- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Topical hydrocortisone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that sho...
Topical hydrocortisone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical hydrocortisone would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area. Maternal use rectally with a cream or by suppository poses very little risk to the breastfed infant.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is a normal component of breastmilk that passes from the mother's bloodstream into milk and might have a role in intestinal maturation, the intestinal microbiome, growth, bo...
Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is a normal component of breastmilk that passes from the mother's bloodstream into milk and might have a role in intestinal maturation, the intestinal microbiome, growth, body composition or neurodevelopment, but adequate studies are lacking. Concentrations follow a diurnal rhythm, with the highest concentrations in the morning at about 7:00 am and the lowest concentrations in the late afternoon and evening. Cortisol in milk may protect against later infant obesity, especially in girls. Hydrocortisone has not been studied in breastmilk after exogenous administration in pharmacologic amounts. Hydrocortisone in breastmilk is stable at room temperature and during repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Although it is unlikely that dangerous amounts of hydrocortisone would reach the infant, a better studied alternate corticosteroid might be preferred. Maternal use of hydrocortisone as an enema would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Local maternal injections, such as for tendinitis, would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, but might occasionally cause temporary loss of milk supply. See also Hydrocortisone, Topical. Hydrocortisone concentrations in breastmilk are not affected by storage for 36 hours at room temperature, during multiple freeze-thaw cycles, nor Holder pasteurization (62.5 degrees C for 30 minutes).
- Neuroprotective evidence of alpha-lipoic acid and desvenlafaxine on memory deficit in a neuroendocrine model of depression. [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018; 391(8):803-817
- Cognitive impairment is present in patients with depression. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) can reduce cognitive impairment, especially when combined to antidepressants. Female mice rec...
Cognitive impairment is present in patients with depression. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) can reduce cognitive impairment, especially when combined to antidepressants. Female mice received vehicle or corticosterone (CORT) 20 mg/kg, s.c. for 14 days. From the 15th to 21st day, the animals were divided in groups: vehicle, CORT, CORT+desvenlafaxine (DVS) 10 or 20 mg/kg, ALA 100 or 200 mg/kg, DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100, DVS10+ALA200, or DVS20+ALA200. Tail suspension (TST), social interaction (SIT), novel object recognition (NOR), and Y-maze tests were conducted. Acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC), and striatum (ST). CORT caused depressive-like behavior, impairment in SIT, and cognitive deficits. Alpha-lipoic acid and DVS, alone or combined, reversed CORT effect on TST. In the NOR, ALA200 alone, DVS10+ALA100, or DVS10+ALA200 reversed the deficits in short-term memory, while DVS20 alone or DVS20+ALA200 reversed the deficits in long-term memory. In the Y-maze test, ALA200 alone, DVS20+ALA100, or DVS20+ALA200 reversed the deficits caused by CORT in the working memory. CORT increased AChE in the PFC, HC, and ST. ALA200 alone or DVS20+ALA200 reversed this effect in the PFC, while DVS20 or DVS20+ALA100 reversed this effect in the HC. In the ST, DVS10 or 20, alone or combined, and ALA100 reversed the effects of CORT. These results suggest that DVS+ALA, by reversing CORT-induced memory and social deficits, seems to be a promising therapy for the treatment of depression and reversal of cognitive impairment observed in this disorder.
- Brain antioxidant effect of mirtazapine and reversal of sedation by its combination with alpha-lipoic acid in a model of depression induced by corticosterone. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2017; 219:49-57
- CONCLUSIONS: A relative small sample size and lack of a washout period between drug administration and behavioral testing.MIRT or MIRT+ALA reverse CORT-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors probably via their central antioxidant effects. Augmentation of MIRT with ALA may reverse sedation, an important side effect of MIRT. Randomized controlled studies are needed to examine the clinical efficacy of this combination in human depression.
- Reversal of corticosterone-induced BDNF alterations by the natural antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid alone and combined with desvenlafaxine: Emphasis on the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression. [Journal Article]
- PRPsychiatry Res 2015 Dec 15; 230(2):211-9
- Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is linked to the pathophysiology of depression. We hypothesized that BDNF is one of the neurobiological pathways related to the augmentation effect of alpha-l...
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is linked to the pathophysiology of depression. We hypothesized that BDNF is one of the neurobiological pathways related to the augmentation effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) when associated with antidepressants. Female mice were administered vehicle or CORT 20mg/kg during 14 days. From the 15th to 21st days the animals were divided in groups that were further administered: vehicle, desvenlafaxine (DVS) 10 or 20mg/kg, ALA 100 or 200mg/kg or the combinations of DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100, DVS10+ALA200 or DVS20+ALA200. ALA or DVS alone or in combination reversed CORT-induced increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test and decrease in sucrose preference, presenting, thus, an antidepressant-like effect. DVS10 alone reversed CORT-induced decrease in BDNF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST). The same was observed in the HC and ST of ALA200 treated animals. The combination of DVS and ALA200 reversed CORT-induced alterations in BDNF and even, in some cases, increased the levels of this neurotrophin when compared to vehicle-treated animals in HC and ST. Taken together, these results suggest that the combination of the DVS+ALA may be valuable for treating conditions in which BDNF levels are decreased, such as depression.
- Evidence for protective effect of lipoic acid and desvenlafaxine on oxidative stress in a model depression in mice. [Journal Article]
- PNProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2016 Jan 4; 64:142-8
- Oxidative stress is implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Here we investigated oxidative alterations in brain areas of animals submitted to the model of depression induced by corticosterone (...
Oxidative stress is implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Here we investigated oxidative alterations in brain areas of animals submitted to the model of depression induced by corticosterone (CORT) and the effects of the antioxidant compound alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) alone or associated with the antidepressant desvenlafaxine (DVS) in these alterations. Female mice received vehicle or CORT (20 mg/kg) during 14 days. From the 15th to 21st days different animals received further administrations of: vehicle, DVS (10 or 20 mg/kg), ALA (100 or 200 mg/kg), or the combinations of DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100, DVS10+ALA200, or DVS20+ALA200. Twenty-four hours after the last drug administration prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) were dissected for the determination of the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LP) levels. CORT significantly increased SOD activity in the PFC and HC, decreased GSH levels in the HC and increased LP in all brain areas studied when compared to saline-treated animals. Decrements of SOD activity were observed in all groups and brain areas studied when compared to controls and CORT. The hippocampal decrease in GSH was reversed by ALA100, DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100 and DVS20+ALA200. The same DVS+ALA combination groups presented increased levels of GSH in the PFC and ST. The greater GSH levels were observed in the PFC, HC and ST of DVS20+ALA200 mice. LP was reversed in the groups ALA200 (PFC), DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100 (PFC, HC and ST), and DVS20+ALA200 (PFC, HC). Our findings contribute to the previous preclinical evidences implicating ALA as a promising agent for augmentation therapy in depression.
- Augmentation therapy with alpha-lipoic acid and desvenlafaxine: a future target for treatment of depression? [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2013; 386(8):685-95
- This study was designed to investigate the possible antidepressant effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a stand-alone treatment or in association with desvenlafaxine (DVS) in the chr...
This study was designed to investigate the possible antidepressant effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a stand-alone treatment or in association with desvenlafaxine (DVS) in the chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression model. The depression model was induced by repeated administrations of CORT (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in mice over a period of 14 days. Between days 15 and 21, a randomized group of mice received DVS (10 or 20 mg/kg, per os [PO]), ALA (100 or 200 mg/kg, PO), or a combination of DVS (10 or 20 mg/kg, PO) and ALA (100 or 200 mg/kg, PO) along with the CORT injections for the remaining 7 days. Other groups of mice received DVS (10 or 20 mg/kg, PO) or ALA (100 or 200 mg/kg, PO) alone. Open field test, elevated plus maze (EPM) test, tail suspension test (TST), and forced swimming test (FST) were carried out 1 h after the last injection of CORT. Repeated CORT injections induced anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors as observed by decreased open arms entries in the EPM test and increased immobility time in the TST and FST. The administration of DVS and ALA alone was able to reverse the increases in the immobility time. The combination of ALA and DVS potentiated the observed effects of DVS. These results suggest that augmentation therapy with the addition of antioxidant drugs may be an important pharmacological approach for the treatment of depression.
- The selective neuropeptide Y Y5 agonist [cPP(1-7),NPY(19-23),Ala31,Aib32,Gln34]hPP differently modulates emotional processes and body weight in the rat. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2012 Aug 1; 233(2):298-304
- The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been suggested to act as a major regulator of emotional processes and body weight. The full spectrum of biological effects of this peptide is mediated by at least four cl...
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been suggested to act as a major regulator of emotional processes and body weight. The full spectrum of biological effects of this peptide is mediated by at least four classes of receptors known as the Y(1), Y(2), Y(4), and Y(5) subtypes. However, the respective contribution of each of these receptor subtypes, especially the Y(5) subtype, in emotional processes is still mostly unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of long term administration of a selective Y(5) agonist [cPP(1-7),NPY(19-23),Ala(31),Aib(32),Gln(34)]hPP on emotional processes and body weight using two rat models of emotional dysfunctions, the corticosterone (CORT)-induced anxiety model as well as the olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) model of depression and anxiety in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. The sub-chronic administration of the Y(5) agonist reversed the high levels of locomotion, rearing and grooming in the open field test and the impaired social activity induced by OBX, while increased the percentage of entries and time in the open arm of the elevated plus maze in CORT-treated rats. Furthermore, this Y(5) agonist increased body weight in both strains of control rats. These data further demonstrate that Y(5) receptors are not only involved in the control of body weight but also mediate emotional processing under challenged conditions. Thus, the pharmacotherapeutic administration of a Y(5) agonist could be considered as a potentially novel strategy to alleviate some forms of anxiety and depression in humans.
- How porphyrinogenic drugs modeling acute porphyria impair the hormonal status that regulates glucose metabolism. Their relevance in the onset of this disease. [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2011 Nov 28; 290(1):22-30
- This work deals with the study of how porphyrinogenic drugs modeling acute porphyrias interfere with the status of carbohydrate-regulating hormones in relation to key glucose enzymes and to porphyria...
This work deals with the study of how porphyrinogenic drugs modeling acute porphyrias interfere with the status of carbohydrate-regulating hormones in relation to key glucose enzymes and to porphyria, considering that glucose modulates the development of the disease. Female Wistar rats were treated with 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) using different doses of AIA (100, 250 and 500mg/kg body weight) and a single dose of DDC (50mg DDC/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed 16h after AIA/DDC administration. In the group treated with the highest dose of AIA (group H), hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S) increased more than 300%, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activities were 43% and 46% lower than the controls, respectively, plasmatic insulin levels exceeded normal values by 617%, and plasmatic glucocorticoids (GC) decreased 20%. GC results are related to a decrease in corticosterone (CORT) adrenal production (33%) and a significant reduction in its metabolization by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) (62%). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulated adrenal production 3-fold and drugs did not alter this process. Thus, porphyria-inducing drugs AIA and DDC dramatically altered the status of hormones that regulate carbohydrate metabolism increasing insulin levels and reducing GC production, metabolization and plasmatic levels. In this acute porphyria model, gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic blockages caused by PEPCK and GP depressed activities, respectively, would be mainly a consequence of the negative regulatory action of insulin on these enzymes. GC could also contribute to PEPCK blockage both because they were depressed by the treatment and because they are positive effectors on PEPCK. These disturbances in carbohydrates and their regulation, through ALA-S de-repression, would enhance the porphyria state promoted by the drugs on heme synthesis and destruction. This might be the mechanism underlying the "glucose effect" observed in hepatic porphyrias. The statistical correlation study performed showed association between all the variables studied and reinforce these conclusions.
- Solution state structures of human pancreatic amylin and pramlintide. [Journal Article]
- PEProtein Eng Des Sel 2009; 22(8):497-513
- We have employed pramlintide (prAM) as a surrogate for hAM in CD and NMR studies of the conformational preferences of the N-terminal portion of the structure in media which do not provide long-lived ...
We have employed pramlintide (prAM) as a surrogate for hAM in CD and NMR studies of the conformational preferences of the N-terminal portion of the structure in media which do not provide long-lived monomeric solutions of hAM due to its rapid conversion to preamyloid beta aggregate states. Direct comparison of hAM and prAM could be made under helix-formation-favoring conditions. On the basis of CD and NMR studies: (i) the Cys(2)-Cys(7) loop conformation has a short-span of helix (Ala(5)-Cys(7)); (ii) the extent to which this helix propagates further into the sequence is medium-dependent; a helix from Ala(5) through Ser(20) (with end fraying from His(18) onward) is observed in aqueous fluoroalcohol media; (iii) in 12+ vol.% HFIP, the amyloidogenic region of hAM forms a second helical domain (Phe(23)-Ser(29)); (iv) the two helical regions of hAM do not have any specific geometric relationship as they are connected by a flexible loop that takes different conformations and (v) although the extreme C-terminus is essential for bioactivity, it is found to be extensively randomized with conformer interconversions occurring at a much faster rate than that is observed in the remainder of the peptide sequence. Two NMR-derived structures of the 1-22 sequence fragment of hAM have been derived. The work also serves to illustrate improved methods for the NMR characterization of helices. A detailed quantitative analysis of the NOE intensities observed in aqueous HFIP revealed alternative conformations in the C-terminal portion of the common amylin helix, a region that is known to be involved in the biorecognition phenomena leading to amyloidogenesis. Even though the SNN sequence appears to be a flexible loop, the chemical shifts (and changes induced upon helix structuring) suggest some interactions between the loop and the amyloidogenic segment of hAM that occur on partial helix formation.