- [Conn's syndrome - more than just aldosterone excess?] [Journal Article]
- DMDtsch Med Wochenschr 2018; 143(3):143-146
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- Excessive Adiposity and Metabolic Dysfunction Relate to Reduced Natriuretic Peptide During RAAS Activation in HIV. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Relatively reduced NP, particularly BNP, among HIV-infected individuals with excess adiposity may contribute to reduced suppression of aldosterone and potentially drive aldosterone-mediated metabolic complications. Novel strategies which target RAAS blockade and/or augment NPs may be potentially useful to reduce cardiometabolic disease among HIV-infected individuals in whom these systems are perturbed.
- IL-6 trans-activation contributes to aldosterone induced cardiac fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- CRCardiovasc Res 2018 Jan 19
- CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 trans-activation contributes to aldosterone-induced cardiac fibrosis.
- Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation: Doubts and Certainties From Basic and Clinical Studies. [Review]
- CircRCirc Res 2018 Jan 19; 122(2):352-368
- Hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) are 2 important public health priorities. Their prevalence is increasing worldwide, and the 2 conditions often coexist in the same patient. Hypertension and ...
Hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) are 2 important public health priorities. Their prevalence is increasing worldwide, and the 2 conditions often coexist in the same patient. Hypertension and AF are strikingly related to an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Hypertension ultimately increases the risk of AF, and because of its high prevalence in the population, it accounts for more cases of AF than other risk factors. Among patients with established AF, hypertension is present in about 60% to 80% of individuals. Despite the well-known association between hypertension and AF, several pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the higher risk of AF in hypertensive patients are still incompletely known. From an epidemiological standpoint, it is unclear whether the increasing risk of AF with blood pressure (BP) is linear or threshold. It is uncertain whether an intensive control of BP or the use of specific antihypertensive drugs, such as those inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, reduces the risk of subsequent AF in hypertensive patients in sinus rhythm. Finally, in spite of the observational evidence suggesting a progressive relation between BP levels and the risk of thromboembolism and bleeding in patients with hypertension and AF, the extent to which BP should be lowered in these patients, including those who undergo catheter ablation, remains uncertain. This article summarizes the main basic mechanisms through which hypertension is believed to promote AF. It also explores epidemiological data supporting an evolutionary pathway from hypertension to AF, including the emerging evidence favoring an intensive BP control or the use of drugs, which inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to reduce the risk of AF. Finally, it examines the impact of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in relation to hypertension.
- Insulin Resistance in Kidney Disease: Is There a Distinct Role Separate from That of Diabetes or Obesity? [Review]
- CMCardiorenal Med 2017; 8(1):41-49
- Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such ...
Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas. However, insulin also has distinct actions in kidney tissue that regulate growth, hypertrophy, as well as microcirculatory and fibrotic pathways which, in turn, impact glomerular filtration, including that governed by tubuloglomerular feedback. However, it is often difficult to discern the distinct effects of excess circulating insulin and impaired insulin actions, as exist in the insulin resistance individual, from the associated effects of obesity or elevated systolic blood pressure on the development and progression of kidney disease over time. Therefore, we review the experimental and clinical evidence for the distinct impact of insulin resistance on kidney function and disease.
- Neurohormonal Imbalance: A Neglected Problem-And Potential Therapeutic Target-In Acute Heart Failure. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Probl Cardiol 2017 Dec 16
- Decompensated or acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by increased ventricular and atrial pressures which may lead to and be caused by circulatory congestion. Unless due to a primary decrease i...
Decompensated or acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by increased ventricular and atrial pressures which may lead to and be caused by circulatory congestion. Unless due to a primary decrease in cardiac function, congestion arises from volume expansion or vasoconstriction. In turn, volume expansion and vasoconstriction are due to neurohormonal imbalance since both result from activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and excess secretion of arginine vasopressin. Outcomes in AHF remain dismal. Loop diuretics are the mainstay of therapy for AHF and may themselves aggravate neurohormonal imbalance. No adjunctive pharmacotherapy has yielded improvement in outcomes in AHF despite many attempts with various vasodilators and inotropes. We, therefore, propose that insufficient attention has been paid to neurohormonal imbalance in AHF. As in chronic HF, rectifying the effects of neurohormonal imbalance may lead to better outcomes. The use of alternative decongestive strategies or adjunctive pharmacotherapy directed at neurohormonal activation could yield benefit.
- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin from immune cells is mandatory for aldosterone-induced cardiac remodeling and inflammation. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Cell Cardiol 2018; 115:32-38
- Immune system activation is involved in cardiovascular (CV) inflammation and fibrosis, following activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We previously showed that Neutrophil Gelatinase-Ass...
Immune system activation is involved in cardiovascular (CV) inflammation and fibrosis, following activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We previously showed that Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel target of MR signaling in CV tissue and plays a critical role in aldosterone/MR-dependent hypertension and fibrosis. We hypothesized that the production of NGAL by immune cells may play an important part in the mediation of these deleterious mineralocorticoid-induced effects. We analyzed the effect of aldosterone on immune cell recruitment and NGAL expression in vivo. We then studied the role of NGAL produced by immune cells in aldosterone-mediated cardiac inflammation and remodeling using mice depleted for NGAL in their immune cells by bone marrow transplantation and subjected to mineralocorticoid challenge NAS (Nephrectomy, Aldosterone 200μg/kg/day, Salt 1%). NAS treatment induced the recruitment of various immune cell populations to lymph nodes (granulocytes, B lymphocytes, activated CD8+T lymphocytes) and the induction of NGAL expression in macrophages, dendritic cells, and PBMCs. Mice depleted for NGAL in their immune cells were protected against NAS-induced cardiac remodeling and inflammation. We conclude that NGAL produced by immune cells plays a pivotal role in cardiac damage under mineralocorticoid excess. Our data further stressed a pathogenic role of NGAL in cardiac damages, besides its relevance as a biomarker of renal injury.
- Resistant hypertension: Renal denervation or intensified medical treatment? [Review]
- EJEur J Intern Med 2017 Dec 27
- Resistant hypertension (RH) can be diagnosed if blood pressure (BP) is not controlled with the combination of three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, all at effective doses. Patients affe...
Resistant hypertension (RH) can be diagnosed if blood pressure (BP) is not controlled with the combination of three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, all at effective doses. Patients affected by this condition exhibit a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbid and fatal events. They also exhibit an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which is likely to importantly contribute at the renal and other vascular levels to the hypertensive state. Almost 10years ago renal denervation (RDN) by radiofrequency thermal energy delivery to the walls of the renal arteries was proposed for the treatment of RH. Several uncontrolled studies initially reported that this procedure substantially reduced the elevated BP values but this conclusion has not been supported by a recent randomized control trial, which has almost marginalized this therapeutic approach. A revival, however, is under way because of recent positive findings and technical improvement that hold promise to make renal denervation more complete. The antihypertensive efficacy and overall validity of RDN will have to be tested against drug treatment of RH. Several studies indicate that an excess of aldosterone production contributes to RH and recent evidence documents indisputably that anti-aldosterone agents such as spironolactone can effectively control BP in many RH patients, although with some side effects that require close patients' monitoring. At present, it is advisable to treat RH with the addition of an anti-aldosterone agent. If BP control is not achieved or serious side effects become manifest RDN may then be considered.
- 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases and Hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome. [Review]
- CHCurr Hypertens Rep 2017 Nov 14; 19(12):100
- The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular d...
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome. This is not increased systemic in circulating cortisol, rather increased bioavailability of active glucocorticoids within tissues. This review examines the role of covert glucocorticoid excess on the hypertension of the metabolic syndrome. Here, the role of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, which exert intracrine and paracrine control over glucocorticoid signalling, is examined. 11βHSD1 amplifies glucocorticoid action in cells and contributes to hypertension through direct and indirect effects on the kidney and vasculature. The deactivation of glucocorticoid by 11βHSD2 controls ligand access to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors: loss of function promotes salt retention and hypertension. As for hypertension in general, high blood pressure in the metabolic syndrome reflects a complex interaction between multiple systems. The clear association between high dietary salt, glucocorticoid production, and metabolic disorders has major relevance for human health and warrants systematic evaluation.
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- Cardiovascular events and target organ damage in primary aldosteronism compared with essential hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- LDLancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018; 6(1):41-50
- CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosing primary aldosteronism in the early stages of disease, with early initiation of specific treatment, is important because affected patients display an increased cardiovascular risk compared with patients with essential hypertension.