- The Expanding Spectrum of Primary Aldosteronism: Implications for Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, and Treatment. [Journal Article]
- EREndocr Rev 2018 Aug 15
- Primary aldosteronism is characterized by aldosterone secretion that is independent of renin and angiotensin II and sodium status. The deleterious effects of primary aldosteronism are mediated by exc...
Primary aldosteronism is characterized by aldosterone secretion that is independent of renin and angiotensin II and sodium status. The deleterious effects of primary aldosteronism are mediated by excessive activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor that results in the well-known consequences of volume expansion, hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, but also increases the risk for cardiovascular and kidney disease, and death. For decades, the approaches to defining, diagnosing, and treating primary aldosteronism have been relatively constant and generally focused on detecting and treating the more severe presentations of the disease. However, emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence of primary aldosteronism is much greater than previously recognized, and that milder and non-classical forms of renin-independent aldosterone secretion that impart heightened cardiovascular risk may be common. Public health efforts to prevent aldosterone-mediated end-organ disease will require improved capabilities to diagnose all forms of primary aldosteronism while optimizing the treatment approaches such that the excess risk for cardiovascular and kidney disease is adequately mitigated. Herein, we present a physiologic approach to considering the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of primary aldosteronism. We review evidence suggesting that primary aldosteronism manifests across a wide spectrum of severity, ranging from mild to overt, that correlates with cardiovascular risk. Further, we review emerging evidence from genetic studies that begin to provide a theoretical explanation for the pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism, and a link to its phenotypic severity spectrum and prevalence. Finally, we review human studies that provide insights into the optimal approach towards the treatment of primary aldosteronism.
- Cardiovascular Interactions between Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 and Angiotensin II. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Aug 17; 8(1):12398
- Both the activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and elevations of circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF-23) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular ...
Both the activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and elevations of circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF-23) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in chronic kidney disease. To investigate potential cross-talk between RAAS and FGF-23, we administered angiotensin II (Ang II) to wild-type rodents and the Hyp mouse model of excess FGF-23. Ang II administration for four weeks to wild-type rodents resulted in significant increases in systolic blood pressure and LVH. Unexpectedly, FGF-23 circulating levels were increased by 1.5-1.7 fold in Ang II treated animals. In addition, Ang II treatment increased expression of FGF-23 message levels in bone, the predominant tissue for FGF-23 production, and induced expression of FGF-23 and its co-receptor α-Klotho in the heart, which normally does not express FGF-23 or α-Klotho in physiologically relevant levels. Hyp mice with elevated FGF-23 exhibited increased blood pressure and LVH at baseline. Ang II administration to Hyp mice resulted further increments in blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, consistent with additive cardiovascular effects. These findings suggest that FGF-23 may participate in unexpected systemic and paracrine networks regulating hemodynamic and myocardial responses.
- Cortisol excess in patients with primary aldosteronism impacts on left ventricular hypertrophy. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Aug 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol excess appears to have an additional impact on cardiac remodeling in patients with PA. Treatment of PA by either adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist improves LVMI. This effect was most pronounced in patients with high total glucocorticoid excretion.
- Spectrum of renin angiotensin aldosterone system disorders in young hypertensives. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pak Med Assoc 2018; 68(8):1179-1182
- CONCLUSIONS: Primary hyperaldosteronism as compared to other renin angiotensin aldosterone system disorders was found to be the leading cause of hypertension in young population.
- Bitter experience with liquorice sweetening agent resulting in apparent mineralocorticoid excess with periodic paralysis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 10; 2018
- Chronic liquorice ingestion is a rare cause of secondary hypertension and hypokalaemia with periodic paralysis. We report the case of a middle-aged Indian man who presented with hypertension and hypo...
Chronic liquorice ingestion is a rare cause of secondary hypertension and hypokalaemia with periodic paralysis. We report the case of a middle-aged Indian man who presented with hypertension and hypokalaemic alkalosis with recurrent bouts of periodic paralysis. Biochemical investigations revealed suppressed plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations with normal cortisol concentration. A detailed history revealed that he was addicted for the last 5 years to a form of chewing tobacco mixed with herbal preparations as a sweetening agent which on analysis revealed active principles of glycyrrhizin using the thin liquid chromatography method. The hypokalaemia resolved and hypertension control improved significantly after discontinuing liquorice consumption, and the patient was asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up. Long-term liquorice ingestion should be kept in mind as a reversible cause of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis, with a meticulous history and biochemical evaluation helping in identifying this recognisable and curable medical disorder.
- [Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Primary Aldosteronism Combined with Cushing's Syndrome : Report of a Case]. [Journal Article]
- HKHinyokika Kiyo 2018; 64(6):265-269
- A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of hyperglycemia. Computed tomography showed left clear-bordered adrenal mass. The serum aldosterone/renin ratio was elevated, an...
A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of hyperglycemia. Computed tomography showed left clear-bordered adrenal mass. The serum aldosterone/renin ratio was elevated, and the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test revealed no suppression of serum cortisol. Adrenal venous samplingdemonstrated excess secretion of cortisol from the left adrenal gland, and excess secretion of aldosterone from bilateral adrenal glands. Laparoscopic left partial adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism combined with Cushing's syndrome was performed. The result was insulin withdrawal and the reduction of antihypertensive drugs.
- Aldosterone deficiency in mice burdens respiration and accentuates diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and obesity. [Journal Article]
- JIJCI Insight 2018 Jul 26; 3(14)
- Aldosterone synthase inhibitors (ASIs) should alleviate obesity-related cardiovascular and renal problems resulting partly from aldosterone excess, but their clinical use may have limitations. To imp...
Aldosterone synthase inhibitors (ASIs) should alleviate obesity-related cardiovascular and renal problems resulting partly from aldosterone excess, but their clinical use may have limitations. To improve knowledge for the use of ASIs, we investigated physiology in aldosterone synthase-knockout (ASKO) mice. On regular chow diet (CD), ASKO mice ate more and weighed less than WT mice, largely because they hyperventilated to eliminate acid as CO2. Replacing CD with high-fat diet (HFD) lessened the respiratory burden in ASKO mice, as did 12- to 15-hour fasting. The latter eliminated the genotype differences in respiratory workload and energy expenditure (EE). Thus, aldosterone deficiency burdened the organism more when the animals ate carbohydrate-rich chow than when they ate a HFD. Chronic HFD exposure further promoted hyperinsulinemia in ASKO mice that contributed to visceral fat accumulation accompanied by reduced lipolysis, thermogenic reprogramming, and the absence of weight-gain-related EE increases. Intracerebroventricular aldosterone supplementation in ASKO mice attenuated the HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia, but did not affect EE, suggesting that the presence of aldosterone increased the body's energetic efficiency, thus counteracting the EE-increasing effect of low insulin. ASIs may therefore cause acid-overload-induced respiratory burden and promote obesity. Their use in patients with preexisting renal and cardiopulmonary diseases might be contraindicated.
- Renal and Blood Pressure Response to a High-Salt Diet in Mice With Reduced Global Expression of the Glucocorticoid Receptor. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:848
- Salt-sensitive hypertension is common in glucocorticoid excess. Glucocorticoid resistance also presents with hypercortisolemia and hypertension but the relationship between salt intake and blood pres...
Salt-sensitive hypertension is common in glucocorticoid excess. Glucocorticoid resistance also presents with hypercortisolemia and hypertension but the relationship between salt intake and blood pressure (BP) is not well defined. GRβgeo/+ mice have global glucocorticoid receptor (GR) haploinsufficiency and increased BP. Here we examined the effect of high salt diet on BP, salt excretion and renal blood flow in GRβgeo/+mice. Basal BP was ∼10 mmHg higher in male GRβgeo/+ mice than in GR+/+ littermates. This modest increase was amplified by ∼10 mmHg following a high-salt diet in GRβgeo/+ mice. High salt reduced urinary aldosterone excretion but increased renal mineralocorticoid receptor expression in both genotypes. Corticosterone, and to a lesser extent deoxycorticosterone, excretion was increased in GRβgeo/+ mice following a high-salt challenge, consistent with enhanced 24 h production. GR+/+ mice increased fractional sodium excretion and reduced renal vascular resistance during the high salt challenge, retaining neutral sodium balance. In contrast, sodium excretion and renal vascular resistance did not adapt to high salt in GRβgeo/+ mice, resulting in transient sodium retention and sustained hypertension. With high-salt diet, Slc12a3 and Scnn1a mRNAs were higher in GRβgeo/+ than controls, and this was reflected in an exaggerated natriuretic response to thiazide and benzamil, inhibitors of NCC and ENaC, respectively. Reduction in GR expression causes salt-sensitivity and an adaptive failure of the renal vasculature and tubule, most likely reflecting sustained mineralocorticoid receptor activation. This provides a mechanistic basis to understand the hypertension associated with loss-of-function polymorphisms in GR in the context of habitually high salt intake.
- Controlling resistant hypertension. [Review]
- SVStroke Vasc Neurol 2018; 3(2):69-75
- Resistant hypertension (failure to achieve target blood pressures with three or more antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) is an important and preventable cause of stroke. Hypertension is high...
Resistant hypertension (failure to achieve target blood pressures with three or more antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) is an important and preventable cause of stroke. Hypertension is highly prevalent in China (>60% of persons above age 65), and only ~6% of hypertensives in China are controlled to target levels. Most strokes occur among persons with resistant hypertension; approximately half of strokes could be prevented by blood pressure control. Reasons for uncontrolled hypertension include (1) non-compliance; (2) consumption of substances that aggravated hypertension, such as excess salt, alcohol, licorice, decongestants and oral contraceptives; (3) therapeutic inertia (failure to intensify therapy when target blood pressures are not achieved); and (4) diagnostic inertia (failure to investigate the cause of resistant hypertension). In China, an additional factor is lack of availability of appropriate antihypertensive therapy in many healthcare settings. Sodium restriction in combination with a diet similar to the Cretan Mediterranean or the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet can lower blood pressure in proportion to the severity of hypertension. Physiologically individualised therapy for hypertension based on phenotyping by plasma renin activity and aldosterone can markedly improve blood pressure control. Renal hypertension (high renin/high aldosterone) is best treated with angiotensin receptor antagonists; primary aldosteronism (low renin/high aldosterone) is best treated with aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone); and hypertension due to overactivity of the renal epithelial sodium channel (low renin/low aldosterone; Liddle phenotype) is best treated with amiloride. The latter is far more common than most physicians suppose.
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- The Biology of Normal Zona Glomerulosa And Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma: Pathological Implications. [Journal Article]
- EREndocr Rev 2018 Jul 10
- The identification of several germline and somatic ion channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and detection of cell clusters that can be responsible for excess aldosterone producti...
The identification of several germline and somatic ion channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and detection of cell clusters that can be responsible for excess aldosterone production, as well as the isolation of autoantibodies activating the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, have rapidly advanced the understanding of the biology of primary aldosteronism (PA), in particular that of APA. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss how discoveries of the last decade could impact on histopathology analysis and clinical practice. The structural remodeling through development and aging of the human adrenal cortex, in particular of the zona glomerulosa, and the complex regulation of aldosterone, with emphasis to the concepts of zonation and channelopathies, will be addressed. Finally, the diagnostic work-up for PA and its subtyping to optimize treatment is recapitulated.