- The role of salt for immune cell function and disease. [Review]
- IImmunology 2018 Feb 21
- The immune system evolved to protect organisms from invading pathogens. A network of pro- and anti-inflammatory cell types equipped with special effector molecules guarantees efficient elimination of...
The immune system evolved to protect organisms from invading pathogens. A network of pro- and anti-inflammatory cell types equipped with special effector molecules guarantees efficient elimination of intruders like viruses and bacteria. However, imbalances can lead to an exceeding response of effector cells incurring autoimmune or allergic diseases. An interplay of genetic and environmental factors contributes to autoimmune diseases and recent studies provided evidence for an impact of dietary habits on the immune status and related disorders. Western societies underwent a change in lifestyle associated with changes in food consumption. Salt (sodium chloride) is one component prevalent in processed food frequently consumed in western countries. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms behind the effects of sodium chloride on immune cells like regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (TH) 17 cells and its implication as a risk factor for several diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- The time course of ongoing activity during neuritis and following axonal transport disruption. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurophysiol 2018 Feb 21
- Local nerve inflammation (neuritis) leads to ongoing activity and axonal mechanical sensitivity (AMS) along intact nociceptor axons, and disrupts axonal transport. This phenomenon forms the most feas...
Local nerve inflammation (neuritis) leads to ongoing activity and axonal mechanical sensitivity (AMS) along intact nociceptor axons, and disrupts axonal transport. This phenomenon forms the most feasible cause of radiating pain, such as sciatica. We have previously shown that axonal transport disruption without inflammation or degeneration also leads to AMS, but does not cause ongoing activity at the time point when AMS occurs, despite causing cutaneous hypersensitivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of ongoing activity during neuritis or non-inflammatory axonal transport disruption. In this study, we present the time course of ongoing activity from primary sensory neurons following neuritis and vinblastine-induced axonal transport disruption. Whereas 24% of C/slow Aδ-fiber neurons had ongoing activity during neuritis, few (<10%) A- and C-fiber neurons showed ongoing activity 1-15 days following vinblastine treatment. In contrast, AMS increased transiently at the vinblastine treatment site, peaking on day 4-5 (28% of C/slow Aδ-fiber neurons) and resolved by day 15. Conduction velocities were slowed in all groups. In summary, the disruption of axonal transport without inflammation does not lead to ongoing activity in sensory neurons, including nociceptors, but does cause a rapid and transient development of AMS. Since it is proposed that AMS underlies mechanically-induced radiating pain, and a transient disruption of axonal transport (as previously reported) leads to transient AMS, it follows that processes that disrupt axonal transport, such as neuritis, must persist to maintain AMS and the associated symptoms.
- Efficiency of Lasers and a Desensitizer Agent on Dentin Hypersensitivity Treatment: A Clinical Study. [Journal Article]
- NJNiger J Clin Pract 2018; 21(2):225-230
- CONCLUSIONS: This clinical study shows that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser have promising potential for the treatment of DH.
- Genome analysis of two novel Pseudomonas strains exhibiting differential hypersensitivity reactions on tobacco seedlings reveals differences in nonflagellar T3SS organization and predicted effector proteins. [Journal Article]
- MMicrobiologyopen 2018 Feb 21
- Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of two new biological control strains (S1E40 and S3E12) of Pseudomonas was performed to assess their taxonomic position relative to close lineages, and comparative...
Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of two new biological control strains (S1E40 and S3E12) of Pseudomonas was performed to assess their taxonomic position relative to close lineages, and comparative genomics employed to investigate whether these strains differ in key genetic features involved in hypersensitivity responses (HRs). Strain S3E12, at high concentration, incites HRs on tobacco and corn plantlets while S1E40 does not. Phylogenies based on individual genes and 16S rRNA-gyrB-rpoB-rpoD concatenated sequence data show strains S1E40 and S3E12 clustering in distinct groups. Strain S3E12 consistently clustered with Pseudomonas marginalis, a bacterium causing soft rots on plant tissues. MLSA data suggest that strains S1E40 and S3E12 are novel genotypes. This is consistent with the data of genome-based DNA-DNA homology values that are below the proposed cutoff species boundary. Comparative genomics analysis of the two strains revealed major differences in the type III secretion systems (T3SS) as well as the predicted T3SS secreted effector proteins (T3Es). One nonflagellar (NF-T3SS) and two flagellar T3SSs (F-T3SS) clusters were identified in both strains. While F-T3SS clusters in both strains were relatively conserved, the NF-T3SS clusters differed in the number of core components present. The predicted T3Es also differed in the type and number of CDSs with both strains having unique predicted protease-related effectors. In addition, the T1SS organization of the S3E12 genome has protein-coding sequences (CDSs) encoding for key factors such as T1SS secreted agglutinin repeats-toxins (a group of cytolysins and cytotoxins), a membrane fusion protein (LapC), a T1SS ATPase of LssB family (LapB), and T1SS-associated transglutaminase-like cysteine proteinase (LapP). In contrast, strain S1E40 has all CDSs for the seven-gene operon (pelA-pelG) required for Pel biosynthesis but not S3E12, suggesting that biofilm formation in these strains is modulated differently. The data presented here provide an insight of the genome organization of these two phytobacterial strains.
- Voluntary wheel running attenuates urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction following neonatal maternal separation in female mice. [Journal Article]
- NUNeurourol Urodyn 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Voluntary exercise normalized behavioral outcomes resulting from NMS in female mice, increased hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels, and decreased mast cell degranulation in the bladder. Together these results provide novel insight into the efficacy of voluntary exercise to attenuate comorbid outcomes resulting from exposure to early life stress.
- Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy in a suburban tertiary referral centre in Australia over 10 years. [Journal Article]
- IInfection 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: OPAT service is in increasing demand in Australia, providing a significant relief in in-hospital days. Growth in referrals was seen not only with SSTIs and BJIs, but also a diverse range of other infective entities with limited literature in its treatment in an OPAT setting. This study highlights the need to improve data collection, develop risk stratification strategies and standardisation of OPAT services in Australia.
- Cutaneous Manifestations of Reactions to Biologics. [Review]
- CACurr Allergy Asthma Rep 2018 Feb 21; 18(2):12
- The goal of this paper is to review the major adverse cutaneous reactions that have been reported to the most commonly used biologics.
The goal of this paper is to review the major adverse cutaneous reactions that have been reported to the most commonly used biologics.
- Dentinal tubule obliteration using toothpastes containing sodium trimetaphosphate microparticles or nanoparticles. [Journal Article]
- COClin Oral Investig 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the addition of TMPmicro or TMPnano to F toothpastes produced greater obliteration of dentinal tubules and higher mineral concentration when compared with 1100 ppm F.By the addition of TMP, fluoride toothpastes may occlude the dentinal tubules, with potential to reduce dentin hypersensitivity.
- Hyperactivity of anterior cingulate cortex areas 24a/24b drives chronic pain-induced anxiodepressive-like consequences. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci 2018 Feb 20
- Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development ...
Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice.In vivoelectrophysiological recordings evidence an increased firing rate and bursting activity within the ACC when anxiodepressive-like consequences developed and this hyperactivity persists beyond the period of mechanical hypersensitivity. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings also support ACC hyperactivity, as shown by increased excitatory postsynaptic transmission and contribution of NMDA receptors. Optogenetic inhibition of the ACC hyperactivity was sufficient to alleviate the aversive and anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain, indicating that these consequences are underpinned by ACC hyperactivity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTChronic pain is frequently comorbid with mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. It has been shown that it is possible to model this comorbidity in animal models by taking into consideration the time factor. In this study, we aimed at determining the dynamic of different components and consequences of chronic pain, and correlated them with electrophysiological alterations. By combining electrophysiological, optogenetic and behavioral analyses in a mouse model of neuropathic pain, we show that the mechanical hypersensitivity, ongoing pain, anxiodepressive-consequences and their recoveries do not necessarily exhibit temporal synchrony during chronic pain processing, and that the hyperactivity of the anterior cingulate cortex is essential for driving the emotional impact of neuropathic pain.
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- [Is celecoxib a safe alternative for the Fernand Widal syndrome?] [Review]
- RMRev Mal Respir 2018 Feb 17
- The Fernand Widal syndrome is a set of associations between asthma, nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity. Selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX 2) inhibitors are recognized as being a therapeutic alter...
The Fernand Widal syndrome is a set of associations between asthma, nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity. Selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX 2) inhibitors are recognized as being a therapeutic alternative in cases needing analgesic or anti-inflammatory treatment. In a retrospective study, we have compiled data concerning oral provocation tests (OPT) undertaken with celecoxib, one of most the selective COX 2 inhibitors, in eight patients with the Fernand Widal syndrome. They were compared with twenty-seven control patients with sensitivity to aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, manifesting as asthma, urticaria or rhino-conjunctivitis. Four patients with the Fernand Widal syndrome developed bronchospasm after taking the usually recommended daily dose of celecoxib while all the control patients tolerated it. The Fernand Widal patients who reacted during the OPT had a lower threshold of reactivity to aspirin, a more severe reaction with aspirin, and/or more severe asthma. In patients with the Fernand Widal syndrome, celecoxib is not always a possible alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its introduction must be carried out in a hospital environment under medical supervision.