- Pannexin Channel Inhibition: An Evolving Target to Lower Blood Pressure? [Editorial]
- CircRCirc Res 2018 Feb 16; 122(4):543-545
- Species-specific regulation of angiogenesis by glucocorticoids reveals contrasting effects on inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192746
- Glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis in the rodent in vivo and in vitro but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. Administration of glucocorticoids is used to t...
Glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis in the rodent in vivo and in vitro but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. Administration of glucocorticoids is used to treat a number of conditions in horses but the angiogenic response of equine vessels to glucocorticoids and, therefore, the potential role of glucocorticoids in pathogenesis and treatment of equine disease, is unknown. This study addressed the hypothesis that glucocorticoids would be angiostatic both in equine and murine blood vessels.The mouse aortic ring model of angiogenesis was adapted to assess the effects of cortisol in equine vessels. Vessel rings were cultured under basal conditions or exposed to: foetal bovine serum (FBS; 3%); cortisol (600 nM), cortisol (600nM) plus FBS (3%), cortisol (600nM) plus either the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 or the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. In murine aortae cortisol inhibited and FBS stimulated new vessel growth. In contrast, in equine blood vessels FBS alone had no effect but cortisol alone, or in combination with FBS, dramatically increased new vessel growth compared with controls. This effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonism but not by mineralocorticoid antagonism. The transcriptomes of murine and equine angiogenesis demonstrated cortisol-induced down-regulation of inflammatory pathways in both species but up-regulation of pro-angiogenic pathways selectively in the horse. Genes up-regulated in the horse and down-regulated in mice were associated with the extracellular matrix. These data call into question our understanding of glucocorticoids as angiostatic in every species and may be of clinical relevance in the horse.
- Adult-onset acne: prevalence, impact, and management challenges. [Review]
- CCClin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2018; 11:59-69
- Acne is a multifactorial and inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous follicles, which affects most adolescents. Recent epidemiological data revealed a difference in adults affected by this disease. Wom...
Acne is a multifactorial and inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous follicles, which affects most adolescents. Recent epidemiological data revealed a difference in adults affected by this disease. Women have a high prevalence and incidence when compared with men, especially after 25 years of age. In contrast to what was initially thought, most of these patients do not present endocrinopathy capable of leading to the development of the lesions. When present, polycystic ovarian syndrome is the main cause. However, in these cases, acne is rarely the only dermatological manifestation; hirsutism and acanthosis nigricans are often present. The majority of the normoandrogenic acne patients present a history since adolescence, but in many cases the lesion distribution and intensity change with time. There is often a typical localization of the lesions in the lower third of the face and lateral region of the neck. Another interesting feature is related to the impact on quality of life (QoL), which is always intense. Often there are signs of depression, even when the lesions are mild. As most adult patients are women, in addition to the conventional options, there is also hormone treatment. Combined oral contraceptives and spironolactone are good options. Knowing more about the particularities in etiopathogenesis, impact on QoL, and specific treatment options is important to all dermatologists who face the challenge of treating acne in adults.
- Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BMJBMJ 2018 Feb 09; 360:k341
- CONCLUSIONS: Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs, but not a greater risk of death. The relative risk increase is similar across population groups, but the higher baseline risk among those taking renin-angiotensin system blockers and potassium-sparing diuretics translates into higher absolute risks of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in these groups.
- Marinobufagenin in urine: a potential marker of predisposition to ethanol and a target for spironolactone. [Journal Article]
- CHCurr Hypertens Rev 2018 Feb 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Levels of MBG may be a predisposing factor to voluntary ethanol intake. Spironolactone, along with antihypertensive effect, decreases ethanol intake.
- Identification of Galeterone and Abiraterone as Inhibitors of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfonation Catalyzed by Human Hepatic Cytosol, SULT2A1, SULT2B1b, and SULT1E1. [Journal Article]
- DMDrug Metab Dispos 2018 Feb 07
- Galeterone and abiraterone acetate are anti-androgens developed for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of these drugs o...
Galeterone and abiraterone acetate are anti-androgens developed for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of these drugs on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfonation catalyzed by human liver and intestinal cytosols and human recombinant sulfotransferase enzymes (SULT2A1, SULT2B1b, and SULT2E1), and compared their effects to those of other anti-androgens (cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, and danazol). Each of these chemicals (10 μM) inhibited DHEA sulfonation catalyzed by human liver and intestinal cytosols. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that galeterone and abiraterone acetate inhibited human liver cytosolic DHEA sulfonation with apparent Ki values at submicromolar concentrations, whereas cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, and danazol inhibited it with apparent Ki values at low micromolar concentrations. The temporal pattern of abiraterone formation and abiraterone acetate depletion suggested that the metabolite abiraterone, not the parent drug abiraterone acetate, was responsible for the inhibition of DHEA sulfonation in incubations containing human liver cytosol and abiraterone acetate. Consistent with this proposal, similar apparent Ki values were obtained, regardless of whether abiraterone or abiraterone acetate was added to the enzymatic incubation. Abiraterone was more effective than abiraterone acetate in inhibiting DHEA sulfonation when catalyzed by human recombinant SULT2A1 or SULT2B1b. In conclusion, galeterone and abiraterone are novel inhibitors of DHEA sulfonation, as determined in enzymatic incubations containing human tissue (liver or intestinal) cytosol or human recombinant SULT enzyme (SULT2A1, SULT2B1b, or SULT1E1). Galeterone and abiraterone may have implications in drug-drug interactions and biosynthesis of steroid hormones.
- Study of drug-Drug interactions among the hypertensive patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. [Journal Article]
- PCPerspect Clin Res 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):9-14
- CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted that patients with hypertension are particularly vulnerable to DDI. The comorbidities, advanced age, and polypharmacy are the important factors associated with the occurrence of DDI.
- Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on responses to hemorrhagic shock in rats. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 04; 7(1):1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with MR antagonists did not improve mortality or cytokine responses in the liver after HS recovery in rats.
- Refining androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde from mother liquor of phytosterol fermentation using macroporous resin column chromatography followed by crystallization. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Sep 21; 1079:9-14
- Androstenedione is an androgen and intermediate in the biosynthesis of most adrenocortical, anabolic, sex and synthetic steroids, such as canrenone, eplerenone, norethindrone and spironolactone. Bisn...
Androstenedione is an androgen and intermediate in the biosynthesis of most adrenocortical, anabolic, sex and synthetic steroids, such as canrenone, eplerenone, norethindrone and spironolactone. Bisnorcholenaldehyde is an important intermediate in the synthesis of progesterone. This study established an androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde separation method that used a macroporous adsorption resin and an ethanol-water mixture as eluent. The adsorption properties of 12 non-polar or weakly polar macroporous adsorption resins were compared, and three resins exhibited a high adsorption capacity and high desorption rate for both androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde. The three resins were then compared using column chromatography, and one resin was selected and parameters (flow rate, resin size, ethanol concentration and volume) of chromatography were optimized to obtain high purity and recovery. Chromatography eluate was concentrated, dissolved in suitable solvent and crystallized at an optimal temperature to obtain a high purity of both androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde from the same starting material. The levels of androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde in the raw material were 39.78% and 19.15%, respectively. After preparative separation and enrichment by resin column chromatography and crystallization, the purity of androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde was 94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, with their recovery yields of 66.8% and 57.9%, respectively. In addition, the resin maintained over 90% separation efficiency for 5 cycles of adsorption. These results indicated that the combination of macroporous resin chromatography followed by crystallization provide a simple, effective, environmentally friendly and low-cost method for the simultaneous purification of androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde.
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- Pharmacological treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction-a systematic review and indirect comparison. [Review]
- HFHeart Fail Rev 2018 Feb 07
- Pharmacological interventions for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have failed to reduce mortality and hospitalization. Evidence for mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs), β-adre...
Pharmacological interventions for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have failed to reduce mortality and hospitalization. Evidence for mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs), β-adrenoceptor blockers (β-blockers), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs)-to reduce clinical outcomes in HFpEF remains unclear. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing pharmacological treatments in HFpEF diagnosed according the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2016 guidelines from inception to August, 2017. The study outcomes were mortality, hospitalization, changes in indexes of cardiac structure and function, biomarkers, and indexes of functional capacity-quality of life (QoL) assessment and 6-min walk distance test (6-MWD). The random-effects models were used to estimate pooled relative risks (RRs) for the binary outcomes and standardized mean differences for continuous outcomes, with 95% CI. A network meta-analysis using a random-effects model was employed to estimate the comparative efficacy of treatments. We included data from 15 RCTs comprising 5930 patients. There was no significant effect seen with all treatments compared with placebo and comparative efficacy of any two treatments on all outcomes assessed. However, mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone demonstrated a trend towards reducing mortality compared with placebo (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.79-1.08), sildenafil (0.14; 0.01-2.78), perindopril (0.87; 0.59-1.28), and eplerenone (0.91; 0.25-3.33). Similar trends in treatment effect were observed with spironolactone on surrogate outcomes while eplerenone demonstrated a trend of superior effect in reduction of hospitalizations compared with all other drug treatment. No drug treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvement in clinical and surrogate outcomes in HFpEF diagnosed according to the ESC 2016 guideline. Spironolactone and eplerenone showed clinically relevant reduction in mortality and hospitalization respectively compared with other drug treatments. Further trials with MRAs are warranted to confirm treatment effects in HFpEF.