- Presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (RS3758581) in a boy with DRESS syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CECent Eur J Immunol 2017; 42(4):409-411
- Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes rash, hematologic abnormalities, lymph...
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes rash, hematologic abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. The pathogenesis of DRESS syndrome is partially understood. Various medications have been described as the cause of DRESS syndrome. Phenytoin and allopurinol are the most commonly reported culprit drugs, although more than 50 drugs can induce DRESS syndrome. Members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily are the most commonly involved enzymes in metabolism of drugs such as phenytoin. This case report addresses the influence of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism (a single nucleotide polymorphism) on phenytoin drug metabolism, thereby causing DRESS syndrome.
- Randomised clinical trial: efficacy, safety and dosage of adjunctive allopurinol in azathioprine/mercaptopurine nonresponders (AAA Study). [Journal Article]
- APAliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose allopurinol-thiopurine combination safely reverses shunting and optimises 6TGN with associated improvement in disease activity. 100 mg/d allopurinol is preferable due to greater metabolite profile stability and lower thiopurine dose without additional toxicity.
- Prevention of disease progression in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs with dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Feb 21; 11(1):103
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of nucleotides plus AHCC for 365 days in clinically healthy L. infantum-infected dogs is safe, allows a significant reduction in anti-Leishmania antibodies, and leads to a lower disease progression rate, hence exerting a preventive effect.
- Uric acid and allopurinol aggravate absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 2018 Feb 16
- Uric acid has a role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. For example, uric acid may facilitate seizure generalization while reducing uric acid level may evoke anticonvulsant/an...
Uric acid has a role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. For example, uric acid may facilitate seizure generalization while reducing uric acid level may evoke anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects. Allopurinol blocks the activity of xanthine oxidase, by which allopurinol inhibits catabolism of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid and, as a consequence, decreases the level of uric acid. Although the modulation of serum uric acid level is a widely used strategy in the treatment of certain diseases, our knowledge regarding the effects of uric acid on epileptic activity is far from complete. Thus, the main aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of uric acid on absence epileptic seizures (spike-wave discharges: SWDs) in a model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rat. We investigated the influence of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected uric acid (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), allopurinol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) alone and the combined application of allopurinol (50 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) or inosine (500 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) on absence epileptic activity. We demonstrated that both uric acid and allopurinol alone significantly increased the number of SWDs whereas indomethacin abolished the uric acid-evoked increase in SWD number. Our results suggest that uric acid and allopurinol have proepileptic effects in WAG/Rij rats.
- The vasodilatory effect of allopurinol mediates its antihypertensive effect: Effects on calcium movement and cardiac hemodynamics. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Feb 14; 100:381-387
- Despite the reported reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients treated with allopurinol, the mechanism of the allopurinol hypotensive effect is still unclear. In the current study, the hyp...
Despite the reported reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients treated with allopurinol, the mechanism of the allopurinol hypotensive effect is still unclear. In the current study, the hypotensive effect of allopurinol has been fully investigated in hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in rats by angiotensin II (120 ng/min/kg) infusion for two weeks. Rats were then subjected to real-time recording of blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and volume and surface ECG. After 10 min of basal recording, allopurinol was slowly injected into the femoral vein with a dose of 10 μmole/kg. Then, invasive blood pressure, cardiac hemodynamics and ECG were continuously recorded for an additional 20 min. In addition, the vasodilation effect of allopurinol was studied using the isolated artery technique. Allopurinol injection reduced systolic, diastolic and pulse blood pressure. Allopurinol suppressed both cardiac systolic and diastolic hemodynamics as is apparent from the reduction in the rate of rise and the rate of fall in left ventricular pressure. Allopurinol reduced the general cardiac output quickly. Allopurinol addition to the organ bath (10-1000 μM) produced significant vasodilation of PE pre-constricted aortae that was not affected by endothelium denudation, L-NAME or indomethacin. However, allopurinol ameliorated the calcium induced contraction of aorta pre-constricted with KCl in calcium-free media. Erk or ROCK inhibition did not attenuated allopurinol produced vasodilation. In conclusion, allopurinol has an antihypertensive effect that is mediated, probably, by reducing cardiac output and decreasing vascular resistance. The vasodilator effect of allopurinol is most likely mediated by calcium blocking activities.
- Management of gout by UK rheumatologists: a British Society for Rheumatology national audit. [Journal Article]
- RRheumatology (Oxford) 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Gout management by UK rheumatologists concords well with guidelines for most audit standards. However, fewer than half of patients achieved a target serum uric level over 12 months. Rheumatologists should help ensure that ULT is optimized to achieve target serum uric acid levels to benefit patients.
- Immune cell response to strenuous resistive breathing: comparison with whole body exercise and the effects of antioxidants. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018; 13:529-545
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that IRB produces (as WBE) changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and that oxidative stress is a major stimulus predominantly for IRB-induced lymphocyte subset alterations.
- Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192781
- CONCLUSIONS: Observed regulatory effects of XO inhibition did not confirm preliminary hypothesis which suggested that an antioxidant such as allopurinol might activate chemoreflex resulting in augmented sympathetic discharge to the heart. The HRV regulatory profile of XO inhibition observed during hypoxia as well as post-hypoxic hyperoxia corresponds to reported reduced risk of sudden cardiovascular events. Therefore our data provide a new argument for therapeutical use of allopurinol in hypoxic conditions.
- Gout drugs use and risk of cancer: A case-control study. [Journal Article]
- JBJoint Bone Spine 2018 Feb 07
- CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results suggest that gout drugs increase risk of the most common cancers, particularly in leukemia, non-Hodgkin's, endometrial, breast and cervical cancer.
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- Xanthine oxidase inhibitors for prevention of cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 02 07; 18(1):24
- CONCLUSIONS: Purine-like XOI may reduce the incidence of adverse CV outcomes. However, higher doses of allopurinol (> 300 mg/day) may be associated with loss of CV protection.