- Effects of anti-allergic drugs on T cell-mediated nasal hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic rhinitis. [Journal Article]
- AIAllergol Int 2018 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Steroids are effective for the reduction of NHR in AR by suppressing the accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially antigen-specific T cells.
- Immediate Mild Reactions to CT with Iodinated Contrast Media: Strategy of Contrast Readministration without Corticosteroids. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 May 16; :172524
- Purpose To evaluate premedication protocols involving administration of antihistamine and multidose corticosteroid that have been widely used in prevention of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions (HS...
Purpose To evaluate premedication protocols involving administration of antihistamine and multidose corticosteroid that have been widely used in prevention of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to iodinated contrast media (ICM); an evidence-based optimal preventive strategy customized for patients with mild cases has not yet been established. Materials and Methods The outcomes of patients with mild HSR who subsequently underwent contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) between January 2012 and December 2015 were analyzed. For premedication, 4 mg of chlorpheniramine was intravenously administered 30 minutes prior to reexposure to ICM. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to determine the relationship between premedication and recurrence rate. Results A total of 1178 patients with mild immediate HSR were reexposed to ICM 3533 times. Among these patients, 1056 patients experienced allergylike reactions and 122 patients developed gastrointestinal reactions. With reexposure to the culprit agent without premedication, the recurrence rate was 31.1% (85 of 273 examinations). The recurrence rate decreased to 12% (105 of 872 examinations; P < .001) by only changing the culprit agent and to 7.6% (148 of 1947 examinations; P < .001) by using the combination of changing the ICM and antihistamine premedication. Changing the ICM plus antihistamine premedication was also helpful in reducing the recurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms from 16.1% to 1.8% (P = .020). However, despite changing of the ICM, some combinations of ICM did not show a prophylactic effect. Conclusion A combination of changing the culprit agent and antihistamine premedication resulted in the best preventive outcome for patients with mild immediate HSR. The optimal choice of substitute ICM could be individualized according to the culprit agent.
- Use of continuous wavelet transform approach for simultaneous quantitative determination of multicomponent mixture by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Aug 05; 201:306-314
- In the present paper, a multicomponent analysis approach based on spectrophotometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of Guaifenesin (GU), Chlorpheniramine (CHL) and Pseudoephedrine...
In the present paper, a multicomponent analysis approach based on spectrophotometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of Guaifenesin (GU), Chlorpheniramine (CHL) and Pseudoephedrine (PSE) without any separation steps. The method under study is signal processing method based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) coupled with zero cross point technique. In this paper, CWT method was tested by synthetic ternary mixtures and was applied to the commercial cough syrup as a real sample and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. For demonstrate the accuracy of the results, other applications of signal processing, such as Derivative Transform (DT), Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression and Principal Components Regression (PCR) were used as comparative methods. Afterwards, the obtained results from analyzing the cough syrup by all methods were compared to the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One-way analysis of variance test at 95% confidence level showed no significant differences between CWT and other applications.
- Muscarinic receptors, nitric oxide formation and cyclooxygenase pathway involved in tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018; 102:1221-1228
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated a relatively potent relaxant effect ofL. angustifolia that was lower than the effect of theophylline. The possible mechanisms of relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal smooth muscle are muscarinic receptors blockade, inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathways and/or involvement of nitric oxide production. Its clinical applications should be investigated in further studies.
- Micro-segmental hair analysis for proving drug-facilitated crimes: Evidence that a victim ingested a sleeping aid, diphenhydramine, on a specific day. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int 2018; 288:23-28
- Sleeping aids are often abused in the commission of drug-facilitated crimes. Generally, there is little evidence that a victim ingested a spiked drink unknowingly because the unconscious victim canno...
Sleeping aids are often abused in the commission of drug-facilitated crimes. Generally, there is little evidence that a victim ingested a spiked drink unknowingly because the unconscious victim cannot report the situation to the police immediately after the crime occurred. Although conventional segmental hair analysis can estimate the number of months since a targeted drug was ingested, this analysis cannot determine the specific day of ingestion. We recently developed a method of micro-segmental hair analysis using internal temporal markers (ITMs) to estimate the day of drug ingestion. This method was based on volunteer ingestion of ITMs to determine a timescale within individual hair strands, by segmenting a single hair strand at 0.4-mm intervals, corresponding to daily hair growth. This study assessed the ability of this method to estimate the day of ingestion of an over-the-counter sleeping aid, diphenhydramine, which can be easily abused. To model ingestion of a diphenhydramine-spiked drink unknowingly, each subject ingested a dose of diphenhydramine, followed by ingestion of two doses of the ITM, chlorpheniramine, 14days apart. Several hair strands were collected from each subject's scalp several weeks after the second ITM ingestion. Diphenhydramine and ITM were detected at specific regions within individual hair strands. The day of diphenhydramine ingestion was estimated from the distances between the regions and the days of ITM ingestion. The error between estimated and actual ingestion day ranged from -0.1 to 1.9days regardless of subjects and hair collection times. The total time required for micro-segmental analysis of 96 hair segments (hair length: 3.84cm) was approximately 2days and the cost was almost the same as in general drug analysis. This procedure may be applicable to the investigation of crimes facilitated by various drugs.
- Contrast medium-induced transient severe leukopenia. [Journal Article]
- AMAcute Med Surg 2018; 5(2):185-188
- CONCLUSIONS: We diagnosed the patient with contrast media-induced transient leukopenia, which is a rare phenomenon.
- A fully validated method for the simultaneous determination of 11 antihistamines in breast milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- BCBiomed Chromatogr 2018 Apr 12; :e4260
- Antihistamines are excreted into breast milk in small amounts; however, there are no adequate published studies or data concerning their effects on newborns and safety during breastfeeding. Thus, the...
Antihistamines are excreted into breast milk in small amounts; however, there are no adequate published studies or data concerning their effects on newborns and safety during breastfeeding. Thus, the development of sensitive and specific methodologies for the determination of antihistamines in breast milk is critical. A simple and sensitive GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 antihistamines (diphenhydramine, orphenadrine, chlorpheniramine, dimethindene, meclozine, hydroxyzine, loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine, rupatadine and ebastine) in breast milk was developed and validated. The antihistamines were solid-phase extracted and derivatized with acetic anhydride and n-propanol. Diazepam-d5 , hydroxyzine-d4 and cetirizine-d8 were used as internal standards. Absolute recovery values for all analytes ranged from 70.5 to 120.0%, while the limits of detection and quantification for all analytes were 1.50 and 5.00 ng/mL, respectively. All calibration curves were linear (R2 ≥ 0.990) within the range 5.00-1000.0 ng/mL. Accuracy (Er ) ranged between -7.6 and 7.0%, while precision (RSD) was <12% for all antihistamines. The developed method is suitable for the investigation of antihistamine-related clinical cases, as well as for pharmacokinetic and breastfeeding safety studies.
- Histamine Regulates Molecular Clock Oscillations in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial CellsviaH1Receptors. [Journal Article]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018; 9:108
- Vertebrate eyes are known to contain circadian clocks, but their regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. To address this, we used a cell line from human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE-YC) wit...
Vertebrate eyes are known to contain circadian clocks, but their regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. To address this, we used a cell line from human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE-YC) with stable coexpression of reporters for molecular clock oscillations (Bmal1-luciferase) and intracellular Ca2+concentrations (YC3.6). We observed concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic Ca2+concentrations after treatment with histamine (1-100 µM) and complete suppression of histamine-induced Ca2+mobilizations by H1histamine receptor (H1R) antagonistd-chlorpheniramine (d-CPA) in hRPE-YC cells. Consistently, real-time RT-PCR assays revealed that H1R showed the highest expression among the four subtypes (H1-H4) of histamine receptors in hRPE-YC cells. Stimulation of hRPE-YC cells with histamine transiently increased nuclear localization of phosphorylated Ca2+/cAMP-response element-binding protein that regulates clock gene transcriptions. Administration of histamine also shifted theBmal1-luciferaserhythms with a type-1 phase-response curve, similar to previous results with carbachol stimulations. Treatment of hRPE-YC cells withd-CPA or with more specific H1R antagonist, ketotifen, blocked the histamine-induced phase shifts. Furthermore, an H2histamine receptor agonist, amthamine, had little effect on theBmal1-luciferaserhythms. Although the function of thein vivohistaminergic system within the eye remains obscure, the present results suggest histaminergic control of the molecular clockviaH1R in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Also, sinced-CPA and ketotifen have been widely used (e.g., to treat allergy and inflammation) in our daily life and thus raise a possible cause for circadian rhythm disorders by improper use of antihistamines.
- Paediatric Over-the-Counter (OTC) Oral Liquids Can Soften and Erode Enamel. [Journal Article]
- DJDent J (Basel) 2017 May 11; 5(2)
- This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were grou...
This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm²) and randomly divided into five groups, immersed into four commercially-available paediatric OTC oral liquids (two for paracetamol, both sugared; and two for chlorpheniramine, one sugared and one sugar-free), with deionized water as control. The pH of the oral liquids ranged from 2.50 to 5.77. Each block was immersed into the test or control groups for 15 s, rinsed with deionized water, and Vickers micro-hardness (n= 5) was measured. After twenty cycles of immersion and hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the surface morphology and chemistry of the tooth blocks, respectively. The pH values of the liquids were also recorded. Rapidly descending trends in the micro-hardness ratios of the four test groups were observed that were statistically different from the control group (p< 0.001). EDS showed an increase of Ca/C ratio after drug immersion, whereas SEM showed an enamel loss in all the test groups. Paediatric OTC oral liquids could significantly soften the enamel and render them more susceptible to caries, such that the formulation of the oral liquids is the major factor.
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- Drug dosing errors in outpatient paediatric patients at primary health-care centres in Nablus: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- LctLancet 2018 Feb 21; 391 Suppl 2:S38
- CONCLUSIONS: Medication dosing errors in young outpatient children in Nablus were common. Many variables were found to be associated with errors such as weight, age, number of medications prescribed, and the centre. Studies on the clinical effect of these potential errors and effective error prevention strategies are needed.