a retrospective matched case-control study. [Journal Article]
- PMPerioper Med (Lond) 2018; 7:28
- CONCLUSIONS: We present the first clinical comparative study demonstrating that the overall incidence of NPPE immediately after extubation in the operating room is 0.019%. Our results highlight that active smokers and patients receiving endotracheal intubation general anesthesia are associated with significantly higher risks of developing NPPE following extubation in the operating room.
- Silencing of Hypoglossal Motoneurons Leads to Sleep Disordered Breathing in Lean Mice. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2018; 9:962
- Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western Society. The loss of motor input to the tongue and specifically to the genioglossus musc...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western Society. The loss of motor input to the tongue and specifically to the genioglossus muscle during sleep is associated with pharyngeal collapsibility and the development of OSA. We applied a novel chemogenetic method to develop a mouse model of sleep disordered breathing Our goal was to reversibly silence neuromotor input to the genioglossal muscle using an adeno-associated viral vector carrying inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs AAV5-hM4Di-mCherry (DREADD), which was delivered bilaterally to the hypoglossal nucleus in fifteen C57BL/6J mice. In the in vivo experiment, 4 weeks after the viral administration mice were injected with a DREADD ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO, i.p., 1mg/kg) or saline followed by a sleep study; a week later treatments were alternated and a second sleep study was performed. Inspiratory flow limitation was recognized by the presence of a plateau in mid-respiratory flow; oxyhemoglobin desaturations were defined as desaturations >4% from baseline. In the in vitro electrophysiology experiment, four males and three females of 5 days of age were used. Sixteen-nineteen days after DREADD injection brain slices of medulla were prepared and individual hypoglossal motoneurons were recorded before and after CNO application. Positive mCherry staining was detected in the hypoglossal nucleus in all mice confirming successful targeting. In sleep studies, CNO markedly increased the frequency of flow limitation n NREM sleep (from 1.9 ± 1.3% after vehicle injection to 14.2 ± 3.4% after CNO, p < 0.05) and REM sleep (from 22.3% ± 4.1% to 30.9 ± 4.6%, respectively, p < 0.05) compared to saline treatment, but there was no significant oxyhemoglobin desaturation or sleep fragmentation. Electrophysiology recording in brain slices showed that CNO inhibited firing frequency of DREADD-containing hypoglossal motoneurons. We conclude that chemogenetic approach allows to silence hypoglossal motoneurons in mice, which leads to sleep disordered breathing manifested by inspiratory flow limitation during NREM and REM sleep without oxyhemoglobin desaturation or sleep fragmentation. Other co-morbid factors, such as compromised upper airway anatomy, may be needed to achieve recurrent pharyngeal obstruction observed in OSA.
- Discrimination of "hot potato voice" caused by upper airway obstruction utilizing a support vector machine. [Journal Article]
- LLaryngoscope 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: HPV caused by upper airway obstruction has a highly characteristic spectral envelope. Based on this distinctive voice feature, our SVM classifier, who was trained using synthetic data, was able to diagnose upper-airway obstructions with a high degree of accuracy.
- Deep neck infection in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus: a comparison of clinical features, complications, and outcomes. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Nov 20
- We retrospectively studied the clinical features, complications, and outcomes of deep neck infections in 31 adult patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (HIV group) and 192 patients wit...
We retrospectively studied the clinical features, complications, and outcomes of deep neck infections in 31 adult patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (HIV group) and 192 patients without (non-HIV group). In the HIV group, the cause was more likely to be odontogenic (21 (68%) compared with 90 (47%); odds ratio (OR) 2.38; 95% CI 1.06 to 5.32). In both groups, the parapharyngeal, submandibular, and masticator spaces, were those most often involved. However, in the HIV group, Ludwig's angina was common, and was the main cause of airway obstruction. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were most often isolated in the HIV group. Upper airway obstruction tended to be more common in the HIV group (5/31 compared with 13/192). These patients also had a higher risk of other complications (sepsis, mediastinitis, jugular vein thrombosis, and pneumonia) (6/31 compared with 12/192; OR 3.60; 95% CI 1.24 to 10.45), a higher mortality rate (3/31 compared with 2/192), and longer hospital stay (19days compared with 16 days). Factors associated with an increased risk of complications in this group were an age of 55 years or over and a CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3. Deep neck infections in these patients are more severe. Dental health care, appropriate empirical antibiotics, early detection, and management of the airway and complications, may improve outcomes.
- Functional Nasal Surgery and Use of CPAP in OSAS Patients: Our Experience. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018; 70(4):559-565
- The surgical correction of nasal obstruction is definitely effective and recommended in patients with poor CPAP compliance, often secondary to the high pressures that need to be given in patients wit...
The surgical correction of nasal obstruction is definitely effective and recommended in patients with poor CPAP compliance, often secondary to the high pressures that need to be given in patients with nasal sub stenosis. For this reason, the objective of this study is the evaluation of the effectiveness and effects of the functional nose surgery on adherence to CPAP- therapy in patients (with moderate to severe OSAS with indication of ventilation therapy) poorly compliant with CPAP. The study was performed on a sample of 52 patients, 40 male and 12 female, aged between 29 and 72 years followed by the Otolaryngology Unit of the University Palermo in the period between January 2015 and January 2017. All patients were subjected to the following s iter: anamnesis with Epworth Sleepiness Scale, NOSE scale, evaluation of "CPAP usage data." Upper airway optical fiber endoscopy with Müller's maneuver. We performed various type of nasal surgery (septoplasty, decongestion of the lower turbinates and FESS) 6 months after the surgery, CPAP usage was evaluated and the NOSE scale has been reapplied. All patients had a subjective degree of obstruction classified in severe or extreme by the NOSE scale before surgery. Almost all patients reported a mild degree of obstruction after the surgery. About CPAP usage, the average usage has passed by 2, 3 h at night to 6, 8 h after the surgery. The result is significant because it shows how the nasal functional surgery can make selected patients suitable to ventilation therapy. As our work shows, a better nasal function allows to reduce the CPAP pressure, Therefore, we believe that all patients with medium to severe obstructive apnea syndrome and for whom night-time ventilation therapy (CPAP) is advised should be evaluated with endoscopy and anamnesis oriented to evaluate nasal obstructive pathologies that may reduce effectiveness of CPAP.
- Immediate bronchodilator response in FEV1 as a diagnostic criterion for adult asthma. [Review]
- EREur Respir J 2018 Nov 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Not enough data exist to assess the sensitivity of any of the cut-off levels for the ΔFEV1BDR to differentiate asthma patients from healthy subjects. Further studies in newly diagnosed asthma patients are needed.
- The outcomes of children with tracheostomy in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit in Turkey. [Journal Article]
- TPTurk Pediatri Ars 2018; 53(3):177-184
- CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy seems safe and improves pediatric patients' outcomes. The most important factor that affects the prognosis of children who underwent tracheostomy is the indication for tracheostomy. The outcomes are always better if the tracheostomy has been performed because of upper airway obstruction. Performing tracheostomy helps weaning from and off ventilator support and finally the discharge of patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation from the pediatric intensive care unit setting.
New Search Next
- Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children. [Journal Article]
- GDGen Dent 2018 Nov-Dec; 66(6):46-50
- Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is defined as a "disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction [hypopnea] and/or intermittent comp...
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is defined as a "disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction [hypopnea] and/or intermittent complete obstruction (obstructive apnea) that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep and normal sleep patterns." OSAS is both prevalent and underdiagnosed in children. OSAS has harmful central nervous system, cardiovascular, and metabolic consequences, which can include an inability to concentrate in school, poor academic performance, behavioral problems, cardiovascular effects, and poor growth and development. Apneas in children are produced by an imbalance between upper airway load and neuromuscular tone. Many factors influence these attributes, but the most important are adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obesity. History and examination are fundamental areas that dentists can use to help diagnose OSAS in pediatric patients. Full-night polysomnography is the gold standard for obtaining a definitive diagnosis. Dental practitioners also can play a crucial role in the treatment and management of this condition.