- KRAS and 2 rare PI3KCA mutations coexisting in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient with aggressive and resistant disease. [Journal Article]
- HPHum Pathol 2018; 74:178-182
- We describe a metastatic colorectal cancer patient, treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, bevacizumab, and oxaliplatin (FIr-BFOx) therapy, with aggressive and resistant disease. KRAS, N...
We describe a metastatic colorectal cancer patient, treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, bevacizumab, and oxaliplatin (FIr-BFOx) therapy, with aggressive and resistant disease. KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PI3KCA were analyzed in primary tumor and liver metastasis. KRAS c.34G>A mutation was detected in primary tumor and liver metastasis, which additionally revealed 2 rare PI3KCA mutations (c.1633G>C and c.1645G>C). The c.1645G>C was never reported in colorectal cancer. Akt/p-AktSer473, phosphatase and tensin homolog, mismatch repair, and epidermal growth factor receptor expression was evaluated. Normal mismatch repair and epidermal growth factor receptor expression was detected. Akt was shown by primary tumor and liver metastasis, whereas p-AktSer473 was identified only in the latter, despite positive phosphatase and tensin homolog expression. Patient showed 7 months of progression-free survival and 15 months of overall survival, lower than median values reported in KRAS exon 2-mutant patients treated with the same therapy. Results lead to the hypothesis of a putative role of these mutations in worsening of the disease and are open to further confirmatory studies.
- GADD45β Loss Ablates Innate Immunosuppression in Cancer. [Journal Article]
- CRCancer Res 2018 Mar 01; 78(5):1275-1292
- T-cell exclusion from the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to overcoming immune escape. Here, we identify a myeloid-intrinsic mechanism governed by the NF-κB effector molecule GADD45β ...
T-cell exclusion from the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to overcoming immune escape. Here, we identify a myeloid-intrinsic mechanism governed by the NF-κB effector molecule GADD45β that restricts tumor-associated inflammation and T-cell trafficking into tumors. In various models of solid cancers refractory to immunotherapies, including hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian adenocarcinoma, Gadd45b inhibition in myeloid cells restored activation of proinflammatory tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and intratumoral immune infiltration, thereby diminishing oncogenesis. Our results provide a basis to interpret clinical evidence that elevated expression of GADD45B confers poor clinical outcomes in most human cancers. Furthermore, they suggest a therapeutic target in GADD45β for reprogramming TAM to overcome immunosuppression and T-cell exclusion from the TME.Significance: These findings define a myeloid-based immune checkpoint that restricts T-cell trafficking into tumors, with potentially important therapeutic implications to generally improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Res; 78(5); 1275-92. ©2017 AACR.
- Next-generation sequencing: recent applications to the analysis of colorectal cancer. [Review]
- JTJ Transl Med 2017 Dec 08; 15(1):246
- Since the establishment of the Sanger sequencing method, scientists around the world focused their efforts to progress in the field to produce the utmost technology. The introduction of next-generati...
Since the establishment of the Sanger sequencing method, scientists around the world focused their efforts to progress in the field to produce the utmost technology. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) represents a revolutionary step and promises to lead to massive improvements in our understanding on the role of nucleic acids functions. Cancer research began to use this innovative and highly performing method, and interesting results started to appear in colorectal cancer (CRC) analysis. Several studies produced high-quality data in terms of mutation discovery, especially about actionable or less frequently mutated genes, epigenetics, transcriptomics. Analysis of results is unveiling relevant perspectives aiding to evaluate the response to therapies. Novel evidences have been presented also in other directions such as gut microbiota or CRC circulating tumor cells. However, despite its unquestioned potential, NGS poses some issues calling for additional studies. This review intends to offer a view of the state of the art of NGS applications to CRC through examination of the most important technologies and discussion of recent published results.
- Prognostic significance of clinicopathological factors in early breast cancer: 20 years of follow-up in a single-center analysis. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2017 Sep 22; 8(42):72031-72043
- CONCLUSIONS: Pathological tumor characteristics and nodal status still represent useful tools in treatment selection and follow-up decision making of EBC patients in clinical practice.
- Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2017 Aug 08; 8(32):53482-53494
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong i...
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.
- Cancer secretome and inflammation: The bright and the dark sides of NF-κB. [Review]
- SCSemin Cell Dev Biol 2018; 78:51-61
- Tumour promoting inflammation is widely recognized as a hallmark of cancer. The source of this chronic inflammation in cancer has been ascribed to the progressive activation over time of immune cells...
Tumour promoting inflammation is widely recognized as a hallmark of cancer. The source of this chronic inflammation in cancer has been ascribed to the progressive activation over time of immune cells, mostly of the innate arm of the immune system. However, recent evidence has shown that chronic inflammation may also derive, at least in part, from senescent cells. Hence, due to the prominent role of inflammation in cancer, the cancer secretome definition includes all the secretory factors ensuing from the crosstalk between the cancer cell and the tumour microenvironment. The mechanistic basis underlying the paracrine signalling between the cancer cell and the surrounding tumour microenvironment in malignancy have been widely investigated by using in vivo models of cancers, thus identifying the NF-κB transcription factor as the molecular hub linking inflammation and cancer. In this review, we highlight the roles of NF-κB in regulating the inflammation-derived secretome emanating from immune and senescent cells, with a special focus on the bright and the dark sides of their pro-inflammatory signalling on tumorigenesis.
- Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018; 233(1):23-29
- Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is s...
Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans.
- New schedule of bevacizumab/paclitaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer in a real-life setting. [Journal Article]
- CMCancer Med 2016; 5(9):2232-9
- Angiogenesis plays an essential role in the growth and progression of breast cancer. This observational single center study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new weekly schedule of bevacizumab/p...
Angiogenesis plays an essential role in the growth and progression of breast cancer. This observational single center study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new weekly schedule of bevacizumab/paclitaxel combination in the first-line treatment of unselected, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, in a real-life setting. Thirty-five patients (median age 56 years, range 40-81) with HER2-negative MBC were treated with paclitaxel (70 mg/m(2) ) dd 1,8,15 q21 (60 mg/m(2) if ≥65 years or secondary Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) plus bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks. Twenty-two patients (63%) had ≥2 metastatic sites and 15 (43%) visceral disease. Eleven patients (31%) had a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A clinical complete response (cCR) was observed in 6 (17%) cases after a median of seven cycles, a partial response (PR) in 22 (63%), and a stable disease (SD) in 6 (17%) cases; the overall clinical benefit rate was 97%. In TNBC subgroup, cCR occurred in 1 (9%) case, PR in 8 (73%), and SD in 2 (18%). At a median follow-up of 13 months (range 1-79 months), the median progression-free survival was 11 months and the median overall survival was 36 months. No grade 4 adverse events occurred. The main grade 3 toxicities observed were neutropenia (11.4%), hypertension (5.7%), stomatitis (2.8%), diarrhea (2.8%), and vomiting (2.8%). The administration of weekly paclitaxel plus bevacizumab in this real-life experience shows similar efficacy than previously reported schedules, with a comparable dose intensity and a good toxicity profile.
- Perivascular Cells in Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis Overexpress Activated ADAM12 and Are Involved in Myofibroblast Transdifferentiation and Development of Fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- JRJ Rheumatol 2016; 43(7):1340-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in SSc, pericytes that transdifferentiate toward activated FB are present in the vascular tree, and TGF-β, while increasing ADAM12 expression, may modulate this transdifferentiation.
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- MicroRNA expression analysis in high fat diet-induced NAFLD-NASH-HCC progression: study on C57BL/6J mice. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2016; 16:3
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, fifteen microRNAs which were modulated in hepatic tissues and in tumors during the transition NAFLD-NASH-HCC are reported. Besides some already described, new and early dysregulated miRNAs were identified. Functional analyses are needed to validate the results here obtained, and to better define the role of these molecules in the progression of the hepatic disease.