- A randomized intraindividual comparative study of methyl-5-aminolaevulinate versus 5-aminolaevulinic acid nanoemulsion (BF-200 ALA) in photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis of the face and scalp. [Letter]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2018 Jul 17
- We designed a prospective, randomized, intraindividual, investigator-blinded clinical trial comparing methyl-5-aminolaevulinate (MAL) cream and 5-aminolaevulinic acid nanoemulsion (BF-200 ALA) in the...
We designed a prospective, randomized, intraindividual, investigator-blinded clinical trial comparing methyl-5-aminolaevulinate (MAL) cream and 5-aminolaevulinic acid nanoemulsion (BF-200 ALA) in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Eligible patients had to have two symmetric, comparable areas of skin (left and right) containing at least eight non-hypertrophic AK lesions on the face or scalp.1 The study was approved by the ethics committee at the Instituto Valenciano de Oncología and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Topical hydrocortisone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that sho...
Topical hydrocortisone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical hydrocortisone would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area. Maternal use rectally with a cream or by suppository poses very little risk to the breastfed infant.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is a normal component of breastmilk that passes from the mother's bloodstream into milk and might have a role in intestinal maturation, the intestinal microbiome, growth, bo...
Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is a normal component of breastmilk that passes from the mother's bloodstream into milk and might have a role in intestinal maturation, the intestinal microbiome, growth, body composition or neurodevelopment, but adequate studies are lacking. Concentrations follow a diurnal rhythm, with the highest concentrations in the morning at about 7:00 am and the lowest concentrations in the late afternoon and evening. Cortisol in milk may protect against later infant obesity, especially in girls. Hydrocortisone has not been studied in breastmilk after exogenous administration in pharmacologic amounts. Hydrocortisone in breastmilk is stable at room temperature and during repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Although it is unlikely that dangerous amounts of hydrocortisone would reach the infant, a better studied alternate corticosteroid might be preferred. Maternal use of hydrocortisone as an enema would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Local maternal injections, such as for tendinitis, would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, but might occasionally cause temporary loss of milk supply. See also Hydrocortisone, Topical. Hydrocortisone concentrations in breastmilk are not affected by storage for 36 hours at room temperature, during multiple freeze-thaw cycles, nor Holder pasteurization (62.5 degrees C for 30 minutes).
- Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratoses. [Review]
- AJAm J Clin Dermatol 2018 May 11
- Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using daylight is effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs), offering the potential for treatment of large fields such as full face and balding scalp, b...
Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using daylight is effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs), offering the potential for treatment of large fields such as full face and balding scalp, but with minimal therapy-associated pain. Comparison with conventional PDT indicates similar efficacy for thin and moderate-thickness AKs, but with significantly less discomfort/pain, driving a patient preference for daylight-mediated PDT (DL-PDT) compared with conventional PDT using high-intensity office/hospital-based light sources. Treatment protocol involves the application of a photosensitizing agent without occlusion and subsequent exposure to ambient daylight within 30 min, with patients exposed to daylight for 1.5-2.0 h. Pivotal randomized controlled trials in Europe and Australia have confirmed the efficacy of methyl aminolevulinic acid (MAL) DL-PDT in comparison with conventional MAL-PDT for mild and moderate-thickness lesions on the face and scalp. Initial clearance rates of 70-89% are reported. DL-PDT using a nanoemulsion aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has recently been shown to be at least as effective as MAL DL-PDT in treating mild and moderate-thickness AKs. DL-PDT may offer a better-tolerated method for treating patients with extensive AK disease. There is emerging literature on the potential for field PDT to reduce the number of new AKs developing, potentially preventing/slowing skin cancer development. Conventional PDT remains established as a therapy for Bowen's disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ), superficial and certain thin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and AKs. The evidence for the use of DL-PDT beyond AK is limited, although has been reported in actinic cheilitis, superficial BCC, and acne and cutaneous leishmaniasis. There is emerging interest in combination therapy for AK, using one or more field therapies such as DL-PDT as an option to complement with localized treatment for residual lesions. We review current recommendations and consider the appropriate place for DL-PDT in our treatment armamentarium.
- Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Sclerosing Features: An Uncommon and Potentially Aggressive Variant. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2018 May 08
- Sclerosing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also known as "desmoplastic" SCC, is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignancy. This variant is clinically significant because it is associated with an increase...
Sclerosing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also known as "desmoplastic" SCC, is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignancy. This variant is clinically significant because it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis. We herein present 16 examples of sclerotic SCC of the skin in 8 men and 3 women, with a median age of 66 years. The most common site of origin for this tumor is the skin of the head and neck, including the scalp (5 tumors in 2 different patients), forehead (3 cases), nasal ala (2 cases), neck (2 cases in the same patient), ear (2 cases), cheek (1 case), and chest (1 case). Microscopically, sclerosing SCCs are characterized by cellular cords, nests, and islands, as well as scattered single cells infiltrating densely desmoplastic and collagenized connective tissue. The differential diagnosis principally includes sclerosing basal cell carcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. The main goals of this study are to further characterize these lesions pathologically, and increase general awareness of this SCC subtype.
- Pain during topical photodynamic therapy - comparing methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix®) to aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz®); an intra-individual clinical study. [Journal Article]
- PPPhotodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2017; 20:6-9
- CONCLUSIONS: This intra-individual study demonstrate no significant difference between the pain response during PDT using methyl aminolevulinate and aminolaevulinic acid.
- Photodynamic Therapy Effectively Treats Actinic Keratoses Without Pre-Illumination Incubation Time. [Case Reports]
- JDJ Drugs Dermatol 2017 Mar 01; 16(3):275-278
- CONCLUSIONS: During PDT, the photosensitizer aminolevulinic acid (ALA), or in Europe methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), is utilized as a synthetic precursor that preferentially accumulates in dysplastic cells. The precursor then converts to PpIX via the heme pathway and causes apoptosis of the cells when excited, most commonly by either blue-violet (400-430 nm) or red (630-635 nm) light. Shorter incubation times are associated with reduced pain because less PpIX will have accumulated in the treated tissue by the start of the exposure to the light. The doubling of the light exposure time allows comparable levels of the photosensitizing molecule to accumulate and be activated so as to produce an equivalent reaction. The associated reduction in pain along with a more convenient treatment schedule makes this PDT protocol more tolerable and convenient to some patients.</p> <p><em>J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(3):275-278.</em></p>.
- Correlations between mercury concentration, and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen of amino acids in scalp hair from whale meat eaters and heavy fish eaters. [Journal Article]
- RCRapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2017 May 15; 31(9):745-752
- CONCLUSIONS: The difference in δ15 N values between Glx and Thr appears to be the best proxy for the estimation of Hg concentration in scalp hair. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Randomized controlled trial comparing 35% trichloroacetic acid peel and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for treating multiple actinic keratosis. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2017; 176(5):1155-1161
- CONCLUSIONS: ALA PDT provided better clinical results than TCA in the treatment of patients with extensive field cancerization and multiple AKs.
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- Indole 3-acetic acid-photodynamic therapy in the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A proof of concept pilot study. [Clinical Trial]
- PPPhotodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2016; 16:17-22
- CONCLUSIONS: Although larger studies are needed, this is a first "proof of concept" of IAA- PDT as a possible treatment for multiple AK on face/scalp.