- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology: IATDMCT Recommendations for 5-Fluorouracil Therapy. [Review]
- CPClin Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jun 20
- Pharmacogenetic of voriconazole antifungal agent in pediatric patients. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacogenomics 2018 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Understanding how some gene polymorphisms affect the voriconazole pharmacokinetic is essential to optimally dose this agent.
- Drug combination studies of curcumin and genistein against rhodesain of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2018 Jun 13; :1-5
- Curcumin and genistein are two natural products obtained from Curcuma longa L. and soybeans, endowed with many biological properties. Within the last years they were shown to possess also a promising...
Curcumin and genistein are two natural products obtained from Curcuma longa L. and soybeans, endowed with many biological properties. Within the last years they were shown to possess also a promising antitrypanosomal activity. In the present paper, we investigated the activity of both curcumin and genistein against rhodesain, the main cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; drug combination studies, according to Chou and Talalay method, allowed us to demonstrate a potent synergistic effect for the combination curcumin-genistein. As a matter of fact, with our experiments we observed that the combination index of curcumin-genistein is < 1 for the reduction from 10 to 90% of rhodesain activity.
- Effect of ABCC2 and ABCG2 Gene Polymorphisms and CSF-to-Serum Albumin Ratio on Ceftriaxone Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jun 06
- We measured ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in patients' plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and assessed the influence of biometric, demographic, genetic (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCB11, ABCG2, and SLCO1A2 poly...
We measured ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in patients' plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and assessed the influence of biometric, demographic, genetic (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCB11, ABCG2, and SLCO1A2 polymorphisms) and pathological features. Adult patients with signs and symptoms of central nervous system infections, receiving intravenous ceftriaxone, were enrolled. Ceftriaxone plasma and CSF concentrations were measured by high-precision liquid chromatographic methods; allelic discrimination was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Forty-three patients were included: median ceftriaxone maximal concentration was 15,713 ng/mL in plasma and 3512 ng/mL in CSF with a CSF-to-plasma ratio of 0.3. ABCC2 1249 rs2273697 (P = .027) and ABCG2 1194+928 rs13120400 (P = .015) variants were significantly associated with CSF concentrations and CSF-to-plasma ratios. At linear regression analysis, CSF-to-serum albumin ratio was an independent predictor of ceftriaxone CSF concentrations (P = .001; also in those with intact blood-brain barrier: P = .031) and CSF-to-plasma ratio (P = .001; also in those with blood-brain barrier impairment: P = .040). We here report the role of transporters' genetic variants as well as of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting ceftriaxone exposure in the central nervous system.
- Brain Distribution and Modulation of Neuronal Excitability by Indicaxanthin From Opuntia Ficus Indica Administered at Nutritionally-Relevant Amounts. [Journal Article]
- FAFront Aging Neurosci 2018; 10:133
- Several studies have recently investigated the role of nutraceuticals in complex pathophysiological processes such as oxidative damages, inflammatory conditions and excitotoxicity. In this regard, th...
Several studies have recently investigated the role of nutraceuticals in complex pathophysiological processes such as oxidative damages, inflammatory conditions and excitotoxicity. In this regard, the effects of nutraceuticals on basic functions of neuronal cells, such as excitability, are still poorly investigated. For this reason, the possible modulation of neuronal excitability by phytochemicals (PhC) could represent an interesting field of research given that excitotoxicity phenomena are involved in neurodegenerative alterations leading, for example, to Alzheimer's disease. The present study was focused on indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica, a bioactive betalain pigment, with a proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, previously found to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to modulate the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons. On this basis, we aimed at detecting the specific brain areas where indicaxanthin localizes after oral administration at dietary-achievable amounts and highlighting eventual local effects on the excitability of single neuronal units. HPLC analysis of brain tissue 1 h after ingestion of 2 μmol/kg indicaxanthin indicated that the phytochemical accumulates in cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum, but not in the striato-pallidal complex. Then, electrophysiological recordings, applying the microiontophoretic technique, were carried out with different amounts of indicaxanthin (0.34, 0.17, 0.085 ng/neuron) to assess whether indicaxanthin influenced the neuronal firing rate. The data showed that the bioelectric activity of neurons belonging to different brain areas was modulated after local injection of indicaxanthin, mainly with dose-related responses. A predominating inhibitory effect was observed, suggesting a possible novel beneficial effect of indicaxanthin in reducing cell excitability. These findings can constitute a new rationale for exploring biological mechanisms through which PhC could modulate neuronal function with a relapse on complex cognitive brain process and related neurodegenerative conditions.
- Italian consensus conference on guidelines for conservative treatment on lower limb muscle injuries in athlete. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2018; 4(1):e000323
- Provide the state of the art concerning (1) biology and aetiology, (2) classification, (3) clinical assessment and (4) conservative treatment of lower limb muscle injuries (MI) in athletes. Seventy i...
Provide the state of the art concerning (1) biology and aetiology, (2) classification, (3) clinical assessment and (4) conservative treatment of lower limb muscle injuries (MI) in athletes. Seventy international experts with different medical backgrounds participated in the consensus conference. They discussed and approved a consensus composed of four sections which are presented in these documents. This paper represents a synthesis of the consensus conference, the following four sections are discussed: (i) The biology and aetiology of MIs. A definition of MI was formulated and some key points concerning physiology and pathogenesis of MIs were discussed. (ii) The MI classification. A classification of MIs was proposed. (iii) The MI clinical assessment, in which were discussed anamnesis, inspection and clinical examination and are provided the relative guidelines. (iv) The MI conservative treatment, in which are provided the guidelines for conservative treatment based on the severity of the lesion. Furthermore, instrumental therapy and pharmacological treatment were discussed. Knowledge of the aetiology and biology of MIs is an essential prerequisite in order to plan and conduct a rehabilitation plan. Another important aspect is the use of a rational MI classification on prognostic values. We propose a classification based on radiological investigations performed by ultrasonography and MRI strongly linked to prognostic factors. Furthermore, the consensus conference results will able to provide fundamental guidelines for diagnostic and rehabilitation practice, also considering instrumental therapy and pharmacological treatment of MI. Expert opinion, level IV.
- The adipose organ and multiple myeloma: Impact of adipokines on tumor growth and potential sites for therapeutic intervention. [Review]
- EJEur J Intern Med 2018 May 30
- In addition to its capacity to store lipids the adipose tissue is now identified as a real organ with both endocrine and metabolic roles. Preclinical results indicate that modifying adipose tissue an...
In addition to its capacity to store lipids the adipose tissue is now identified as a real organ with both endocrine and metabolic roles. Preclinical results indicate that modifying adipose tissue and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) could be a successful multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. BMAT interrelates with bone marrow cells and other immune cells, and may influence MM disease progression. The BM adipocytes may have a role in MM progression, bone homing, chemoresistance, and relapse, due to local endocrine, paracrine, or metabolic factors. BM adipocytes isolated from MM subjects have been shown to increase myeloma growth in vitro and may preserve cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. By producing free fatty acids and emitting signaling molecules such as growth factors and adipokines, BM adipocytes are both an energy font and an endocrine signaling factory. This review should suggest future research approaches toward developing novel treatments to target MM by targeting BMAT and its products.
- A Typical Immune T/B Subset Profile Characterizes Bicuspid Aortic Valve: In an Old Status? [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2018; 2018:5879281
- Bicuspid valve disease is associated with the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association still need to be clarified. Here, we evaluated the circulat...
Bicuspid valve disease is associated with the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association still need to be clarified. Here, we evaluated the circulating levels of T and B lymphocyte subsets associated with the development of vascular diseases in patients with bicuspid aortic valve or tricuspid aortic valve with and without thoracic aortic aneurysm. We unveiled that the circulating levels of the MAIT, CD4+IL-17A+, and NKT T cell subsets were significantly reduced in bicuspid valve disease cases, when compared to tricuspid aortic valve cases in either the presence or the absence of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Among patients with tricuspid aortic valve, these cells were higher in those also affected by thoracic aortic aneurysm. Similar data were obtained by examining CD19+ B cells, naïve B cells (IgD+CD27-), memory unswitched B cells (IgD+CD27+), memory switched B cells (IgD-CD27+), and double-negative B cells (DN) (IgD-CD27-). These cells resulted to be lower in subjects with bicuspid valve disease with respect to patients with tricuspid aortic valve. In whole, our data indicate that patients with bicuspid valve disease show a quantitative reduction of T and B lymphocyte cell subsets. Future studies are encouraged to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation and its pathophysiological significance.
- Prioritization of highly exposable pharmaceuticals via a suspect/non-target screening approach: A case study for Yeongsan River, Korea. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 May 22; 639:570-579
- Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the Yeongsan River, Korea were prioritized via suspect and non-target analysis using LC-HRMS (QExactive plus Orbitrap) followed by semi-quantitat...
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the Yeongsan River, Korea were prioritized via suspect and non-target analysis using LC-HRMS (QExactive plus Orbitrap) followed by semi-quantitative analysis to confirm the priority of PPCPs. A scoring and ranking system for prioritization was suggested based on occurrence frequency and chromatographic peak area or concentration. Through suspect and non-target screening, more than 50 PPCPs were tentatively identified and ranked by the scoring system. Among them, 28 substances were finally confirmed using reference standards. For estimating concentration, 26 confirmed PPCPs and 12 additional substances not included in the first ranking were semi-quantitatively analyzed. We found that carbamazepine, metformin, paraxanthine, naproxen, and fluconazole occurred 100% of the time above the limit of quantification in 14 samples, whereas carbamazepine, metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, and cimetidine showed maximum concentrations above 1000 ng/L. Thus, in the final prioritization list, carbamazepine, metformin, and paraxanthine shared first place, followed by caffeine, cimetidine, lidocaine, naproxen, cetirizine, climbazole, fexofenadine, tramadol, and fluconazole, with scores of 100 or above. We suggest that these 12 PPCPs are the most highly exposable substances, and thus must be considered in future water monitoring in the Yeongsan River.
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- Eradication of Helicobacter pylori, as add-on therapy, has a significant, but temporary influence on recovery in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a placebo-controlled, double blind trial in the Polish population. [Journal Article]
- PDPostepy Dermatol Alergol 2018; 35(2):151-155
- CONCLUSIONS: Although HP occurs as frequently in CIU patients as in the healthy population, eradication, added to basic antihistaminic treatment, has a significant influence on CIU patients' recovery parallel to the reduction of stomach inflammation features.