- Anti-infective biomaterials with surface-decorated tachyplesin I. [Journal Article]
- BBiomaterials 2018 May 09
- Implants decorated with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can prevent infection and reduce the risk of creating antibiotic resistance. Yet the restricted mobility of surficial AMP often compromises its a...
Implants decorated with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can prevent infection and reduce the risk of creating antibiotic resistance. Yet the restricted mobility of surficial AMP often compromises its activity. Here, we report a simple but effective strategy to allow a more flexible display of AMP on the biomaterial surface and demonstrate its efficacy for wound healing. The AMP, tachyplesin I (Tac), is tagged with the polyhydroxyalkanoate-granule-associated protein (PhaP) and immobilized on haloarchaea-produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) via hydrophobic interaction. The PhaP-Tac coating effectively inhibits the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It also increases the surface hydrophilicity to improve fibroblast proliferation in vitro, and accelerates wound healing by decreasing bacterial counts to below 105 CFU per gram of tissue in a deep-wound mouse model in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effective strategy to realize the full potential of AMPs in imparting implants with an anti-microbial activity that is localized and potent.
- A preoperative cotininury test for abdominoplasty reduces peri-operative complications. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Chir Plast Esthet 2018 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The routine use of the cotininury test in preoperative abdominoplasties significantly reduces risk of delayed healing and other serious complications. It is an objective test, which is simple, quick and non-invasive. Smoking cessation must be at least 4 weeks before and after the surgery. Following medical advice to cease smoking by the surgeon and anesthetist, referral to an appropriate tobacco-addiction specialist clinic may be helpful for the patient who has difficulty stopping smoking.
- ssSupramolecular poly(acrylic acid)/F127 hydrogel with hydration-controlled nitric oxide release for enhancing wound healing. [Journal Article]
- ABActa Biomater 2018 May 16
- Topical nitric oxide (NO) delivery has been shown to accelerate wound healing. However, delivering NO to wounds at appropriate rates and doses requires new biomaterial-based strategies. Here, we desc...
Topical nitric oxide (NO) delivery has been shown to accelerate wound healing. However, delivering NO to wounds at appropriate rates and doses requires new biomaterial-based strategies. Here, we describe the development of supramolecular interpolymer complex hydrogels comprising PEO-PPO-PEO (F127) micelles embedded in a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) matrix, with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) molecules dissolved in the hydrophilic domain. We show that PAA:F127/GSNO hydrogels start releasing NO upon hydration at rates controlled by their rates of water absorption. SAXS measurements indicate that the supramolecular structure of the hydrogels retains long-range order domains of F127 micelles. The PAA/F1227 hydrogels displayed dense morphologies and reduced rates of hydration. The NO release rates remain constant over the first 200 min, are directly correlated with the hydration rates of the PAA:F127/GSNO hydrogels, and can be modulated in the range of 40 nmol/g h to 1.5 μmol/g h by changing the PAA:F127 mass ratio. Long-term NO-release profiles over 5 days are governed by the first-order exponential decay of GSNO, with half-lives in the range of 0.5 to 3.4 days. A preliminary in vivo study on full-thickness excisional wounds in mice showed that topical NO release from the PAA:F127/GSNO hydrogels is triggered by exudate absorption and leads to increased angiogenesis and collagen fiber organization, as well as TGF-β, IGF-1, SDF-1, and IL-10 gene expressions in the cicatricial tissue. In summary, these results suggest that hydration-controlled NO release from topical PAA:F127/GSNO hydrogels is a potential strategy for enhancing wound healing. Statement of Significance The topical delivery of nitric oxide (NO) to wounds may provide significant beneficial results and represent a promising strategy to treat chronic wounds. However, wound dressings capable of releasing NO after application and allowing the modulation of NO release rates, demand new platforms. Here, we describe a novel strategy to overcome these challenges, based on the use of supramolecular poly(acrylic acid) (PAA):F127 hydrogels charged with the NO donor Snitrosoglutathione (GSNO) from whereby the NO release can be triggered by exudate absorption and delivered to the wound at rates controlled by the PAA:F127 mass ratio. Preliminary in vivo results offer a proof of concept for this strategy by demonstrating increased angiogenesis; collagen fibers organization; and TGF-β, IGF-1, SDF-1, and IL-10 gene expressions in the cicatricial tissue after topical treatment with a PAA:F127/GSNO hydrogel.
- Electrospun chitosan/polycaprolactone-hyaluronic acid bilayered scaffold for potential wound healing applications. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 May 16
- Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in...
Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in this study. Electrospinning technique to make the scaffold was used followed by morphological, physiochemical and mechanical characterizations. Average fiber diameter of CS/PCL-HA bilayered scaffold was found 362.2 ± 236 nm which is in the range of collagen fiber found in the extracellular matrices. Enhanced swelling, degradation, hydrophilicity and water vapour transmission rate were found for the bilayered scaffold compared to that of the PCL and CS-PCL scaffolds. Antimicrobial property evaluation revealed reduction in bacterial adhesion on bilayered scaffolds. Invitro studies with vero cells [kidney epithelial cell, extracted from African Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sp.)] confirm enhanced proliferation, growth and migration of vero cell on the bilayered CS/PCL-HA scaffold to that of PCL and CS/PCL scaffolds. Novelty of this study includes the use of HA for mechanically stabilized scaffold with acceptable biological properties for wound healing applications.
- Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve the Quality and Stability of Vascularized Flap Surgery of Irradiated Skin in Pigs. [Journal Article]
- SCStem Cells Transl Med 2018 May 18
- Cutaneous radiation syndrome has severe long-term health consequences. Because it causes an unpredictable course of inflammatory waves, conventional surgical treatment is ineffective and often leads ...
Cutaneous radiation syndrome has severe long-term health consequences. Because it causes an unpredictable course of inflammatory waves, conventional surgical treatment is ineffective and often leads to a fibronecrotic process. Data about the long-term stability of healed wounds, with neither inflammation nor resumption of fibrosis, are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of injections of local autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), combined with plastic surgery for skin necrosis, in a large-animal model. Three months after irradiation overexposure to the rump, minipigs were divided into three groups: one group treated by simple excision of the necrotic tissue, the second by vascularized-flap surgery, and the third by vascularized-flap surgery and local autologous BM-MSC injections. Three additional injections of the BM-MSCs were performed weekly for 3 weeks. The quality of cutaneous wound healing was examined 1 year post-treatment. The necrotic tissue excision induced a pathologic scar characterized by myofibroblasts, excessive collagen-1 deposits, and inadequate vascular density. The vascularized-flap surgery alone was accompanied by inadequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (decorin, fibronectin); the low col1/col3 ratio, associated with persistent inflammatory nodules, and the loss of vascularization both attested to continued immaturity of the ECM. BM-MSC therapy combined with vascularized-flap surgery provided mature wound healing characterized by a col1/col3 ratio and decorin and fibronectin expression that were all similar to that of nonirradiated skin, with no inflammation, and vascular stability. In this preclinical model, vascularized flap surgery successfully and lastingly remodeled irradiated skin only when combined with BM-MSC therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018.
- Difructose dianhydride improves intestinal calcium absorption, wound healing, and barrier function. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 May 18; 8(1):7813
- The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is critical for nutrient absorption and is an important barrier against harmful pathogens and antigens. Difructose anhydrides (DFA)-IVs are nondigestible disaccharide...
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is critical for nutrient absorption and is an important barrier against harmful pathogens and antigens. Difructose anhydrides (DFA)-IVs are nondigestible disaccharides that enhance calcium and iron absorption by affecting the intestinal epithelial tissue. However, their effects on intestinal functions are not fully understood. In this study, we performed a feeding trial and found that dietary DFA-IVs improved growth performance, relative breast muscle and liver weight, and digestibility and blood calcium and iron concentrations in broilers. Additionally, dietary DFA-IVs increased expression of genes related to growth in the liver, muscle development, and absorption of calcium and iron in the intestine. In vitro experiments revealed that DFA-IV treatment improved intestinal wound-healing (migration, proliferation, and differentiation) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in small intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, DFA-IV treatment enhanced the intestinal barrier function, which increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and decreased the permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-4) after LPS challenge in small intestinal epithelial cells. Collectively, these data indicate that DFA-IV could be used as a feed additive to enhance calcium and iron absorption by affecting the intestinal wound healing and permeability. This study may help improve our understanding of the molecular effects of DFA-IV on the intestine.
- Septin-dependent remodeling of cortical microtubule drives cell reshaping during epithelial wound healing. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Sci 2018 May 18
- Wounds in embryos heal rapidly through the contraction of the wound edges. Despite well-recognized significance of the actomyosin purse-string for wound closure, roles for other cytoskeletal componen...
Wounds in embryos heal rapidly through the contraction of the wound edges. Despite well-recognized significance of the actomyosin purse-string for wound closure, roles for other cytoskeletal components are largely unknown. Here, we report that the septin cytoskeleton cooperates with actomyosin and microtubules to coordinate circumferential contraction of the wound margin and concentric elongation of wound-proximal cells in Xenopus laevis embryos. Microtubules reoriented radially, forming bundles along lateral cell cortices in elongating wound-proximal cells. Depletion of Septin 7 (Sept7) slowed wound closure by attenuating the wound edge contraction and cell elongation. ROCK/Rho-kinase inhibitor-mediated suppression of actomyosin contractility enhanced the Sept7 phenotype, while the Sept7 depletion did not affect the accumulation of actomyosin at the wound edge. The cortical microtubule bundles were reduced in wound-proximal cells in Sept7 knockdown (Sept7-KD) embryos, but Map7-medidated forced bundling of microtubules did not rescue the Sept7-KD phenotype. Nocodazole-mediated microtubule depolymerization enhanced the Sept7-KD phenotype, suggesting that Sept7 is required for microtubule reorganization during cell elongation. Our findings indicate that septins are required for the rapid wound closure by facilitating cortical microtubule reorganization and the concentric elongation of surrounding cells.
- Identifying Genetic Players in Cell Sheet Morphogenesis Using a Drosophila Deficiency Screen for Genes on Chromosome 2R Involved in Dorsal Closure. [Journal Article]
- GG3 (Bethesda) 2018 May 18
- Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal ...
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain. Thus, it is important to identify all genes that contribute to the kinematics and dynamics of closure. Here, we used a set of large deletions (deficiencies), which collectively remove 98.5% of the genes on the right arm of Drosophila melanogaster's 2nd chromosome to identify "dorsal closure deficiencies". Through two crosses, we unambiguously identified embryos homozygous for each deficiency and time-lapse imaged them for the duration of closure. Images were analyzed for defects in cell shapes and tissue movements. Embryos homozygous for 47 deficiencies have notable, diverse defects in closure, demonstrating that a number of discrete processes comprise closure and are susceptible to mutational disruption. Further analysis of these deficiencies will lead to the identification of at least 30 novel "dorsal closure genes". We expect that many of these novel genes will identify links to pathways and structures already known to coordinate various aspects of closure. We also expect to identify new processes and pathways that contribute to closure.
- M2 macrophages promote wound-induced hair neogenesis. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dermatol Sci 2018 May 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that M2 macrophages could promote WIHN through producing a panel of growth factors.
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- Combined application of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and iliac bone flap in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Orthop Surg Res 2018 May 18; 13(1):117
- CONCLUSIONS: Combined usage of stage I latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and stage II iliac bone flap grafting is an efficacious and safe surgical technique in clinical practice.