- Acute triflumuron exposure induces oxidative stress responses in liver and kidney of Balb/C mice. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 11
- Triflumuron (TFM) is one of the most widely used insecticides over the world. It is a benzoylphenyl urea that belongs to the class of insect growth regulators. This insecticide acts by inhibiting ins...
Triflumuron (TFM) is one of the most widely used insecticides over the world. It is a benzoylphenyl urea that belongs to the class of insect growth regulators. This insecticide acts by inhibiting insect's chitin synthesis and by consequences, making insect more susceptible to pathogens and malformations. TFM effects have been reported in mammalians and crops. However, studies that reveal its toxicity mechanisms are limited. In this line, the current study aimed to determine the implication of oxidative stress in the toxicity induced by TFM and particularly in the perturbation of biochemical parameters in male Balb/C mice. Male Balb/C mice were divided into three groups receiving TFM at doses of 250, 350, and 500 mg/kg bw respectively. The occurrence of oxidative stress in both kidney and liver tissues was monitored by measuring of oxidative stress markers. TFM caused an increase as protein carbonyls generation, malondialdehyde induction (MDA) and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (Gpx), as well as glutathion S transferase (GST) activities. In the same conditions, we have evaluated the effect of TFM treatment on biochemical parameters. In response to the three TFM doses, we showed significant dose dependent inductions in all tested oxidative stress markers. However, TFM caused an increase in the liver enzyme activities as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), g-glutamyltranspeptidase (GTT), and total bilirubin (BILT) in a dose-dependent manner. Equally, renal markers as urea, uric acid, albumin, and creatinine were increased in the same manner. We can conclude that oxidative damage seems to be a key determinant of TFM-induced toxicity in both liver and kidney of male Balb/C mice. Moreover, the oxidative stress is more pronounced in the liver than in the kidney. Thus, TFM may be considered as a hepatotoxic insecticide.
- The potential protective effect of two actinomycete extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 11
- The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of two extracts derived from two soil actinomycete strains, designated S19 and G30, against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mal...
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of two extracts derived from two soil actinomycete strains, designated S19 and G30, against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Sixty-four male rats were divided into four groups of 16 rats per group. The first group was a control group given corn oil and the nutritive medium which is composed of a mixture of the two used media. The second group received CCl4 only, the third group was administered CCl4 and the extract S19, and the fourth group was administered CCl4 and the extract G30. The results were taken after a treatment period of 8 weeks. Our data demonstrated that the two actinomycete extracts significantly (P < 0.01) lowered the CCl4-induced elevation of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after 8 weeks of treatment. The extract S19 had no effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total bilirubin, whereas the extract G30 significantly decreased (P < 0.01) the elevated levels of these parameters in the serum, especially after 4 weeks of treatment. The levels of hepatic glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), peroxidase (Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased (P < 0.01), while those of malondialdehyde (MDA) markedly decreased in rats treated with the two extracts. Furthermore, histopathological lesions in the liver, including necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, hydropic degeneration, and congestion of the central vein, were partially reversed by treatment with the two microbial extracts. Our results provided evidence for the protective effect of the two used actinomycete extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage occurred through the reduction of oxidative stress and improvement of antioxidant defense markers.
- Successful Localization Using 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT of a Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumor Causing Osteomalacia in a Patient with Concurrent Follicular Lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- NMNucl Med Mol Imaging 2018; 52(6):462-467
- Diagnosing tumor-induced osteomalacia is often challenging because conventional imaging modalities may fail to locate the responsible tumor. This report describes the ability of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT t...
Diagnosing tumor-induced osteomalacia is often challenging because conventional imaging modalities may fail to locate the responsible tumor. This report describes the ability of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT to successfully distinguish between the responsible phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor and concurrent lymphoma lesions. A 52-year-old man with bone pain for several years was diagnosed with a vitamin D-resistant hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. Whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple enlarged hypermetabolic lymph nodes in his bilateral cervical, axillary, mediastinal, abdominal, pelvic, and inguinal regions. Core needle biopsy of the right cervical lymph node confirmed the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma. However, lymphoma was not considered the cause of osteomalacia. 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT before chemotherapy showed a small nodule with intensely increased uptake in the right inguinal region, which was distinguished from the other enlarged lymph nodes. The nodule was surgically removed and histopathologically consistent with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. After surgery, the patient's serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels normalized without nutritional supplement.
- Pharmacoeconomic Review Report: Obeticholic Acid (Ocaliva): (Intercept Pharma Canada, Inc.): Indication: For the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis [BOOK]
- BOOKCanadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)
- Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, available as 5 mg and 10 mg oral tablets at a unit price of $98.63 (for both 5 mg and 10 mg). The review of OCA is for the treatmen...
Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, available as 5 mg and 10 mg oral tablets at a unit price of $98.63 (for both 5 mg and 10 mg). The review of OCA is for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in adults with an inadequate response to UDCA or as monotherapy in adults unable to tolerate UDCA (proposed indication). The recommended starting dosage of OCA is 5 mg once daily in adult patients who have not achieved an adequate biochemical response to an appropriate dosage of UDCA for at least one year or who are intolerant to UDCA. If an adequate reduction in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or total bilirubin has not been achieved after six months of OCA 5 mg once daily, and the patient is tolerating OCA, the dosage should be increased to 10 mg once daily. The maximum recommended dosage of OCA is 10 mg once daily. The manufacturer submitted a cost-utility analysis assessing OCA in two populations: the UDCA-intolerant population (comparing OCA with no treatment), and the population of patients with an inadequate response to UDCA (UDCA-tolerant; comparing OCA plus UDCA with UDCA alone). The base-case analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Canadian health care system over a lifetime horizon (50 years) with future costs and benefits discounted at 1.5 %. The model consisted of 10 health states with transitions taking place every three months, capturing patient progression over time. The model captured the two components of the natural history of the disease: the PBC-specific liver disease component, representing the progression of PBC based on ALP and bilirubin biomarkers (three health states), and the liver disease clinical outcome component (seven health states), which is entered once patients progress to decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. For the OCA groups and UDCA group, results from the pivotal phase III POISE study were used to inform health state transitions for each three-month cycle for the first year. After year 1, PBC-specific health state transitions were calculated based on data from the Global and UK PBC study cohorts. Utility data specific to cholangitis patients were used for PBC-specific health states, and Canadian data were used for liver disease clinical outcome states. Resource use and costs were collected from clinical trials, published literature, expert opinion, and standard Canadian sources.
- Dexamethasone induces osteoblast apoptosis through ROS-PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 08; 110:602-608
- CONCLUSIONS: Our research verified that Dex induced osteoblasts apoptosis by ROS-PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway.
- Fabrication, modeling and optimization of lyophilized advanced platelet rich fibrin in combination with collagen-chitosan as a guided bone regeneration membrane. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 08
- In this study, lyophilized advanced platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) was used in combination with collagen-chitosan membrane for the first time to combine advantages of both collagen and A-PRF membranes....
In this study, lyophilized advanced platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) was used in combination with collagen-chitosan membrane for the first time to combine advantages of both collagen and A-PRF membranes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design the experimental condition and to correlate the effects of parameters, including chitosan/collagen (chit/col) weight ratio and A-PRF concentration on Young's modulus, mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) viability and degradation rate of the membranes. Results showed that Young's modulus of the membranes was intensified by increasing chit/col weight ratio and decreasing A-PRF concentration from 3 to 8 MPa. Cell viability of MSCs was improved by both increasing chit/col weight ratio and A-PRF concentration. Moreover, as chit/col weight ratio increased from 0 to 4 and A-PRF concentration decreased from 5 to 0, degradation rate of the membranes decreased from 90 to 20% after four weeks incubation. Finally, based on Design Expert Software calculation for minimizing the degradation rate and maximizing both Young's modulus and cell viability, the values of chit/col weight ratio and A-PRF concentration were suggested to be 4 and 0.58 mg/ml, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis showed that the addition of A-PRF caused higher osteogenic differentiation.
- Local injection of RANKL facilitates tooth movement and alveolar bone remodeling. [Journal Article]
- ODOral Dis 2018 Dec 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Local RANKL injection leads to increased osteoclastic activity and facilitates tooth movement, followed by subsequent alveolar bone formation; this implies a reversible transitional acceleration of bone resorption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Changes in digestive enzyme activities during early ontogeny of Seriola rivoliana. [Journal Article]
- FPFish Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 08
- This study contributes to basic knowledge on the development of larval digestive enzyme activities of Seriola rivoliana, a carnivorous species that has shown high mortality in larval stage. The study...
This study contributes to basic knowledge on the development of larval digestive enzyme activities of Seriola rivoliana, a carnivorous species that has shown high mortality in larval stage. The study was conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions until larvae reached 30 days after hatching (DAH). The specific activity of amylase and pepsin was analysed by spectrophotometric methods, and lipase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and alkaline phosphatase by fluorometry. The results showed that S. rivoliana larvae had different enzyme patterns depending on their developmental stage, and also when exogenous food was administered (rotifers and Artemia). At hatching (2.98 ± 0.14 mm SL), lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were detected, but the last two enzymes showed an activity close to zero. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase and alkaline phosphatase sharply increased their activities after starting the first feeding. Amylase activity was not detected until 5 DAH (3.51 ± 0.18 mm SL) and had a peak on day 15 (4.59 ± 0.39 mm SL); no activity was observed from then on. Pepsin activity was detected approximately at 15 DAH, showing a constant increase onwards. Trypsin had a peak on day 15 and then decreased on the following days. Chymotrypsin had the highest peak at 5 DAH, then a sharp decrease on day seven (3.88 ± 0.11 mm SL), and it increased gradually until day 30 (11.71 ± 1.59 mm SL). Lipase showed the highest activity at 15 DAH and then decreased its value. Finally, alkaline phosphatase showed the highest value at 3 DAH (3.62 ± 0.06 mm SL); then, a severe decrease was observed with activity stability on the following days. In conclusion, S. rivoliana larvae had a similar pattern as that observed in other marine-carnivorous fish larvae, so it could be considered as juvenile at 20 DAH in terms of digestive physiology; based on our results and previous study, the weaning process could start after this age, which would allow establishing a co-feeding protocol using inert diet.
- Curcumin and quercetin synergistically attenuate subacute diazinon-induced inflammation and oxidative neurohepatic damage, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in albino rats. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 08
- The ubiquitous use of diazinon (DZN, an organophosphorus insecticide) has increased the probability of occupational, public, and the ecosystem exposure; these exposures are linked to negative health ...
The ubiquitous use of diazinon (DZN, an organophosphorus insecticide) has increased the probability of occupational, public, and the ecosystem exposure; these exposures are linked to negative health outcomes. The flavonoids curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QUE) exert significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities against toxicants, including insecticides. However, it is unclear whether their combination enhances these activities. Therefore, 40 albino rat were divided randomly into the CTR, DZN, CUR + DZN, QUE + DZN, and CUR + QUE + DZN groups, which are treated daily via gavage for 28 days. DZN induced neurohepatic inflammation and oxidative damage, which was confirmed by significant (P < 0.05) induction of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Furthermore, the liver and brain of DZN-exposed rats exhibited a notable elevation in MDA level paralleled with reduction in antioxidant molecules, i.e., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The pretreatment of DZN-intoxicated rats with CUR or QUE substantially mitigated neurohepatic dysfunction and inflammation and improved liver and brain antioxidant status with reducing oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, pretreatment with CUR + QUE synergistically restored the neurohepatic dysfunction and oxidative levels to approximately normal levels. The overall results suggested that CUR or QUE inhibits DZN-mediated neurohepatic toxicity via their favorable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and free radical-scavenging activities. Moreover, both QUE and CUR may be mutual adjuvant agents against oxidative stress neurohepatic damages.
New Search Next
- Fabrication of sulphonated poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate hydrogel as a bone grafting scaffold. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mater Sci Mater Med 2018 Dec 07; 29(12):187
- To improve the biological performance of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel as an injectable bone grafting scaffold, sodium methallyl sulphonate (SMAS) was incorporated into PEGDA hydr...
To improve the biological performance of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel as an injectable bone grafting scaffold, sodium methallyl sulphonate (SMAS) was incorporated into PEGDA hydrogel. The physiochemical properties of the resultant polymers were assessed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, zeta potential, surface morphology, and protein adsorption analysis. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the hydrogel to evaluate the effect of the sulphonated modification on their attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. The results of FTIR and zeta potential evaluations revealed that SMAS was successfully incorporated into PEGDA. With increasing concentrations of SMAS, the swelling ratio of the hydrogels increased in deionized water but stayed constant in phosphate buffered saline. The protein adsorption also increased with increasing concentration of SMAS. Moreover, the sulphonated modification of PEGDA hydrogel not only enhanced the attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells but also up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity as well as gene expression of osteogenic markers and related growth factors, including collagen type I, osteocalcin, runt related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and transforming growth factor beta 1. These findings indicate that the sulphonated modification could significantly improve the biological performance of PEGDA hydrogel. Thus, the sulphonated PEGDA is a promising scaffold candidate for bone grafting.