- Nitrate reduction in the fermentation process of salt reduced dry sausages: Impact on microbial and physicochemical parameters and aroma profile. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Food Microbiol 2018 Jun 08; 282:84-91
- Slow fermented sausages with reduced ingoing amounts of sodium nitrate were manufactured: control (250 ppm), 15% (212.5 ppm) and 25% (187.5 ppm) reduction. The effect of nitrate reduction on microbio...
Slow fermented sausages with reduced ingoing amounts of sodium nitrate were manufactured: control (250 ppm), 15% (212.5 ppm) and 25% (187.5 ppm) reduction. The effect of nitrate reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, volatile compounds and aroma production was studied. Parameters like, pH, aw and colour decreased during ripening, without being affected by nitrate reduction. Lipid oxidation increased during ripening and it was higher in control sausages due to fat content. Residual nitrite was below the detection limit during the whole process and residual nitrate decreased during ripening, with higher reduction in RN25 sausages. Lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic bacteria and yeasts and moulds increased during ripening but Gram positive cocci decreased. Microbial counts from nitrate reduced sausages at the end of the manufacturing process were not statistically different from the control sausages with nitrate. Regarding volatile compounds formation, compounds derived from amino acid degradation were increased by nitrate reduction. Aroma compounds derived from amino acid degradation and responsible for strong odours, dimethyl disulphide (toasted, garlic) and methional (cooked potato) and, to a lesser extent, compounds derived from esterase activity producing fruity odours (ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl‑2‑hydroxypropanoate, ethyl‑2‑methylbutanoate and ethyl‑3‑methylbutanoate) and several compounds from carbohydrate fermentation acetic acid (vinegar odour) and 2-butanone (fruity) were related to the high nitrate reduction (25%). Despite nitrate reduction up to 25% produced minor effect on microbial growth, their metabolism is regulated by nitrate content and therefore by nitrite generation affecting the production of key aroma compounds that alter the sausage aroma profile.
- Medical Folk Remedy: Two Cases of Garlic Burns. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Burn Care Res 2018 Feb 09
- Over the years, many cultures have used herbs for serious health problems. Garlic (Allium sativum) pose hypocholesterolemic, fibrinolytic, antidiabetic, and antibiotic actions. However, it has unusua...
Over the years, many cultures have used herbs for serious health problems. Garlic (Allium sativum) pose hypocholesterolemic, fibrinolytic, antidiabetic, and antibiotic actions. However, it has unusual adverse effects such as chemical burns and contact dermatitis when used topically. In this case report, the authors present two cases of topical garlic burn caused after the use of crushed garlic with a bandage for pain relief due to arthritis.
- Antifungal Efficacy and the Mechanical Properties of Soft Liners against Candida albicans after the Incorporation of Garlic and Neem: An In vitro Study. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2018 May-Jun; 8(3):212-217
- CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was found that neem and garlic can be used as an additive to tissue conditioner to reduce the adherence of C. albicans without significantly affecting the hardness of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin.
- Antineoplastic activity of mitomycin C formulated in nanoemulsions-based essential oils on HeLa cervical cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Jun 14; 291:72-80
- Combining the essential oils (ESSOs) with the chemotherapeutic agent, mitomycin C (MMC), in nanoparticle can be beneficial in cancer therapy. The aim of the current study was to in vitro evaluate the...
Combining the essential oils (ESSOs) with the chemotherapeutic agent, mitomycin C (MMC), in nanoparticle can be beneficial in cancer therapy. The aim of the current study was to in vitro evaluate the antineoplastic effect of MMC, formulated in two different nanoemulsions (NE) based on two ESSOs, chamomile (Ch) and garlic (Gar), on HeLa cervical cancer cells. The z-average diameter of Ch-NE has slightly increased from 83.39 ± 12.85 nm to 91.18 ± 5.79 nm when mixed with MMC (Ch-MMC) whereas the z-average diameter of Gar-NE has markedly increased from 50.6 ± 1.96 nm to 75.64 ± 7.13 nm when loaded with MMC (Gar-MMC). The zeta potentials of both of Ch-NE and Ch-MMC, which were -1.91 ± 4.38 mV and -5.44 ± 5.26 mV, respectively, have differed from Gar-NE and Gar-MMC, which were 11.4 ± 2.29 mV and 11.5 ± 2.28 mV, respectively. Compared to MMC solution, the cell viabilities of HeLa cells, measured by the MTT assay, were reduced 42 and 20 times when subjected into Ch-MMC and Gar-MMC, respectively. The light microscopy images revealed that the cell membrane of the HeLa cells treated with Gar-NE or Gar-MMC were more altered relative to the cells treated with Ch-NE or Ch-MMC. In contrast, the nuclei of the HeLa cells, stained with DAPI and treated with Ch-NE or Ch-MMC, were more fragmented than the cells treated with Gar-NE or Gar-MMC, indicating that both of Ch-NE and Ch-MMC have passed the cell membrane and affected the nucleus directly whereas Gar-NE and Gar-MMC have got attached to the cell membrane causing damage to the cell. In conclusion, combining MMC with NE-based ESSOs has increased the cytotoxic effect of the MMC on the HeLa cells with different mechanism of actions.
- A biophysical insight into the formation of aggregates upon trifluoroethanol induced structural and conformational changes in garlic cystatin. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Jun 06; 204:7-17
- Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the transition of soluble proteins into aggregated form. Trifluoroethanol is among such potent extrinsic factor which facilitates the formation of ...
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the transition of soluble proteins into aggregated form. Trifluoroethanol is among such potent extrinsic factor which facilitates the formation of aggregated structure. It disrupts the interactive forces and destabilizes the native structure of the protein. The present study investigates the effect of trifluoroethanol (TFE) on garlic cystatin. Garlic cystatin was incubated with increasing concentration of TFE (0-90% v/v) for 4 h. Incubation of GPC with TFE induces structural changes thereby resulting in the formation of aggregates. Inactivation of garlic phytocystatin was confirmed by cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity. Garlic cystatin at 30% TFE exhibits native-like secondary structure and high ANS fluorescence, thus suggesting the presence of molten globule state. Circular dichroism and FTIR confirmed the transition of the native alpha-helical structure of garlic cystatin to the beta-sheet structure at 60% TFE. Furthermore, increased ThT fluorescence and redshift in Congo red absorbance assay confirmed the presence of aggregates. Rayleigh and turbidity assay was also performed to validate the aggregation results. Scanning electron microscopy was followed to analyze the morphological changes which confirm the presence of sheath-like structure at 60% TFE. The study sheds light on the conformational behavior of a plant protein when kept under stress condition induced by an extrinsic factor.
- Premorbid risk perception, lifestyle, adherence and coping strategies of people with diabetes mellitus: A phenomenological study in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198915
- CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients had low premorbid perception of risk and engaged in diabetes-related risky behaviours. Diabetic patients had challenges adhering to lifestyle changes and use both biomedical and local remedies in the management of the condition. Psychosocial support is necessary to enhance coping with the condition.
- S-allyl-cysteine attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats by targeting STAT3/SMAD3 pathway. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Transl Res 2018; 10(5):1337-1346
- S-allyl-cysteine (SAC) is one of the major compounds in aged garlic extract, and has been proved to be an endogenous donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which plays emerging roles in the gastrointestina...
S-allyl-cysteine (SAC) is one of the major compounds in aged garlic extract, and has been proved to be an endogenous donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which plays emerging roles in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with a mixture of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1 mL/kg body weight) and olive oil (1:1 v/v) every other day for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Treatment of SAC (50 mg/kg/day) could attenuate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, with improved semi-quantitative scores of fibrosis severity based on the staining of H&E, Oil Red O, and Sirius Red. SAC attenuated CCl4-induced transaminase elevation in the plasma of the rats. In the liver, SAC could reduce the mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines, including interleukin 6, interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), as well as induce the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. The mRNA expression of biomarkers of liver fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin and collagen I, were also decreased after SAC treatment. In addition, SAC reduced the phosphorylation of SMAD3 and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, and further inhibited their binding ability to transcription promoters. Taken together, SAC attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, and targeted STAT3/SMAD3 pathway to inhibit gene transcription.
- Targeting Histone Deacetylases with Natural and Synthetic Agents: An Emerging Anticancer Strategy. [Review]
- NNutrients 2018 Jun 06; 10(6)
- Cancer initiation and progression are the result of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Acetylation-mediated histone/non-histone protein modification plays an important role in the epigenetic regu...
Cancer initiation and progression are the result of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Acetylation-mediated histone/non-histone protein modification plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Histone modification is controlled by the balance between histone acetyltransferase and (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Imbalance between the activities of these two enzymes is associated with various forms of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) regulate the activity of HDACs and are being used in cancer treatment either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs/radiotherapy. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved four compounds, namely vorinostat, romidepsin, belinostat, and panobinostat, as HDACi for the treatment of cancer. Several other HDACi of natural and synthetic origin are under clinical trial for the evaluation of efficiency and side-effects. Natural compounds of plant, fungus, and actinomycetes origin, such as phenolics, polyketides, tetrapeptide, terpenoids, alkaloids, and hydoxamic acid, have been reported to show potential HDAC-inhibitory activity. Several HDACi of natural and dietary origin are butein, protocatechuic aldehyde, kaempferol (grapes, green tea, tomatoes, potatoes, and onions), resveratrol (grapes, red wine, blueberries and peanuts), sinapinic acid (wine and vinegar), diallyl disulfide (garlic), and zerumbone (ginger). HDACi exhibit their antitumor effect by the activation of cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and autophagy, angiogenesis inhibition, increased reactive oxygen species generation causing oxidative stress, and mitotic cell death in cancer cells. This review summarizes the HDACs classification, their aberrant expression in cancerous tissue, structures, sources, and the anticancer mechanisms of HDACi, as well as HDACi that are either FDA-approved or under clinical trials.
- Thymoquinone and diallyl sulfide protect against fipronil-induced oxidative injury in rats. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jun 07
- Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide, widely used for agricultural and veterinary activities. Early reports indicated that FIP organ toxicity is primarily mediated by the induction of oxida...
Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide, widely used for agricultural and veterinary activities. Early reports indicated that FIP organ toxicity is primarily mediated by the induction of oxidative stress. Both thymoquinone (TQ) and diallyl sulfide (DAS) are natural antioxidants with established health benefits. This study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of DAS and TQ against FPN-induced toxicity in rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (150-180 g) were randomized into four treatment groups, receiving (I) saline, (II) FPN (10 mg/kg bw), (III) FPN with DAS (200 mg/kg bw), and (IV) FPN with TQ (10 mg/kg bw). All treatments were administered once daily for 28 days. The results showed that compared to the control rats, FPN-treated rats had significantly increased (p < 0.05) serum levels of uric acid, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. Moreover, FPN significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the serum levels of total proteins, albumin, and triglycerides. In addition, compared with the control group, FPN-treated rats had significantly elevated (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, as well as significantly reduced glutathione concentration and activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzymes in the hepatic, renal, and brain tissues. Cotreatment with DAS or TQ significantly ameliorated (p < 0.05) the FPN-induced alterations in all the previously mentioned parameters with more frequent restoration of normal control ranges in the TQ group. In conclusion, both DAS and TQ alleviated the oxidative injury of FPN, probably by enhancing tissue antioxidant defenses.
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- Comparisons of weed community, soil health and economic performance between wheat-maize and garlic-soybean rotation systems under different weed managements. [Journal Article]
- PPeerJ 2018; 6:e4799
- This study compared the impacts of different weed managements on weed community, soil health and economic performance between the wheat-maize (WM) and garlic-soybean (GS) rotations. A total of four t...
This study compared the impacts of different weed managements on weed community, soil health and economic performance between the wheat-maize (WM) and garlic-soybean (GS) rotations. A total of four treatments (H0T, tillage without herbicide; H0T0, without both herbicide and tillage; HT, both herbicide and tillage; HT0, herbicide without tillage) were designed for both rotations. A total of 16 weed species were recorded in the WM rotation, with life forms of 62% for annuals, 12% for annual + perennial and 20% for perennials. While in the GS rotation, there were 17 weed species, with 71% being annuals. When crop rotation changed from WM to GS, the topsoil layer seed bank (0-5 cm) decreased by 137%. GS rotation always had higher earthworm densities than that of WM under the same condition. Organic weed control (H0T, H0T0) from both WM and GS added more soil organic matters than the chemical methods (HT and HT0). Economically, up to 69% higher net profit had been achieved in the GS than WM for their organic products. This study provides an ecological basis to guide organic farming practices, especially for weed management in the future.