Did you mean: (Allergic Rhinitis and )?
- Group 2 innate lymphoid cells in airway diseases. [Review]
- ChestChest 2019 May 10
- Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are increasingly recognized as a key controller of type 2 inflammation, and are well known to be highly elevated in human airway type 2 inflammatory diseases inc…
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are increasingly recognized as a key controller of type 2 inflammation, and are well known to be highly elevated in human airway type 2 inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma. ILC2-mediated production of type 2 cytokines initiates and amplifies airway inflammation via activation of eosinophils, B cells, mast cells, macrophages, fibroblasts and epithelial cells in these diseases. ILC2s require three major signals to fully activate and robustly produce type 2 cytokines. IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33), IL-25 and TNF superfamilies (TNF, TL1A, GITR-L, RANK-L) activate the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways that initiate production of IL-5 and IL-13. Lipid mediators (LTC4, LTD4, PGD2) and neuropeptide NMU promote production of IL-4 through the NFAT pathway. IL-2 and IL-7 family cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-9, TSLP) activate the STAT5 pathway that induces survival of ILC2s and enhances cytokine production. The activation of STAT5 is necessary to potently induce cytokine- and lipid mediator-mediated production of type 2 cytokines. Inhibitory pathways for ILC2s have also become clearer. Type I and II interferons and IL-27 inhibit ILC2 functions through the activation of STAT1. β2-adrenergic receptor agonist-, PGE2- and PGI2-mediated suppression is through cAMP and PKA. Glucocorticoid, testosterone, IL-10 and TGF-β are also able to inhibit ILC2-mediated production of type 2 cytokines. Blockage of ILC2 activators, activation of inhibitory pathways of ILC2s and suppression of ILC2-mediated pathways including type 2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13, IL-4Ra) may become therapeutic strategies for airway type 2 inflammatory diseases.
- Clinical practice guidelines for the management of olfactory dysfunction - Secondary publication. [Journal Article]
- ANAuris Nasus Larynx 2019 May 07
- CONCLUSIONS: The Clinical Practice Guideline has developed recommendations for the management of various aspects of olfactory dysfunction.
- Association between Sleep Duration and Chronic Rhinosinusitis among the Korean General Adult Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 May 09; 9(1):7158
- An association between sleep duration and a wide spectrum of diseases has been reported, but little is known about its relationship with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The present study aimed to inves…
An association between sleep duration and a wide spectrum of diseases has been reported, but little is known about its relationship with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The present study aimed to investigate whether sleep duration was associated with CRS after adjusting for potential confounding factors in Korean adults. We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2009 and enrolled 24,658 participants aged ≥20 years. Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported sleep duration, CRS, and other medical diseases were collected from questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationship between sleep duration and CRS. The overall prevalence of CRS was 4.4%. Subjects with sleep duration ≤5 hours showed a highest prevalence for CRS (6.1%), compared to subjects with longer sleep duration (p = 0.02). After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, household income, residency, dwelling type, education, depression, alcohol, allergic rhinitis, chronic otitis media, angina or myocardial infarction, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and gastric ulcer), the sleep duration of ≤5 hours was significantly associated with CRS (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.164-1.938). Only in older subgroup (≥50 years old), shorter sleep duration (≤5 hours) showed higher odds for CRS. These results suggested that sleep duration may be negatively associated with CRS in older Korean adults.
- Bronchodilators in subjects with asthma-related comorbidities. [Review]
- RMRespir Med 2019; 151:43-48
- Asthma is often associated with different comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, depression, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, osteoporosis, rhinosinusitis and mainly gastro-oesophageal reflu…
Asthma is often associated with different comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, depression, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, osteoporosis, rhinosinusitis and mainly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and allergic rhinitis. Although bronchodilators play an important role in the treatment of asthma, there is no overall description of their impact on comorbid asthma, regardless of whether favourable or negative. This narrative review examines the potential effects of bronchodilators on comorbidities of asthma.
- Analysis of Histopathological Endotyping for Chronic Rhinosinusitis Phenotypes Based on Comorbid Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Rhinol Allergy 2019 May 03; :1945892419846263
- CONCLUSIONS: The clinical diagnosis of comorbid BA and AR may aid in better characterizing CRS endotypes without invasive testing and better direct management of the disease.
- The role of invariant T cells in inflammation of the skin and airways. [Review]
- SISemin Immunopathol 2019; 41(3):401-410
- Invariant and semi-invariant T cells are emerging as important regulators of host environment interactions at barrier tissues such as the airway and skin. In contrast to conventional T cells, invaria…
Invariant and semi-invariant T cells are emerging as important regulators of host environment interactions at barrier tissues such as the airway and skin. In contrast to conventional T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express T cell receptors of very limited diversity. iNKT and MAIT cells recognise antigens presented by the MHC class 1-like monomorphic molecules CD1d and MR1, respectively. Both iNKT cells and MAIT cells have been identified in the skin and airways and can rapidly produce cytokines after activation. Numerous studies have implicated iNKT cells in the pathology of both skin and airway disease, but conflicting evidence in human disease means that more studies are necessary to resolve the exact roles of iNKT in inflammation. The functions of MAIT cells in skin and lung inflammation are even less well defined. We herein describe the current literature on iNKT and MAIT cells in allergic and non-allergic skin diseases (dermatitis and psoriasis) and airway diseases (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis).
- [Chronic rhinosinusitis of adults: new definition, new diagnosis]. [Journal Article]
- RPRev Prat 2019; 69(3):274-278
- Chronic rhinosinusitis of adults: new definition, new diagnosis. The three-nose theory, which is based on evolution and development of the nose, seems useful for a better understanding of chronic rhi…
Chronic rhinosinusitis of adults: new definition, new diagnosis. The three-nose theory, which is based on evolution and development of the nose, seems useful for a better understanding of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The nose seems in fact to be composed of three noses (one olfactory, one respiratory and one sinusal nose), each of them being able to be affected by specific diseases. The concept of chronic nasal dysfunction (CND) is based on standardized recording of nose and sinus symptoms, irrespectively of their aetiology. Clinical, endoscopic and CT-scan check up is then aimed to look for a specific disease of one or the other of the three noses (nasal polyposis, chronic respiratory rhinitis, sinusitis…) or for a disease affecting simultaneously the three noses (rhinosinusitis), each disease leading if necessary to specific additional tests (allergic tests, tooth check-up, immune balance tests…). This implies specific therapeutic options, the effectiveness of the choosed one being evaluated by comparing the standardized recordings of nose and sinus symptoms.
- Construction of an irreversible allergic rhinitis-induced olfactory loss mouse model. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Jun 04; 513(3):635-641
- Clinical data show that part of patients with sinonasal diseases suffered from olfactory dysfunction, especially with allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the mechanisms …
Clinical data show that part of patients with sinonasal diseases suffered from olfactory dysfunction, especially with allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the mechanisms responsible for AR-induced olfactory loss are still largely unknown. Because of the difficulty to obtain human olfactory mucosa, an AR-induced olfactory loss animal model needs to be constructed to clarify the mechanism. The AR mouse model was induced by intraperitoneal sensitizing with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by intranasal challenge lasted from 1 to 12 weeks. For groups with recovery, mice were housed for another 4-week long without any treatment after the last intranasal challenge. Olfactory function, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) density and leukocytes infiltration were examined at different time points. Olfactory loss occurs immediately after 1-week intranasal challenge and deteriorates almost to anosmia after 8th week, and after that olfactory loss become irreversible. Nasal inflammation induces significant infiltration of leukocytes into olfactory epithelium (OE), which negatively correlated with the density of ORNs and mouse olfaction in a time dependent manner. The neutrophilic subtype dominates in number amongst the total infiltrated leukocytes, indicating its pivotal role in nasal inflammation-induced olfactory dysfunction. In this study, we constructed a persistent AR-induced olfactory loss mouse model, losing the ability to recover from dysfunction if the disease duration more than eight weeks, which implies that timely treatments are necessary. Meanwhile, this mouse model could provide an easy and reliable system to clarify the mechanisms of AR-induced irreversible olfactory dysfunction.
- Impact of Allergy and Eosinophils on the Morbidity of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in Northwest China. [Journal Article]
- IAInt Arch Allergy Immunol 2019 Apr 10; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: EOS is a significant factor related to the morbidity of CRSwNP in Northwest China. Elevated EOS levels occurring in the context of nonallergic rhinitis constitute a risk factor for CRSwNP. Similarly, elevated EOS levels occurring in the context of allergen-negative rhinitis are also an important risk factor for morbidity of CRSwNP.
New Search Next
- Asthma and Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis and Medical Management. [Review]
- MSMed Sci (Basel) 2019 Mar 27; 7(4)
- Asthma is a prevalent inflammatory condition of the lower airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Symptomati…
Asthma is a prevalent inflammatory condition of the lower airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Symptomatically, these patients may demonstrate wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. This disease is a substantial burden to a growing population worldwide that currently exceeds 300 million individuals. This is a condition that is frequently encountered, but often overlooked in the field of otolaryngology. In asthma, comorbid conditions are routinely present and contribute to respiratory symptoms, decreased quality of life, and poorer asthma control. It is associated with otolaryngic diseases of the upper airways including allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). These conditions have been linked epidemiologically and pathophysiologically. Presently, they are considered in the context of the unified airway theory, which describes the upper and lower airways as a single functional unit. Thus, it is important for otolaryngologists to understand asthma and its complex relationships to comorbid diseases, in order to provide comprehensive care to these patients. In this article, we review key elements necessary for understanding the evaluation and management of asthma and its interrelatedness to CRS.