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- Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters. [Journal Article]
- WEWater Environ Res 2013; 85(4):363-73
- The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to ...
The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues.
- Atmospheric identification of active ingredients in over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse by atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry (APGD-MS). [Journal Article]
- RCRapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2011 Sep 15; 25(17):2407-17
- Atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry was used to characterize the active ingredients in pharmaceutical over-the-counter (OTC) drug formulations (Tylenol Allergy, Alka-Seltzer Plus Ni...
Atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry was used to characterize the active ingredients in pharmaceutical over-the-counter (OTC) drug formulations (Tylenol Allergy, Alka-Seltzer Plus Nighttime, Sudafed, Aleve and Mucinex DM) and drugs of abuse (crack cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy) and hydrocodone). Material was desorbed and directly ionized under atmospheric conditions by allowing the substance to come in direct contact with the plasma followed by mass spectrometric detection. With this technique, controlled substances and OTC medications were readily distinguished from one another. Characteristic mass spectra were identified for the active ingredients in the OTC and drugs of abuse. Importantly, all drug compounds studied here, both OTC and illicit, demonstrated signals for either molecular ions or protonated molecules as well as fragmentation patterns that are readily identified in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron ionization (EI) mass spectral library. It is believed that this technique holds promise for forensic and law enforcement communities for real-time atmospheric analysis of drugs with database-searchable spectra of controlled substances.
- A self-contained culture platform using carbon dioxide produced from a chemical reaction supports mouse blastocyst development in vitro. [Journal Article]
- JRJ Reprod Dev 2011; 57(4):551-5
- Elevated CO(2) is required for in vitro embryo culture to maintain proper media pH and to supply embryo metabolic pathways. As an alternative to current approaches using gas cylinders, we examined us...
Elevated CO(2) is required for in vitro embryo culture to maintain proper media pH and to supply embryo metabolic pathways. As an alternative to current approaches using gas cylinders, we examined use of a chemical reaction to supply CO(2). A closed culture system was constructed and chemicals added to generate CO(2), which was then supplied to developing embryos. This system was shown to provide a stable pH (7.2-7.4) over 4 days of use. One-cell mouse embryos were cultured in the device and no difference in blastocyst formation or cell number was apparent between embryos grown in a closed system with CO(2) supplied by a chemical reaction or positive controls grown in a an open system in a CO(2) incubator. This approach provides a highly purified, inexpensive, and easily obtainable gas source and offers potential for development of new, self-contained culture platforms.
- The continuing unacceptable marketing of Alka-Seltzer containing aspirin for stomach-related disorders. [Letter]
- DSDrug Saf 2009; 32(7):619-21
- Reasons for the use of mild analgesics among English students. [Journal Article]
- PWPharm World Sci 2008; 30(1):79-85
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the need for caution in current moves to encourage self-medication. If people are unaware of the risks of drugs such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, then they may only contact health professionals after they experience adverse effects.
- Pica presenting as metabolic alkalosis and seizure in a dialysis patient. [Case Reports]
- CNClin Nephrol 2006; 66(1):71-3
- An in vitro investigation of the effect of some analgesics on human enamel. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Rehabil 2006; 33(7):529-32
- The sale of over-the-counter pain relief medication has increased dramatically in recent years, and typically amounts to several hundred thousands of pounds per year in the UK. Many soluble analgesic...
The sale of over-the-counter pain relief medication has increased dramatically in recent years, and typically amounts to several hundred thousands of pounds per year in the UK. Many soluble analgesic preparations contain citric acid, and it has been suggested that these formulations may cause dental erosion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of some over-the-counter analgesics on tooth surface loss from human enamel. Six commonly available analgesics were chosen for this study and the effect of immersing unerupted human enamel was examined using non-contact optical profilometry. Two of the six analgesics investigated caused no detectable erosion (Boots soluble aspirin and Anadin Extra). Three caused statistically significant enamel erosion, but this was very slight and is thought to be clinically insignificant (Alka Seltzer, Panadol and Solpadeine). Only one analgesic caused possible potentially clinical significant enamel erosion. Further studies are needed to determine whether Aspro causes clinically significant enamel erosion.
- Effects of different aspirin formulations on platelet aggregation times and on plasma salicylate concentrations. [Journal Article]
- TRThromb Res 2006; 118(4):529-34
- CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that soluble and chewed aspirin inhibit platelet aggregation in a shorter period of time than does whole aspirin. The results suggest that chewing baby aspirin or taking soluble buffered aspirin may be the preferred route of administration for early platelet inhibition.
- Prokinetic effect of Alka-Seltzer in healthy subjects. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- DLDig Liver Dis 2002; 34(5):385
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- Ticlopidine, Alka-Seltzer, or a combination of citric acid with aspirin: effects on platelet aggregation in individuals with an insufficient response to aspirin alone. [Journal Article]
- CAClin Appl Thromb Hemost 2000; 6(4):222-5
- Aspirin (ASA) does not effectively lower platelet aggregation in all people. The platelet aggregation (PA) score is an easily used clinical method for measuring the effect in individuals of antiplate...
Aspirin (ASA) does not effectively lower platelet aggregation in all people. The platelet aggregation (PA) score is an easily used clinical method for measuring the effect in individuals of antiplatelet medications. Fifteen apparently healthy subjects (2 men and 13 women), selected for their resistance to ASA's antiaggregation effect, completed a sequential trial of ticlopidine, Alka-Seltzer, and ASA + citric acid (CTA). Ticlopidine was the strongest aggregation inhibitor and the ASA + CTA combination was more inhibitory than Alka-Seltzer. It was determined that measuring antiaggregation effects of a particular agent in an individual prior to usage would optimize treatment. The PA score methodology provides a means for testing patients prior to antiplatelet therapy for prevention and treatment of the thrombotic complications of vascular disease.