- Clindamycin-induced Maculopapular Exanthema with Preferential Involvement of Striae Distensae: A Koebner phenomenon? [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):61-63
- Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, ...
Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, although hypersensitivity syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have also been reported (1). We report the case of a patient with a maculopapular rash triggered by clindamycin who developed cutaneous lesions on striae distensae (SD). A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for pruritic cutaneous lesions which had started 6 days earlier. Her past clinical history included hypertension, hypothyroidism, hyperuricemia, cholecystectomy, caesarean section, and endometriosis-related abdominal surgery, and she was taking levothyroxine, allopurinol, imidapril, and omeprazole. The skin rash first developed on her neck and back on the 3rd day of clindamycin oral treatment (300 mg every 6 hours), which was prescribed as antibiotic prophylaxis for a tooth implant. General malaise (but not fever) was also reported. Physical examination revealed an erythematous maculopapular eruption symmetrically distributed on the neck, abdomen, and back (Figure 1, A), with isolated lesions involving the proximal upper and lower limbs (Figure 1, B). There was a striking vertical distribution of skin lesions along the SD on the lateral sides of the abdomen (Figure 1, C). No mucosal involvement was found, and laboratory studies showed no abnormalities. Clindamycin withdrawal was followed by prescription of a course of oral deflazacort, starting at 30 mg daily and tapering down during a 9-day period. On the 5th day of treatment, the rash had almost cleared with minimal desquamation (Figure 1, D). Eight weeks after clearance of the skin rash, informed consent was obtained in order to perform an allergological evaluation of clindamycin, including prick and intradermal (ID) tests on the forearm and patch tests on the upper back (2). For patch testing, powder of the commercial capsules (Dalacin®) was diluted in petrolatum (pet.) and water (aq.), resulting in a final 1% clindamycin dilution. Parenteral clindamycin preparations were used in therapeutic concentrations for prick tests (150 mg/mL) and dilutions in saline of 1/100 and 1/10 for the ID test. Other authors have reported that these concentrations do not seem to irritate the skin (3-6). Prick and ID tests were assessed after 20 min and 24 hours, respectively. Patch tests were removed after the 2nd day, and late reactions were evaluated on day 2 and day 4. Prick and ID test results after 20 min were negative. Late results of ID tests with clindamycin (1.5 and 15 mg/mL) were positive: erythematous infiltrated papules about 7×7 mm and 18×15 mm were observed at 24 hours and lasted until the 8th day. Patch tests with clindamycin 1% in pet. and 1% in aq. were also positive (+ on day 2 and day 4). Positive late skin tests suggested delayed-type non-IgE-mediated allergic clindamycin hypersensitivity. Oral challenge tests are considered to be the gold standard to establish or exclude drug hypersensitivity. Due to the positive result of late skin test to clindamycin, oral challenge was not performed in our patient (3,5). The Koebner isomorphic phenomenon has been described in cutaneous reactions induced by drugs, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy. Chronic pressure on the skin is probably involved in the onset of skin lesions in hand-foot eruptions induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib and sutinib). Solar exposure and cutaneous trauma also seem to play a role in the location of papulopustular eruptions caused by endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors (erlotinib) (7). More frequent involvement in traumatized skin and surgical scars has been reported in the context of linear IgA bullous dermatosis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis triggered by vancomycin and cefuroxime (8). SD are produced by non-penetrating physical trauma, similar to friction or pressure. Different dermatoses can develop along SD skin lesions (like plaque psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, lichen planus, vitiligo, discoid lupus erythematosus, lupus vasculitis, urticarial vasculitis, or chronic graft-versus-host disease) (9). Bevacizumab, etretinate, and corticosteroid-induced ulcers, hyperpigmentation caused by bleomycin, and urticariform lesions triggered by diclofenac are examples of different type of drug-induced abnormalities involving SD (10). In summary, we identified clindamycin as the cause of the cutaneous reactions that occurred in our patient on the basis of the results of the skin tests and clinical history. Our findings confirmed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, possibly involving a T-cell-mediated immunologic mechanism. Intradermal and patch tests were found to be useful in order to confirm the diagnosis (4,5). We did not find reports in the literature of drug-induced cutaneous eruptions along the SD as a manifestation of a Koebner phenomenon. Clinical underreporting of this phenomenon could explain the scarce literature on this cutaneous adverse reaction.
- Clinical and immunological effects of adsorptive myeloid lineage leukocyte apheresis in patients with immune disorders. [Review]
- JDJ Dermatol 2018 May 21
- Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn® is an extracorporeal treatment, which uses cellulose acetate (CA) beads as adsorptive leukocytapheresis carriers designed to re...
Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn® is an extracorporeal treatment, which uses cellulose acetate (CA) beads as adsorptive leukocytapheresis carriers designed to remove elevated and potentially activated myeloid lineage leukocytes. Reports on the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with skin lesions have appeared in the published work. Dermatological diseases, which are known to respond to GMA, include pyoderma gangrenosum, skin lesions of Behçet's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, pustular psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, Sweet's syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus rashes. In association with clinical studies, efforts to understand the mechanisms of GMA have made significant progress. GMA selectively depletes elevated myeloid lineage leukocytes through binding between blood immunoglobulin G or complement iC3b, which form on the surface of CA beads and the Fcγ receptors or complement receptors expressed on the myeloid lineage cells. However, GMA has immunomodulatory effects including down-modulation of inflammatory cytokine profile, changes in leukocyte surface receptors and induction of regulatory T cells. These actions render GMA a unique non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with chronic dermatoid conditions, which are difficult to treat with pharmacological preparations.
- Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Following Influenza Vaccination in Older Adults: Report of Bullous Purpura in an Octogenarian after Influenza Vaccine Administration. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Mar 14; 10(3):e2323
- The influenza vaccination is recommended annually for protection against influenza infection. Adults over 65 years of age are especially vulnerable to complications from influenza infection; in addit...
The influenza vaccination is recommended annually for protection against influenza infection. Adults over 65 years of age are especially vulnerable to complications from influenza infection; in addition, they constitute the largest group of influenza vaccination recipients each year. Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis involves inflammation of small vessel walls by neutrophils. An 88-year-old man with a history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who developed bullous cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis 14 days after receiving the influenza vaccine is described and the characteristics of influenza-associated cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in older individuals are reviewed.
- Hemorrhagic bullous lesions in Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- BPedBMC Pediatr 2018 May 10; 18(1):157
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the atypical types of HSP, including bullous HSP. Most patients with bullous HSP have a good prognosis.
- Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: What the Dermatologist Should Know. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Drugs Dermatol 2018 May 01; 17(5):532-536
- Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a subtype of complex regional pain syndrome, a condition characterized by persistent post-injury extremity pain. Temperature and sweating changes, edema, mobility chan...
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a subtype of complex regional pain syndrome, a condition characterized by persistent post-injury extremity pain. Temperature and sweating changes, edema, mobility changes, and a variety of hair, nail, and skin sequelae have been described. Only 23 articles published since 1990 describe dermatologic changes in CRPS. Given this paucity of literature, we present a case to further elucidate cutaneous manifestations of CRPS. Our patient is a 52-year-old Caucasian woman with a 19-year history of reflex sympathetic dystrophy who has presented with several dermatologic complaints. She was first referred to the clinic due to episodic, mildly tender, clustered, non-blanching, and non-palpable petechiae on the legs bilaterally, which was histologically consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. No systemic involvement was identified and symptoms resolved with topical steroids. The patient was also noted to have severe ten toenail dystrophy without any evidence of onychomycosis based on multiple cultures and PAS staining of clipped nails. Avulsion of the great toenail was performed to provide symptomatic relief. Incidentally, the patient was found to have lower extremity and facial hypotrichosis on physical exam. Further, she required increased lidocaine administration in addition to pre and post-procedure lidocaine and prilocaine 5% emulsion cream for various office procedures, suggestive of lidocaine insensitivity. This case captures previously described cutaneous manifestations of CRPS such as vasculitis, nail dystrophy, extremity hypotrichosis, and telangiectasia, along with newly described potential manifestations about which dermatologists should be aware, including facial hypotrichosis and lidocaine insensitivity. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):532-536.
- A Case Report and Literature Review of Scrub Typhus With Acute Abdomen and Septic Shock in a Child-The Role of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis and Granulysin. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2018 Apr 24
- Scrub typhus is becoming a clinically important cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Taiwan. The incubation period is between 6 and 21 days after exposure. It is transmitted by chiggers...
Scrub typhus is becoming a clinically important cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Taiwan. The incubation period is between 6 and 21 days after exposure. It is transmitted by chiggers (larva of trombiculid mite) in long grasses and in dirt-floor homes, with infection characterized by a flu-like illness of fever, headache, and myalgia lasting approximately 1 week. It has various systemic manifestations, including GI symptoms. In some, the illness progresses to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and death. We report on a 13-year-old boy who lived in Taipei City and who had initially tentative diagnosis of acute pyrexia of unknown origin with high fever up to 40.3°C for 1 week, but later had thrombocytopenia and diffuse abdominal pain with peritoneal sign suspected acute appendicitis. During the clinical course, septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) were noted. There were skin rash in his trunk and extremities and an eschar with black crust surrounded by a scaling erythematous rim on his right buttock. In addition, we got the information of his travel history in Green Island and Orchid Island for 10 days.With the correct antibiotics, vancomycin, meropenem, and doxycycline, the patient was getting better and corresponding with high level of granulysin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The diagnosis of scrub typhus was confirmed by the biopsy of eschar and high quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction values of Orientia tsutsugamushi (16sRNA and 56 kDa) tested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiwan. Histopathological findings of the eschar revealed the leukocytoclastic vasculitis, crust and thrombus formation with many gram-negative microorganisms, O. tsutsugamushi demonstrated by 47 kDa monoclonal antibody immunohistochemical stain and electromicroscopy.
- Cutaneous Vasculitis and Recurrent Infection Caused by Deficiency in Complement Factor I. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:735
- Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis arises from immune complex deposition and dysregulated complement activation in small blood vessels. There are many causes, including dysregulated host response ...
Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis arises from immune complex deposition and dysregulated complement activation in small blood vessels. There are many causes, including dysregulated host response to infection, drug reactions, and various autoimmune conditions. It is increasingly recognised that some monogenic autoinflammatory diseases cause vasculitis, although genetic causes of vasculitis are extremely rare. We describe a child of consanguineous parents who presented with chronic cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, recurrent upper respiratory tract infection, and hypocomplementaemia. A homozygous p.His380Arg mutation in the complement factor I (CFI) gene CFI was identified as the cause, resulting in complete absence of alternative complement pathway activity, decreased classical complement activity, and low levels of serum factor I, C3, and factor H. C4 and C2 levels were normal. The same homozygous mutation and immunological defects were also identified in an asymptomatic sibling. CFI deficiency is thus now added to the growing list of monogenic causes of vasculitis and should always be considered in vasculitis patients found to have persistently low levels of C3 with normal C4.
- Safety profile of chronic leg ulcer biopsy: a monocentric retrospective series on 866 patients. [Journal Article]
- GIG Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 19
- CONCLUSIONS: According to our experience, skin biopsy should be mandatory for non healing wounds. It is safe and involves only a low rate of adverse events.
- Syphilis-Related Eye Disease Presenting as Bilateral Papilledema, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Hemorrhage, and Anterior Uveitis in a Penicillin-Allergic Patient. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Infect Dis 2018; 2018:2840241
- Purpose. Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphi...
Purpose. Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphilitic ocular manifestations include uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, and panuveitis all with or without decreased visual acuity. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to expedite the progression of syphilis when patients are coinfected, thus compounding the potential ophthalmic presentations. This report summarizes the presentation, management, and clinical course of a patient with known HIV and penicillin allergy that presented with bilateral optic nerve edema, retinal hemorrhages, and iritis without vision loss.
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- [MALT lymphoma with t (X;14) (p11.2;q32) developing during the course of cutaneous leukocytoclastic angitis]. [Journal Article]
- RKRinsho Ketsueki 2018; 59(3):269-274
- A 73-year-old man with left parotid gland swelling over 2 months was referred to our hospital in March 201X. Purpura on the lower legs had been recurrent for >20 years. Biopsy of the parotid gland de...
A 73-year-old man with left parotid gland swelling over 2 months was referred to our hospital in March 201X. Purpura on the lower legs had been recurrent for >20 years. Biopsy of the parotid gland demonstrated diffuse infiltration of abnormal lymphocytes that were negative for CD10 and positive for CD19, CD20, and κ-chain. The Ki-67 positivity was <10%; lymphoepithelial lesions were observed. The patient was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Chromosome analysis revealed t (X;14) (p11.2;q32), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of metaphase spreads showed three signals of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene on the derivative chromosomes X and 14, besides the normal chromosome 14. CT findings of parotid glands were suggestive of Sjogren syndrome, and biopsy of the purpura on the leg demonstrated leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In the literature, only seven patients with lymphoma and t (X;14) translocation have been reported. Of these, five patients had MALT lymphoma, one had nodal marginal zone lymphoma, and one had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In all patients, lymphoma evolved from previous autoimmune diseases. It is suggested that MALT lymphoma with the t (X;14) translocation forms a new entity of lymphoma.