- Carbenoxolone inhibits mechanical stress-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by regulating p38 MAPK phosphorylation. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 15(3):2798-2803
- The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of pannexin1 (Px1) protein channels on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under mechanical stress stimulation. MSCs we...
The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of pannexin1 (Px1) protein channels on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under mechanical stress stimulation. MSCs were isolated from Sprague Dawley rats (3 weeks old, weighing 100-120 g) and culturedin vitro. A safe concentration of carbenoxolone was determined (CBX, an inhibitor of Px1 channels; 100 µM) on MSCs using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) method. MSCs were divided into 6 groups: Control, stress (4,000 µ strain), and stress following 3, 6, 12, and 24 h pretreatment with CBX. Stress groups were stimulated with mechanical stress for 15 min. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, type I collagen expression, intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration, Px1 expression, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated phosphorylation were determined. ALP activity was increased in the stress group, and this was prevented by pretreatment with CBX. Similarly, stress-induced increases in type I collagen expression, Ca2+concentration, Px1 expression, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation decreased in the presence of CBX. ERK phosphorylation was decreased by stress, however was not affected by CBX treatment. Altogether, the results suggest that mechanical stress promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, and this promotion was inhibited by pretreatment with CBX, possibly through regulating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK.
- Heart failure affects liver morphology and function. What are the clinical implications? [Journal Article]
- BLBratisl Lek Listy 2018; 119(2):98-102
- Liver dysfunction in heart failure is common and usually clinically significant, especially in patients with advanced or severe acute heart failure. Lesions are caused by an impaired hepatic circulat...
Liver dysfunction in heart failure is common and usually clinically significant, especially in patients with advanced or severe acute heart failure. Lesions are caused by an impaired hepatic circulation due to congestion and hypoperfusion. Congestive lesions are more common and typically manifested by painful hepatomegaly and increased direct bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. The inferior vena cava and hepatic veins are usually dilated. Congestive lesions are characterized by dilatation of the central vein with fibrotic changes in the surrounding areas on histological examination. Isolated ischaemic lesions are rare and occur due to severe and prolonged ineffective perfusion, often accompanied by hypoxemia. Ineffective perfusion is reflected by an increase in total bilirubin and significantly increased transaminase levels. The prognosis of ischaemic lesions without an adequate treatment of the cause of hypoperfusion is poor. Increased levels of bilirubin and liver function tests, as well as signs of impaired liver proteosynthetic function, are associated with a poor prognosis. Knowledge of the phenotypes of hepatic lesions in heart failure is important to select the appropriate treatment for an acute decompensation. Changes in biochemical markers, hepatic perfusion or stiffness of the liver can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of diuretic treatment and achieve euvolemic status in the patients with heart failure (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 28).
- Effect of isolated vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover markers in younger postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- OIOsteoporos Int 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: In younger postmenopausal women with VD deficiency, isolated supplementation with 1000 IU of vitamin D3 for 9 months is associated with a reduction in bone turnover markers. However, any between-group differences was not observed in bone turnover markers.
- Lysophosphatidic Acid Enhanced the Osteogenic and Angiogenic Capability of Osteoblasts via LPA1/3 Receptor. [Journal Article]
- CTConnect Tissue Res 2018 Feb 15
- Lysophosphatidic acid is a serum-derived growth factor that is involved in wound healing. Although in its infancy, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid exerts a pote...
Lysophosphatidic acid is a serum-derived growth factor that is involved in wound healing. Although in its infancy, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid exerts a potentially significant role in regulating bone cell biology. However, previous studies mainly focused on the osteoinductive potential of lysophosphatidic acid, its effects on bone tissue vascularization, another essential element during bone regeneration, remains ill-defined so far. Here in this study, we examined the effects of lysophosphatidic acid on osteogenic differentiation as well as the angiogenesis-inducing capacity of pre-osteoblasts, a cell population that coordinates osteogenic and angiogenic processes in bone regenerating niche. Our results showed that treatment of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells with lysophosphatidic acid enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, demonstrating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. Of particular importance was the finding that vascular endothelial growth factor secretion also increased after lysophosphatidic acid treatment. Lysophosphatidic acid conditioned media of MC3T3-E1 cells was capable of promoting angiogenic behavior of endothelial cells, as evidenced by stimulating proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Besides, inhibition of LPA1/3 receptor abolished lysophosphatidic acid-induced elevation of the osteogenic and angiogenic capability of pre-osteoblasts. Our research demonstrated the important role of lysophosphatidic acid in coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone remodeling through orchestrating pre-osteoblast behavior, and implications therein for novel and effective treatment strategies for bone regeneration success.
- Copaiba oil decreases oxidative stress and inflammation but not colon damage in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. [Journal Article]
- EMEndocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Feb 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Copaiba oil decreased oxidative stress and inflammation but did not prevent intestinal damage in the colon of colitic rats. The alterations of plasma markers of hepatic damage caused by the oil seem to be associated to its harmful action on the liver.
- Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) anesthesia with myrcene: efficacy and physiological responses in comparison with eugenol. [Journal Article]
- FPFish Physiol Biochem 2018 Feb 14
- The aim of the present study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along with the fish biochemical response to anesthesia in comparison with eugenol...
The aim of the present study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along with the fish biochemical response to anesthesia in comparison with eugenol. In the first experiment, 240 fish were stocked in 12 tanks and acclimatized to experimental conditions for 2 weeks. Then, the fish of each tank were subjected to one concentration of either eugenol (12, 20, 30, 50, 80, and 130 μL/L) or myrcene (100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μL/L) concentrations. Induction time of and recovery time from anesthesia were recorded for each fish separately. Using these results, desired concentrations to induce anesthesia within 60, 180, 300, and 600 s were determined, being 81, 30, 19, and 10 μL/L eugenol and 531, 251, 177, and 111 μL/L myrcene. In the second experiment, 96 fish were stocked in 8 tanks. Six fish were netted from each tank and exposed to the calculated eugenol or myrcene concentrations. Blood samples were taken after the fish reached anesthesia. The results showed that there was no significant difference in serum lactate, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. Increase in the induction time of anesthesia resulted in increased serum glucose with no significant difference between the anesthetics. Increase in induction time of anesthesia led to increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the eugenol-anesthetized fish and aspartate transaminase activity in myrcene-anesthetized fish. In conclusion, myrcene is capable to anesthetize rainbow trout, but at higher concentrations compared to eugenol. In addition, biochemical analysis showed that increase in induction time of anesthesia leads to hyperglycemia and increase in AST and LDH activities depending on anesthetic type.
- Potential effects of the combination of nicotinamide, vitamin B2 and vitamin C on oxidative-mediated hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide. [Journal Article]
- LHLipids Health Dis 2018 Feb 14; 17(1):29
- CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrates that NA, VB2, and VC cross-talk with each other that act as a more potent biochemical chain of antioxidant defense against TAA-induced toxicities in vivo.
- Associations Between Intravenous Iron, Inflammation and FGF23 in Non-Dialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3-5. [Journal Article]
- KBKidney Blood Press Res 2018 Feb 08; 43(1):143-151
- CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous iron supplementation may only transiently affect the production and degradation of FGF23 resulting in hypophosphatemia at the commencement of iron therapy. Chronic low-grade inflammation does not seem to play a role in that mechanism.
- Effect of phytase on growth performance, phytate degradation and gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in the small intestine, liver and kidney of 21 day old broilers. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 12
- An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n...
An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 240) were assigned to one of four diets, with 10 pens/diet and six birds/pen from day one to 21. The diets consisted of a negative control (NC) formulated to meet or exceed Ross 308 nutrient requirements, with the exception of calcium (Ca) and available P (avP), which were reduced by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively. The NC diet was supplemented with 0, 500, 1,500, or 4,500 units/kg of phytase (FTU) to create four experimental diets. On day 21, all birds per pen were euthanized to obtain digesta and tissue samples for phytate degradation and gene expression. Data were analyzed as an analysis of variance using the fit model platform in JMP v 13.0. The model included phytase and significant means were separated using orthogonal linear and quadratic contrasts. Phytase supplementation increased gain (linear, P < 0.05). Phytate (iP6; quadratic, P < 0.05), phytate ester (iP5, iP4, iP3; quadratic, P < 0.05), and inositol (linear, P < 0.05) concentration in the gizzard was influenced by phytase supplementation. Phytate concentration decreased (linear, P < 0.05), iP5 or iP4 concentration increased and then decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05), and inositol concentration increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) in the ileal digesta as phytase supplementation increased in the diet. There was a tendency for the gene expression of the H+-dependent myo-inositol transporter, HMIT, to increase (linear, P < 0.05) in the ileum as phytase dose increased. Gene expression of the sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter, SMIT2, increased in the jejunum (quadratic, P < 0.05) as phytase dose increased. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase expression increased (linear, P < 0.05) in the ileum as phytase supplementation increased in the diet. The influence of phytase on phytate, phytate esters, and inositol may influence intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in the small intestine.
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- Sex- and bone-specific responses in bone structure to exogenous leptin and leptin receptor antagonism in the ovine fetus. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Feb 14
- Widespread expression of leptin and its receptor in developing cartilage and bone suggests that leptin may regulate bone growth and development in the fetus. Using micro-computed tomography, this stu...
Widespread expression of leptin and its receptor in developing cartilage and bone suggests that leptin may regulate bone growth and development in the fetus. Using micro-computed tomography, this study investigated the effects of exogenous leptin and leptin receptor antagonism on aspects of bone structure in the sheep fetus during late gestation. From 125-130 days of gestation (term ~145 days), chronically-catheterised singleton sheep fetuses were infused intravenously for five days with either saline (0.9% saline, n=13), recombinant ovine leptin at two doses (0.6 mg/kg/day LEP1, n=10 or 1.4 mg/kg/day LEP2, n=7) or recombinant super-active ovine leptin receptor antagonist (4.6 mg/kg/day SOLA, n=6). No significant differences in plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, osteocalcin, calcium, inorganic phosphate or alkaline phosphatase were observed between treatment groups. Total femur midshaft diameter and metatarsal lumen diameter were narrower in male fetuses treated with exogenous leptin. In a fixed length of femur midshaft, total and bone volumes were reduced by the higher dose of leptin; non-bone space volume was lower in both groups of leptin-treated fetuses. Leptin infusion caused increments in femur porosity and connectivity density, and vertebral trabecular thickness. Leptin receptor antagonism decreased trabecular spacing and increased trabecular number, degree of anisotrophy and connectivity density in the lumbar vertebrae. The increase in vertebral porosity observed following leptin receptor antagonism was greater in the male, compared to female, fetuses. Therefore, leptin may have a role in the growth and development of the fetal skeleton, dependent on the concentration of leptin, sex of the fetus and bone type examined.