- Hepatitis B virus infection and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a population-based cohort study. [Journal Article]
- LILiver Int 2018 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic factors play an important role in presence of NAFLD among Chinese CHB patients. However, viral replication factors are not related to NAFLD except among those with concurrent type 2 DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Calcium Signaling in Liver Injury and Regeneration. [Review]
- FMFront Med (Lausanne) 2018; 5:192
- The liver fulfills central roles in metabolic control and detoxification and, as such, is continuously exposed to a plethora of insults. Importantly, the liver has a unique ability to regenerate and ...
The liver fulfills central roles in metabolic control and detoxification and, as such, is continuously exposed to a plethora of insults. Importantly, the liver has a unique ability to regenerate and can completely recoup from most acute, non-iterative insults. However, multiple conditions, including viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term alcohol abuse and chronic use of certain medications, can cause persistent injury in which the regenerative capacity eventually becomes dysfunctional, resulting in hepatic scaring and cirrhosis. Calcium is a versatile secondary messenger that regulates multiple hepatic functions, including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as bile secretion and choleresis. Accordingly, dysregulation of calcium signaling is a hallmark of both acute and chronic liver diseases. In addition, recent research implicates calcium transients as essential components of liver regeneration. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the role of calcium signaling in liver health and disease and discuss the importance of calcium in the orchestration of the ensuing regenerative response. Furthermore, we highlight similarities and differences in spatiotemporal calcium regulation between liver insults of different etiologies. Finally, we discuss intracellular calcium control as an emerging therapeutic target for liver injury and summarize recent clinical findings of calcium modulation for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury, cholestasis and NAFLD.
- Liver transplantation and alcoholic liver disease: History, controversies, and considerations. [Review]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Jul 14; 24(26):2785-2805
- Alcohol consumption accounts for 3.8% of annual global mortality worldwide, and the majority of these deaths are due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. ALD is one of the mo...
Alcohol consumption accounts for 3.8% of annual global mortality worldwide, and the majority of these deaths are due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. ALD is one of the most common indications for liver transplantation (LT). However, it remains a complicated topic on both medical and ethical grounds, as it is seen by many as a "self-inflicted disease". One of the strongest ethical arguments against LT for ALD is the probability of relapse. However, ALD remains a common indication for LT worldwide. For a patient to be placed on an LT waiting list, 6 mo of abstinence must have been achieved for most LT centers. However, this "6-mo rule" is an arbitrary threshold and has never been shown to affect survival, sobriety, or other outcomes. Recent studies have shown similar survival rates among individuals who undergo LT for ALD and those who undergo LT for other chronic causes of end-stage liver disease. There are specific factors that should be addressed when evaluating LT patients with ALD because these patients commonly have a high prevalence of multisystem alcohol-related changes. Risk factors for relapse include the presence of anxiety or depressive disorders, short pre-LT duration of sobriety, and lack of social support. Identification of risk factors and strengthening of the social support system may decrease relapse among these patients. Family counseling for LT candidates is highly encouraged to prevent alcohol consumption relapse. Relapse has been associated with unique histopathological changes, graft damage, graft loss, and even decreased survival in some studies. Research has demonstrated the importance of a multidisciplinary evaluation of LT candidates. Complete abstinence should be attempted to overcome addiction issues and to allow spontaneous liver recovery. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including 12-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Nutritional therapy helps to reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. For muscular recovery, supervised physical activity has been shown to lead to a gain in muscle mass and improvement of functional activity. Early LT for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been the subject of recent clinical studies, with encouraging results in highly selected patients. The survival rates after LT for ALD are comparable to those of patients who underwent LT for other indications. Patients that undergo LT for ALD and survive over 5 years have a higher risk of cardiorespiratory disease, cerebrovascular events, and de novo malignancy.
- Short-term postoperative outcomes of colorectal cancer among patients with chronic liver disease: a national population-based study. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Jul 17; 8(7):e020511
- CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative complications prolonged the length of hospital stay. The presence of CLD and hyperlipidaemia were important factors impacting postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with CRC with underlying CLD.
- The Role of Iron in Hepatic Inflammation and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Biol Med 2018 Jul 11
- Iron is an essential for organisms and the liver plays a major role in its storage. In pathologic conditions, where iron absorption from the intestine or iron uptake into the hepatocytes is increased...
Iron is an essential for organisms and the liver plays a major role in its storage. In pathologic conditions, where iron absorption from the intestine or iron uptake into the hepatocytes is increased, excess iron accumulates in the hepatocytes, leading to hepatocyte injury through the production of free radicals. Iron exerts its toxicity by catalyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS causes cell injury by inducing damage to the lysosomal, cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial membranes, apoptosis through activation of the caspase cascade, and hyperoxidation of fatty chains. In this manuscript, we reviewed the articles regarding role of iron in hepatic inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Changing Trends in Etiology- and Ethnicity-Based Annual Mortality Rates of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States. [Journal Article]
- HepHepatology 2018 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhosis- and HCC-related mortality rates increased between 2007 and 2016 in the US. However, mortality rates in HCV-cirrhosis demonstrated a significant decline from 2014-2016, during the direct-acting antiviral era. Mortality rates for ALD/NAFLD-cirrhosis and HCC have continued to increase, while HBV-cirrhosis-related mortality declined during the 10-year period. Importantly, minorities had a disproportionately higher burden of ESLD-related mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Changing Trends in Etiology-based Annual Mortality From Chronic Liver Disease, From 2007 Through 2016. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2018 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: In our population-based analysis of chronic liver disease mortality in the US, the decline in HCV-related mortality coincided with the introduction of direct-acting antiviral therapies, while the mortality from ALD and NAFLD increased during the same period. Minorities in the US have disproportionately higher chronic liver disease-related mortality.
- Recent advances in understanding liver fibrosis: bridging basic science and individualized treatment concepts. [Review]
- FF1000Res 2018; 7
- Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the formation and deposition of excess fibrous connective tissue, leading to progressive architectural tissue remodeling. Irrespective of the underlying noxious t...
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the formation and deposition of excess fibrous connective tissue, leading to progressive architectural tissue remodeling. Irrespective of the underlying noxious trigger, tissue damage induces an inflammatory response involving the local vascular system and the immune system and a systemic mobilization of endocrine and neurological mediators, ultimately leading to the activation of matrix-producing cell populations. Genetic disorders, chronic viral infection, alcohol abuse, autoimmune attacks, metabolic disorders, cholestasis, alterations in bile acid composition or concentration, venous obstruction, and parasite infections are well-established factors that predispose one to hepatic fibrosis. In addition, excess fat and other lipotoxic mediators provoking endoplasmic reticulum stress, alteration of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and modifications in the microbiota are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, subsequently, the initiation and progression of hepatic fibrosis. Multidisciplinary panels of experts have developed practice guidelines, including recommendations of preferred therapeutic approaches to a specific cause of hepatic disease, stage of fibrosis, or occurring co-morbidities associated with ongoing loss of hepatic function. Here, we summarize the factors leading to liver fibrosis and the current concepts in anti-fibrotic therapies.
- Celiac Disease and Liver Disorders: From Putative Pathogenesis to Clinical Implications. [Review]
- NNutrients 2018 Jul 12; 10(7)
- Immunologically mediated liver diseases belong to the common extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease. We have reviewed the current literature that addresses the association between celiac di...
Immunologically mediated liver diseases belong to the common extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease. We have reviewed the current literature that addresses the association between celiac disease and liver disorders. We searched relevant articles on MEDLINE/PubMed up to 15 June 2018. The objective of the article is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the latest hypotheses explaining the pathogenetic relationship between celiac disease and liver injury. Besides the involvement of gut⁻liver axis, tissue transglutaminase antibodies, and impairment of intestinal barrier, we integrate the latest achievements made in elucidation of the role of gut microbiota in celiac disease and liver disorders, that has not yet been sufficiently discussed in the literature in this context. The further objective is to provide a complete clinical overview on the types of liver diseases frequently found in celiac disease. In conclusion, the review highlights the clinical implication, recommend a rational approach for managing elevated transaminases in celiac patients, and underscore the importance of screening for celiac disease in patients with associated liver disease.
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- Hepatobiliary diseases in people with HIV infection at the Lome, Togo, University Hospital: epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sante Trop 2018 May 01; 28(2):193-196
- CONCLUSIONS: Hepatobiliary diseases are infrequent and varied among people with HIV infection; the most common are toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and they do not differ according to CD4 counts.